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Appendix A COMMITTEE ON HUMAN RIGHTS Description . . . The Committee on Human Rights was created in 1976 In response to concern by members of the National Academy of Sci- ences (NAS) about widespread abuses of human nghts, particu- larly those of their scientific colleagues. ~ 1994, the National Academy of Engineenng (NAE) and the Institute of Medicine (IOM) joined the NAS as fills sponsors of the committee. The committee is composed of members drawn Tom the membership of the Tree institutions. The committee has the active support of more than 1,700 members of the NAS, NAE, and TOM, who assist it as "correspondents" in its human rights work by writing appeals In behalf of and letters of encouragement to ~mpnsoned col- leagues. The committee is financially supported by the NAS, NAE, and TOM, several private foundations, arid contributions Dom private donors. The work of the committee is grounded in pnnciples set forth in the U.N. Universal Declaration of Human Rights (IJDHR). The committee does not support or oppose any government or po- litical system; it does hold governments responsible for confonn- 23

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24 HUMAN RIGHTS AND THE MACK CASK ing to international standards for the protection of human rights and accountable when they do not. The committee uses the influence and prestige of the insti- tutions it represents in behalf of scientists, engineers, and health professionals anywhere in the world who are unjustly detained or imprisoned for exercising their basic human nits as promulgated by the UDHR. Each case is carefully investigated, using a variety of sources, before being taken up by the co~runittee. Such indi- viduals cannot have been known to use or advocate violence. The committee also intervenes in behalf of non-violent colleagues who are the recipients of death threats, and it works to promote just prosecution in cases of individuals who have been killed for politi cat reasons. ~ . . Activities of the committee include private inquiries, ap- peals to governments, moral support to prisoners and their fami- lies, and consciousness-rais~ng efforts such as workshops and symposia. Penodically, it undertakes a mission of inquiry to a country. It issues public statements regarding a case or reports on the human rights situation In a country only when significant pri- vate efforts have proved unsuccessful and after the NAS Council and the presidents of the NAE and lOM have approved such action by the committee. The committee also is a catalyst for human rights issues of concern to the members of the academy complex. The committee serves as He secretariat for the Interna- tional Human Rights Network of Academies and Scholarly Socie- ties. The Network, created In 1993, works to address grave issues of s cience and human rights, p articularly the unjust detention or imprisorunent of colleagues, throughout He world. Currently, sci ence academies arid scholarly societies In 60 countries are affili- ated with the Network; each is represented by internationally prominent members who are also human rights advocates. The members of He Network's Executive Conunittee are: Aguna Aluwihare, Sn Lanka; Claude Cohen-Tannoubji, France; Ayse Er- zarl, Turkey; Frangois Jacob, France; John Poland, Canada; Pieter

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APPENDIX A 25 van Dijk, the Netheriands; Edoardo Vesent~n~, Italy, and Torsten Wiesel, the United States of Amenca. .

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