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Index A Abidjan, 225, 391-394 Abortion rates, 219-220 Absolute poverty, 180-184 numbers of urban residents living in, 2 research focused on, 287-288 Access to services, 2, 167-180, 196, 251-255 decentralization of reproductive health services, 251-253 differences by city size, 172-174 examples of intracity differentials in water supply, 178 factors blocking, 253-254 improving the quality and accessibility of care, 253-254 measures of in the demographic and health surveys, 170 need to improve data systems on, 4 poverty among the underserved migrants, 176-177 services and the poor, 174-176 Accidents, higher urban rates of, 263 Accra, Ghana, 178, 180, 213, 220, 260, 286-287 Adaptation hypothesis, regarding migrants, 243 Addis Ababa, 231 Adult educational attainment, rural and urban areas, 162 Africa cities of more than 750,000 population in, 100 colonial background of, 100-101 marginalized in new global economy, 101-102 population doubling in, 12 population growth in cities and towns of, 3 urban population change in, 99-102 515 urbanization decoupled from industrialization, 82 Agency for International Development, 402 Agglomeration economies, 307-312 Aggregate census-based method, 121 AIDS awareness, variation within urban settings in, 5 Albania, 66 American Community Survey, 483 Argentina, 95 Arms dealing, 347 Asia cities of more than 750,000 population in, 103 HIV levels in, 224 population doubling in, 12 population growth in cities and towns of, 3 population trends in, 91 urban population change in, 102-106 See also Pacific Asia Asian Development Bank's Cities Data Book, 168 Asian "triangles," 79 Aspatial analysis of poverty, 232-238, 302 Assets, 4, 62, 165 Authority dimension of urban governance, 390-401 B Bangalore, 49, 150 Bangalore Urban Poverty Alleviation Programme (BUPP), 49 Bangkok, 19, 357-362, 481 characterization of main zones in the extended metropolitan region of, 362

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516 growth rate in, 64 HIV levels in, 224-225 migrants to, 329 Bangladesh cities abandoned by public sector services in, 254 intraurban differences in infant mortality rates in, 285 urban boundaries in, 317 Barriers to mobility, 333-337 Basic services, 165 in which urban environments differ from rural, 70 Beijing, 84 Beijing-Seoul-Tokyo (BESETO), 78 Belo Horizonte, Brazil, 378 "Better Cities Network of East and South-East Asian Cities," 402 Bhilwara, India, 179 Birth attendance, variation within urban settings in, 5 Botswana, 213 HIV in, 222 Boundaries city, 136-137 jurisdictional conflicts, 2 Brasilia, 140 Brazil, 340-341 declining growth rates experienced by largest cities in, 120 foreign direct investment in, 78 impact of better education in, 321 Northeastern, child mortality rates in, 39 "participatory budgeting" in, 376-378 population pyramid for urban, 129 residual earnings variance in Brazil's largest cities, 341 rising inequalities in urban incomes, 7 urban relative to rural age composition of men and women in, 129 Breastfeeding, 212n "Bridging," role of social networks, 48 Broken windows theory, 40 Buenos Aires, 96, 158, 285, 337 gated communities, 159 Bulawayo, Zimbabwe, 240, 242 BUPP. See Bangalore Urban Poverty Alleviation Programme INDEX C Cairo, 14, 68, 69, 99, 136-138, 203 Calcutta, 105, 224 Cambodia, 48 Cameroon, 251 Cancers, higher urban rates of, 263 Capacity dimension in urban governance, 7-8, 363-371 Cape Town, South Africa, 17, 245 Capital formation, 352 Cardiovascular disease, 263 Caribbean cities of more than 750,000 population in, 97 HIV levels in, 224 Cartagena, Colombia, 185 CBOs. See Community-based organizations CBSA. See Core-based statistical area classification Census-based method aggregate, 121 problem of intervals, 355 Centralized model, of urban governance, 361, 407 Chandigarh, India, 194 Chiang Mai, Thailand, 246 "Chicago School," 30 Child mortality, 127, 278-282, 295-297 "Child quality," 34-35 Child trafficking, 347 Children's health, 272-278, 296 Children's lives, 188-195 China, 337-338, 343-344 changing urban definitions in, 134 Cultural Revolution in, 145, 307 family planning needs in, 245 foreign direct investment in, 78 household registration system in, 327 impact of national economic restructuring on rural populations near cities, 63 a predominantly rural country, 104 rising inequalities in urban incomes, 7, 183-184 urban boundaries in, 317 Chronic"lifestyle" diseases, 268-269 Circular migration, 225 Cities amid global forces, 76-81 characteristics of, 10

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INDEX concentration of social and economic resources in, 2 emerging regional networks, 78-79 financial services and foreign direct investment, 77-78 forced to redefine their comparative advantages, 1 growth rates in large versus small, 15 markets and volatility, 78, 80 mortality and morbidity in, 5-6, 22-23, 259-299 networks in, 75 optimal size, 56n with over a million residents, 84 problems of poorest, 370 reinventing themselves, 77 their regions, and the international economy, 23-25 world cities, 80-81 See also individual cities and countries Cities Data Book project, 167-168 City boundaries, 136-137 City growth from migration and natural 112-114 City-level population data, 135-141 Brasilia, 140 city boundaries, 136-137 Kitwe, Zambia, 141 Mamey, Niger, 140 Sao Paulo, 139 Shubra-El-Khema, 138 United Nations population estimates, 138-141 City size categories, 489 City systems and city-regions, 58-64 Clustering, 36-37 advantages of, 309 Cobb-Douglas production function, 311n Cochabamba, Bolivia, 245 Collective socialization, 37 Colombia, 252 Commercial sex work, 225 Common resources, 36-37 Communicable diseases, 73 greater vulnerability of city dwellers to, 259 impact on children's health, 264 new and reemergent, 269-270 Community-based organizations (CBOs), 49 517 Community dynamics, social capital and, 41-42 Completed schooling for adults, in rural and urban areas, 161, 163 Comprehensive model, of urban governance, 361, 405-407 "Compression," of social relationships, 45 "Computable general equilibrium" model, 304 Congestion, 2 Contraceptive use, 5, 214-216, 219 Core-based statistical area (CBSA) classification, 482-483 Coronary heart disease, 263 Cote d'Ivoire, 160 Countries covered by DHS surveys, 490 Crime rates, 56 "Crisis-led" fertility, 226, 230 Cultural conflict, 38 Cultural Revolution, 145 Cumulative measures, 112 Currencies, world markets in, 80 D Dakar, 205 Dakshinpuri, India, 240, 242 DALY. See Disability-adjusted life year predictions Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 178, 186, 269 Data systems need to computerize, 147, 356 need to improve, 4 Decentralization, 64-66, 95, 390, 408, 411 Deconcentration, 313-317 Definition and measurement issues, 128-141 Delhi, 105 Demand for manufactured goods and services, income elasticity of, 302 Democratization, 95 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), 27, 94, 108, 120, 122-128, 152, 154, 156, 163, 177-179, 200, 227, 229, 488-494, 505 on children's health needs, 261, 272, 277-279, 282 limitations of, 109, 411, 503 linking to United Nations city data, 487-494 measuring relative urban poverty with data from, 499-502 need for spatial identifiers for all surveys, 4

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518 recommendations for, 503-505 refining urban indicators in, 416-417 showing declines in both urban and rural mortality, 6 Demographic behavior theory, 34-40 social learning via social networks, 35-36 Demographic features of the urban transition, 81-95 Demographic transformation, 11-17 Demographic transition theory, 21 Demographic Yearbooks, 26-27, 109, 131, 135-139,412,415,487,504 Depression, 267 Desakota zones, 61-62, 67 Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ), 402 Dhaka, Bangladesh, 5, 22, 105, 206, 254, 285 DHS. See Demographic and Health Surveys Diffusion, 5 Disability-adjusted life year (DALY) predictions, 264-266, 269 Disease spectrum, 262-272, 297 chronic"lifestyle" diseases, 268-269 injuries, 265-267 mental health, 267-268 new and reemergent communicable diseases, 269-270 the urban penalty, 270-272 See also Communicable diseases Diseconomies of proximity, 56 Disruption hypothesis, regarding migrants, 243 Diversity, 204, 315 ability of local governments to cope with, 8 dimension in urban governance, 378-384 in economic interactions, 51-57 effects of, 54 in Manila, 383-384 in Rio de Janeiro, 380-381 in Sao Paulo, 381-383 spatial theories of, 20, 52-56 See also Socioeconomic diversity and inequality Doi Moi program, 244 Drinking water, measures of access to, 170 Drug trafficking, 347 E Earnings inequality case studies, 340-343 Brazil, 340-341 INDEX China, 343 Taiwan, 342-343 East Asia, 88, 94n Economic crises, 66, 230, 282-283 in cities of Kazakhstan, 283 fertility transitions and, 226-231 Economic resources, concentrated in cities, 2 "Ecumenopolis." See Beijing-Seoul-Tokyo Education, 4, 196-197, 248-249 dropout rates, 350 "Efficiency wage" models, 325n Electricity, 4, 63, 170, 505 Elite neighborhoods, 19 Employment See Urban labor markets EMRs. See Extended metropolitan regions Engel's law, 302-304 Environmental hazards, 4, 7, 262 Epidemics, 282-283 Export Group Report, 183 Extended metropolitan regions (EMRs), 19 External economies, of proximity, 54-56 F Faisalabad, Pakistan, 254 Families embedded in social contexts, 29 reproductive strategies of, 256 Family planning programs private sector in, 254-255 urban, 107 Family Planning Service Expansion and Technical Support (SEATS) project, 253 FDI. See Foreign direct investment Fertility and reproductive health, 4-5, 20-22, 199-258 access to services, 257-258 contraception, 214-216 fertility behavior and trends, 256 fertility transitions and economic crises, 226-231 HIV/AIDS, 222-226 maternal care, 221-222 migrants, 242-246 sexual unions and first marriage, 212-214 social and economic contexts, 201-206

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INDEX total fertility rates in rural and urban areas, 210 unmet need for contraception and unintended fertility, 216-221 urban adolescents, 247-251 the urban dimension, 200-209 the urban poor, 231-242 urban service delivery, 251-255 Fertility declines mortality decline following, 94-95 urbanization as a precondition for, 21 Financial resources, 371-378 Financial services, 8, 77-78 Fixed-rates model, 484 "Floating" population, 134, 177 Floods, 187 Foreign direct investment (FDI), 77-78, 305n, 344-346 Formal institutions, social capital in, 387 Formal sector versus informal sector, 289 jobs in, 301 wages in, 324 For-profit services, versus not-for-profit, 289 Fragmented model, of urban governance, 361, 405-407 G Geocoded data, 8 Geographic information systems (GIS), 109-110, 147-151, 414, 504 GEOPOLIS database, 134 Ghana, 36, 130, 322 GIS. See Geographic information systems Global Burden of Disease, 269 Global circuits, 1, 24 Global economy, 101-102 Global Report on Human Settlements, 373 Global Urban Indicators Database, 368-369 Globalization, 75-76, 95, 106 Governance. See Urban governance Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 373 Governments dimension in which urban environments differ from rural, 70 moving to "governance," 64-67 operating on a territorial basis, 20 519 pervasive influence of, 74 spatial organization of activities of, 34 Growth contribution of migration to urban growth, 89-90 natural increase and migration, 89-92 rate of, 485 rural-to-urban migration rates, 90-92 Growth "triangles," 79 GTZ. See Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) Guayaquil, Ecuador, 178 H Habitat II, 402 Hanoi, Vietnam, 255 Havana, 220, 373 Hazards. See Environmental hazards Health, 1-2, 22-23, 40-41, 70, 297, 299 See also Communicable diseases; Reproductive health services Health service provision, 289-295 HIV/AIDS epidemic, 222-226, 282-283 Homicides, 266, 386 Hong Kong, 77, gin, 94, 102, 338 Household age composition, in rural and urban areas, 131 Household registration system, 327 Household relations, social capital in, 388-390 Household structure, factors disrupting, 194 Housing, 50, 73, 364 HPI. See Human Poverty Index Human capital, 70, 72, 160-163, 196-197 Human Development Report, 164n Human Poverty Index (HPI), 164n Hyderabad, 150 lle-Ife, Nigeria, 220 ILO. See International Labour Organization Income, 4, 6, 165 Income elasticity, 302 India, 48, 149-150, 309 Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) satellites, 149 Indonesia, 7, 94, 102, 306, 345, 350 Inequality. See Socioeconomic diversity and inequality

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520 Infant mortality rates, 127, 271, 278-282, 295-296 Infectious diseases, 5 Informal economy earnings in, 323n versus formal sector, 289 internationalization of, 347 tiers within, 339 urban population growth swelling, 334 Informalization of urban labor markets, 331-340 Injuries, 265-267 Inter- and intraurban differentials, 2, 6 "Intergenerational closure," of individual social networks, 41 Intergovernmental transfers, and targeted social assistance, 66 Internal economies, of scale and proximity, 53-54 International Crime Victimization Survey, 385n International Labour Organization (ILO), 332 International Monetary Fund, 373 International Programs Center, 413 IRS. See Indian Remote Sensing satellites J Jakarta, Indonesia, 19, 145, 235n Jordan, 150-151 Jos, Nigeria, 220 Jurisdictional conflicts, 404-405, 408 K Kaplan-Meier estimator, 278 Karachi, Pakistan, 105, 145, 220, 238, 240, 257 Kazakhstan, 283, 333, 351-352 Kelley-Williamson, 304 Kenya, 36, 321-322 Kinshasa, Zaire, 237 Kitwe, Zambia, 139, 141 Korea, 59, 314 Kuala Lumpur, 77 Kumasi, Ghana, 179 Kuwait, 150 INDEX Lagos, 14, 99, 142 Lahore, Pakistan, 240 "Land invasions," 74 Landslides, 187 Large cities, 84-89 in the countries covered by DHS surveys, 494 unique needs of, 16 Larkana, Pakistan, 255 Latin America cities of more than 750,000 population in, 97 HIV levels in, 224 homicide levels in, 266, 386 migration rates in, 91 population doubling in, 12 population growth in cities and towns of, 3 social and environmental movements in, 390 urban growth slowing in, 98 urban population change in, 96-99 urbanization in, 12, 87, 95 Lesotho, 292 Ley de Participacion Popular, 374, 390 Local participation, in Chinese cities, 399-401 Localization economies, 308-311 "Localization effects," 53n, 54 Location, 29-74 city systems and city-regions, 58-64 dimensions in which urban environments differ from rural, 70 from government to governance, 64-67 intergovernmental transfers and targeted social assistance, 66 neighborhoods and demographic behavior theory, 34-40 neighborhoods and larger structures, 46-49 new conceptualizations needed, 412 social capital, 40-42 spatial segregation, 42-46 spatial theories of, 52-56 sustaining diversity in, 51-57 the urban/rural divide, 67-74 using multiple data sources to define KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa, 246, 330 urbanness in Cairo, 69 Kyrgyzstan, 188, 333, 351 L Labor force, urban economy and, 6-7, 23-25, 57, 300-354 Locational price differences and nonfood needs, 180-183 adjusting poverty rates for geographic differences in prices in the United States, 181

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INDEX London, 77, 80, 85 Los Angeles, 33, 481 M Macroeconomic stability, 66 Macropolitan areas, 482 Madras, 150 Mahila Milan, 48, 71, 167 Malaria, 263 Malawi, 224 Malaysia, 94, 102, 149-150 Malnutrition, 263 Manila, 19, 383-384 Manufacturing, advanced economies shifting away from, 1 Marriage, 256 Marshall, Alfred, 310 Maternal care, 221-222 percentage of women with recent births attended by physicians or nurse/midwives in rural and urban areas, 221 percentages of women delivering recent births at home, in a public sector institution, or in a private-sector in rural and urban areas, 222 Maternal mortality rates (MMRs), 241, 263 Megacities, 1, 14-17, 88-89 "Megalopolis," 60 Megapolitan areas, 482 Mental health, 267-268 Metropolitan regions, concepts and definitions of, 481-483 Mexico calculating production benefits in, 310 disability-adjusted years of life lost in, 265 employment transitions in urban, 335 foreign direct investment in, 78 migration in, 122n urban share of national economy in, 303 urban transformation in, 60 worker mobility in, 333-336 Mexico City, 68, 85, 87, 96, 143, 394-398 openness of international trade in, 315 political parties in, 397-398, 403-404 socioeconomic levels by geostatistical areas, 44 521 urban subsystem of, 18 varying levels of income across, 43 Micropolitan areas, 482 Midwives, 290 Migrant shares of urban growth, 111, 114, 120-121 Migrants, 122-125, 242-246 permanent versus temporary, 328 poverty among underserved, 176-177 pre-arranged employment among, 326-327 urban migrant-nonmigrant differences in poverty and access to services of, 501-502 Migration, 2 changes in rural and urban crude birth rates and age structure with, 119 contribution to urban growth, 89-90 and nature of previous residence, 278-279 rural-to-urban, contribution to urban growth, 3, 152, 243 selectivity hypothesis, disruption hypothesis, and adaptation hypothesis, 243 in the spread of AIDS, 225 studies of, 7 and urban age structure, 117-120 urban-to-rural, in West Africa, 91n Migration and economic mobility, 322-331 composition of migrant streams, 327-329 revisiting the Todaro and Harris-Todaro models, 323-327 urban economic mobility, 329-331 Mixed model, of urban governance, 407 MMRs. See Maternal mortality rates Mongolia, 232 Monterrey, Mexico, 178 Mortality and morbidity in cities, 5-6, 22-23, 259-299 boosting the contribution of natural increase to urban growth, 3 child survival and child health, 295-297 crisis in Russia, social capital and, 41 crude death rates by neighborhood in Accra, 260 the disease spectrum, 262-272, 297 distinctive aspects of urban health, 262 health service provision and treatment seeking, 289-295 a penalty for the urban poor, 284-289

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522 recent evidence on children's health and survival, 272-283 trends over time, 299 the urban health penalty, 297 "Moving to Opportunity" experiment, 50 Mumbai, 85, 238 federation of low-income groups in, 48 GIS initiatives in greater, 150 HIV levels in, 224 informal jobs in, 333 urban growth fueled by rural poverty, 105 N Nairobi Cross-Sectional Slums Survey. 238-239, 249, 286 Nashville, Tennessee, 45n Natal, Brazil, 201 National population growth, 116-117, 485 National Slum Dwellers Federation (NSDF), 48, 71, 167 National statistical systems, 303 Natural disasters, 74 Natural increase, contributing to urban growth, 3 "Natural neighborhoods," 31-32 Neighborhoods, 31-51 clustering, common resources, and contagion, 36-37 and demographic behavior theory, 34 40 elite, 19 federation of low-income groups in Mumbai, Pacific Asia 48 influence on fertility decisions, 5 and larger structures, 46-49 need for data on, 8 participatory urban poverty programs in Bangalore, 49 services and the physical environment, 39-40 social comparisons and subculture conflict, 38-39 social learning via social networks, 35-36 Neoliberalism, 365 Neo-Malthusians, 23 Neo-Marxist functionalists, 332n Nepal, 255 Network effects, 56 See also Periurban networks; Rural networks; Social networks INDEX New York City, 77, 80, 85, 87 Newly industrializing economies (NIEs), 102 NGOs. See Nongovernmental organizations Mamey, Niger, 139-140 NIES. See Newly industrializing economies Nonagricultural occupations, 73 Nonagricultural population of cities and towns (NPCT), 134 Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), 47, 49, 255 operating on a territorial basis, 20 paying attention to street children, 194 spatial organization of activities of, 34 NPCT. See Nonagricultural population of cities and towns NSDF. See National Slum Dwellers Federation Nurse/midwives, proportion of women with recent births attended by, 236 o Obesity, 268-269 Occupational health and safety risks, in urban and rural areas, 73 OECD. See Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), 145 p dramatic economic growth in, 102 formation of "urban corridors" in, 78 rapid emergence of international orientations in, 24 urbanization accelerating in, 2 Pakistan, 241 "Participatory budgeting," in Brazil, 376-378 "Peace communities," 389 Pecuniary externalities, 51, 308 "People's power" movement, 390 Periurban networks, 36 Permanent migrants, versus temporary, 328 Philippines, 48, 252-253, 372, 390 Phnom Penh, Cambodia, 224 Piped water, advantage enjoyed by large urban areas versus small, 4 Planning, barriers to, 355-356 Poisson models, 219n

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INDEX Poland, workers' movement in, 390 Policy reform, local dynamics of, 408-409 Poorest cities, problems of, 370 Population data, need for adequate and comparable, 3-4 Population Division, 4, 82, 109, 132, 153, 172 World Urbanization Prospects, 26, 109, 135-139, 142, 152, 414-416, 487, 489, 496, 504 Population growth, 3 declining rate of, 11, 89 estimated and projected, 12, 14 urban and rural, by region, 83 Port Elizabeth, South Africa, 179 Porto Alegre, Brazil, 377 Poverty, 4, 262 among underserved migrants, 176-177 aspatial analysis of, 232-238 and children's health, 275-277 comparisons of urban and rural, 183-184 dealing with, 166-167 factors intensifying, 194 spatially concentrated, 232, 238-242 and well-being, 197 See also Absolute poverty; Relative urban poverty; Urban poverty Prices, 70, 81 Princeton European Fertility Project, 21 Private access to sanitation, recommendations regarding, 504-505 Private medical sources of contraception, 234 Private providers, 290-291 Private sector, 5, 254-255, 291, 294 Productivity benefits, 309, 310 Projections of urban populations, 141-146 Prostitution, 347 Proximity, 32, 46, 53-54, 71 diseconomies of, 56 external economies of, 54-56 "and high walls," 157 internal economies of, 53-54 spatial, 204 Prussian Kreise, 21 Public infrastructure, 165 Public services. See Access to services; Services Purdah, 206 Pure externalities, 308 523 Q Qatar, 148 Quality of care issues, 293-294 "Quantity-quality trade-offs," 51, 204-205, 230 Quxi Road Market for Agricultural and Non-staple Products, 400-401 R Rate of urbanization, 112 Recent evidence on children's health and survival, 272-283 epidemics and economic crises, 282-283 infant and child survival, 278-282 Reclassification, 89 Reference groups, influence on fertility decisions, 5 Referral system issues, 291-292 Regional differences in urban population change, 95-106 Africa, 99-102 Asia, 102-106 Latin America, 96-99 Regional networks, 78-79 Regional urban linkages, the Asian "triangles," 79 Relative mobility, 330n Relative urban poverty, 174, 499-500 measuring with DHS data, 499-502 predicted enrollment for children by, 190 urban migrant-nonmigrant differences in poverty and access to services of recent migrants, 501-502 Remotely sensed data, 8 Reproductive health services access to, 257-258 decentralization of, 5 defining, 199 recommendations regarding, 505 Reproductive tract infections (RTIs), 242n Residual earnings variance in Brazil's largest cities, 341 in Taiwan, 342 "Residual" method, 120-121 Respiratory disease, higher rural rates of, 263 "Reverse polarization," 98 Rio de Janeiro, 17, 85, 96, 285, 380-381 HIV levels in, 225

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524 Risk and vulnerability, 184-188 RTIs. See Reproductive tract infections Rural areas access to services, 168-172 AIDS awareness, 237 children's height for age and weight for height at 2 years in, 273-274, 296 contraceptive use, 216, 217 infant and child mortality for rural and urban areas, 127 levels of fertility and mortality, 125-128 Rural fertility, 233 Rural growth, rate of, 486 Rural networks, 36 Rural populations, infant mortality estimates for, 281 Rural-to-urban migration contributing to urban growth, 3, 108, 118 and earnings, 353 rates of, 90-92 Rural total fertility rates less urban rates by region, in economic crises, 229 RuraVurban dichotomies. See Urban/rural dichotomies Russia, mortality crisis in, 41 Rwanda, 224 S Safety nets, 165 San Pedro Sula, Honduras, 264 Sanitary movement, 271 Santiago, Chile, 33-34, 220 spatial concentration of the elites of, 158 Santo Domingo, 220 Sao Paulo, 9-10, 14, 17, 24, 60, 61, 87, 96, 139, 284-285, 333, 334, 381-383 Savings rates, 305-306 Scale a defining feature of life in cities, 16 internal economies of, 53-54 of urban economy and labor force, 6 School enrollments in urban areas, 188-191 Schooling, 160-163 advantage enjoyed by large urban areas versus small, 4 economic returns of, 301, 319-322 impact on contraceptive use, 4 SDI. See Shack/Slum Dwellers International INDEX SEATS. See Family Planning Service Expansion and Technical Support (SEATS) project Sectoral influences, 304-307 industrialization and social capital in Indonesia, 306 versus spatial, 302 Security dimension in urban governance, 384-390 Selectivity hypothesis, regarding migrants, 243 Self-medication, 290 Seoul, 102 Services blocks to delivery of, 252-253 and the physical environment, 39-40 provision of better in cities than rural areas, 196 public versus private, 289 recommendations regarding delivery of, 198 See also Access to services Sex workers, HIV prevalence among, 224 Sexual networks, urban, 207, 261 Sexual unions, and first marriage, 212-214 Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), 200-202, 212, 246, 255, 261, 270 pharmacists treating, 255 See also HIV/AIDS epidemic SEZs. See Special Economic Zones Shack/Slum Dwellers International (SDI), 48 Shanghai, 220, 365-368 Shantou, a Special Economic Zone, 104 Shanty towns, 2 Shelter, 165 Shenzhen, a Special Economic Zone, 77, 104 Shubra-El-Khema, 137-138 Silk industry, 316 Singapore, 94, 102 Size distributions, and primacy, 58-60 Slum Development Teams, 49 Small cities combined impact of, 15 disadvantages of, 257-258 health care needs in, 298 including in World Urbanization Prospects, 415 "Smart interpolation" programs, 147 SMAs. See Standard metropolitan areas Smuggling, globalization of, 347 Snow, John, 35

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INDEX Social accounting matrix techniques, applying to trade in West Africa, 303 Social capital, 40-42, 71 and community dynamics, 41-42 in formal institutions, 387 health and, 40-41 in household relations, 388-390 in informal community-level institutions, South Africa 387-388 and the mortality crisis in Russia, 41 Social cohesion, 2, 288 Social comparison theory, 38-39 Social comparisons, and subculture conflict, 38-39 Social contagion, 36 Social contexts of fertility and reproductive health, 201-206 the program and services environment, 206-209 spatial differences in fertility rates in greater Cairo, 203 Social dimension, in which urban environments differ from rural, 70 Social embeddedness, 68 Social externalities, 51 Social infrastructure, investments in greater in cities, 5 Social learning influence on fertility decisions, 5 via social networks, 35-36 Social marketing programs, 237, 250, 255 Social networks "bridging" role of, 48, 311 social learning via, 35-36 strong and weak ties in, 43n, 204 Social relationships, "compression" of, 45 Socialization, institutional, 37-38 Society for the Promotion of Area Resource Centres (SPARC), 48, 71, 167 Socioeconomic diversity and inequality, 4, 19-20, 155-198 access to public services, 167-180, 196 childrens lives, 188-195 within cities, 19-20 human capital, 196-197 measuring absolute poverty in cities, 180-184 multiple dimensions of urban poverty, 165 525 need to attend to the spatial aspects of, 20 poverty and well-being, 197 recommendations, 197-198 risk and vulnerability, 184-188 a spatial perspective, 157-160 urban well-being: concepts and measures, 164-167 anti-apartheid movement in, 390 groups of the poor in, 48 and the imprint of inertia, 57n likelihood of recent sex among adolescents in, 248 new constitution in, 372-373 South Asia, 78 South Korea, 94 Southeast Asia changes in rural economies and lifestyles in, 23 fertility decline preceding mortality decline in, 94n selected city growth rates in, 88 Soviet republics, 105-106 Space and measurement, 17-19 SPARC. See Society for the Promotion of Area Resource Centres Spatial aspects of diversity and inequality, need to attend to, 20 Spatial Reconcentration, 313-317 Spatial influences, 157-160, 203, 307-312 versus sectoral, 302 Spatial proximity, 204 Spatial segregation, 42-46 Spatial theories, 52-56 producer services and high-skill labor markets, 55 Spatially concentrated poverty, 232, 238-242 urban/rural differences in maternal mortality in Pakistan, 241 Spatially disaggregated data, 412-413 Special Economic Zones (SEZs), 77, 104 "Splintering urbanism," 379 Squatter settlements expanded by migrants into cities, 2 projects to upgrade, 364 Standard metropolitan areas (SMAs), 482 Statistical systems African initiatives, 148-149 decomposition of national, 303

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526 for disaggregated data, 146-151 and GIS, 148-151 STDs. See Sexually transmitted diseases Stocks, 80, 112 Street children, 191-195, 192-195 alcohol and drug use by, 193 demographic profile, 192-193 interventions, 194-195 life on the street and its consequences, 193-194 origins and causes, 194 sex of, 193 "Stunted" children, 272 Sub-Saharan Africa contraceptive use in, 36 deteriorating health conditions in, 6 fertility rates in, 228 GEOPOLIS database for, 134 having highest infant and child mortality rates worldwide, 295-296 HIV seroprevalence rates, 222 infant and child mortality rates increasing in, 296 lack of foreign direct investment in, 78 urban children fostered into care of rural relatives, 62 weak macroeconomic growth in, 6 Suburbanization, 481 Sudan, 331 Sugar daddies, 249 T Taichung, Taiwan, 30, 36, 202 Taipei, 19, 102 Taiwan, 342-343 growing rates of per capita income in, 94 impact of better education in, 320-321 residual earnings variance in, 342 rising inequalities in urban incomes, 7 Tanzania, 322, 331 TBAs. See Traditional birth attendants Technological change, 2 Kelley-Williamson simulations of, 304 skill-bias in, 305 urban labor force dependent on, 352 Technological externalities, 51 Tegucigalpa, 224-225 Temporary migrants, versus permanent, 328 INDEX TFRs. See Total fertility rates Thailand groups of the poor in, 48 growing rates of per capita income in, 94 newly industrializing economies in, 102 Time costs, 165 Todaro and Harris-Todaro models, 323-327 Tokyo, 77, 80, 85, 87 Total fertility rates (TFRs), 201, 210-211, 226-229 estimates of, 126 in rural and urban areas, 127, 210 Total population of cities and towns (TPCT), 134 Total urban population growth by national income level, 13 and number of urban areas by size, 85 TPCT. See Total population of cities and towns Traditional birth attendants (TBAs), 241 Traditional healers, 290 Traditional providers, versus modern, 289 Traffic accidents, 266-267 Transformation of cities, 17-25 demographic, 11-17 fertility and reproductive health, 20-22 governance, 25 health, 22-23 and the international economy, 23-25 socioeconomic diversity within cities, 19-20 space and measurement, 17-19 Transient populations, in the spread of AIDS, 225 Treatment seeking, 289-291 health service provision and, 289-295 patterns of, 290 private providers, 290-291 self-medication, 290 traditional healers, 290 Tuberculosis, 270 U UNCHS. See United Nations Centre for Human Settlements Undernutrition, 269 UNDP. See United Nations Development Programme Unemployment, 325 UNICEF, 192 Unintended fertility, 216-221

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INDEX Unipolar depression, 267 United Nations Demographic Yearbooks, 26-27, 109, 131, 135-139, 152, 415, 487, 504 estimates and projections from, 11-16, 84, 88-90, 96, 106-107, 486, 489, 495-498 estimates of the contributions of migration and reclassification to urban growth in developing countries, 90 linking DHS data to city data from, 487-494 need for critical review of data and methodology of, 4, 82 Population Division, 4, 82, 109, 132, 153, 172 Statistical Office, 132, 135 underestimating city populations, 19, 99, 143, 498 United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (UNCHS), 27, 97, 100, 103, 155, 367-369 United Nations Demographic Yearbook, computerizing, 415 United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), 164n, 357 United Nations Habitat, Urban Management Program, 402 "United Nations method." See Urban/rural growth difference method Unmet need for contraception, and unintended fertility, 216-221 Upward mobility, expectations of, 327n Urban adolescents, 247-251 Urban advantage, 5-6 calling into question, 5 demographic bonus, 352 little significant erosion in for children, 296-297 in reproductive health, 238, 257 Urban age structure, 128 Urban agglomerations, 52, 86, 136 Urban areas access to services, 168-172 children's height and weight in, 272-274, 296 current use of modern contraceptives in, 216 environmental problems in, 262 infant and child mortality for rural and urban areas, 127 527 infant and child mortality in, 280 levels of fertility and mortality, 125-128 measures of access to basic public services, 170 poverty-related problems in, 262 school enrollments in, 188-191 Urban bias, 317-319 Urban concepts, specifying in World Urbanization Prospects, 416 "Urban corridors," formation of in Pacific Asia, 78 Urban definitions allowing comparisons of alternative, 415 in the countries with a DHS survey, 490-493 inconsistent, 132-135 Urban diseconomies, 98 Urban economy and labor force, 6-7, 23-25, 57, 300-354 earnings inequality case studies, 340-343 economic returns to schooling, 319-322 global links and local outcomes, 343-352 informalization, 331-340 migration and economic mobility, 322-331 sectoral influences, 304-307 spatial Reconcentration, 313-317 spatial influences, 307-312 Urban family planning programs, 107 Urban future, 11-14 Urban governance, 7-8, 25, 355-409 the authority dimension, 390-401 a "best" model of urban metropolitan governance, 401-406 the capacity dimension, 363-371 the concept of urban governance, 357-362 the diversity dimension, 378-384 the financial resources dimension, 371-378 major challenges of urban governance in developing countries, 363-401 the security dimension, 384-390 Urban growth, 3, 93, 111, 114-117, 486 Urban health, distinctive features of, 259 Urban labor force consequences of rapid growth in, 6 dependent on technological change and capital formation, 352 Urban labor markets, 331-340, 343-352 Urban Management Program, 402 Urban migrants, 123-124, 126 Urban penalty, 259-260, 270-272, 284-289

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528 Urban poor, 231-242 infant mortality estimates for, 281 inferior access to basic amenities, 4 inferior access to reproductive health services, 257-258 mortality risks facing, 6, 297-298 spatially concentrated poverty in, 238-242 vulnerability to crises and disasters, 4, 267 Urban population dynamics, 3-4, 17-19, 108-154 city growth from migration and natural increase, 112-114 definition and measurement, 128-141 fertility, mortality, migration, and urban age structure, 120-128 key concepts and notation, 110-112 migrant shares as calculated from censuses, 120-121 migrants as recorded in the demographic and health surveys, 122-125 migration and urban age structure, 117-120 projecting urban populations, 141-146 statistical systems for disaggregated data, 146-151 urban age structure, 128 urban and national population growth, 116-117 urban and rural levels of fertility and mortality, 125-128 urban growth and the rate of urbanization, 114-116 Urban population growth, 75-107, 111 cities amid global forces, 76-81 key demographic features of the urban transition, 81-95 major regional differences, 95-106 swelling the informal sector, 334 Urban poverty, 165, 174, 197, 499-500 Urban/rural dichotomies, 2, 4, 6, 70, 152, 256 Urban/rural growth difference (URGD) method, 132, 135, 141, 495-498 Urban/rural interface linkage issues, 294-295 population growth rates within metropolitan Sao Paulo, 61 spaces and networks at, 60-64 Urban service delivery, 251-255 decentralization of reproductive health services, 251-253 INDEX improving the quality and accessibility of care, 253-254 the private sector in family planning, 254-255 Urban sexual networks, 207 Urban sociological research, 31 Urban-to-rural migration flows, in West Africa, 91n Urban total fertility rates by region, in economic crises, 227 Urban treatment seeking, 289-291 private providers, 290-291 self-medication, 290 traditional healers, 290 "Urban villages," 31 Urban well-being, concepts and measures, 164-167 Urbanization accelerating in Pacific Asia, 2 benefits derived from, 2, 8 decoupled from industrialization in Africa, 82 effects of, 53n inevitable tendency toward, 355 level of, 485 as a precondition for fertility decline, 21 rate of, 92-93, 485 "splintering," 379 URGD declining with, 496 without development, 93 Urbanization economies, 308-309 "Urbanness," 172 in Cairo, using multiple data sources to define, 69 URGD. See Urban/rural growth difference method U.S. Bureau of the Census, 95, 482 American Community Survey, 483 HIV/AIDS Surveillance Data Base, 224 International Programs Center, 413 User fee issue, 292-293 V Vietnam, migration in, 244 "Vigilance committees," 374 Violent crime, 266

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INDEX W Waste disposal, 4, 170-171 "Wasted" children, 272 Water supply, 63, 178, 504 See also Drinking water; Piped water Weak ties, in social networks, 204 Weibull estimator, 278 West Africa, gin, 303 WFS. See World Fertility Survey Women, 123-124, 221, 222, 225, 234, 236, 238, 266, 300, 504 World Bank, 183-184, 185n, 310, 346, 402 World cities, 80-81 World Development Report, 371 World Fertility Survey (WFS), 211, 226-227, 229, 261, 282, 299, 411 World Health Organization, 186n, 267, 292 529 World population growth, 1, 3-4, 108-154 concentrated in urban areas, 82-84, 106 distribution by urban/rural and national income level, 13 World Urbanization Prospects, 26, 109, 135-139, 142, 152, 414-416, 487, 489, 496, 504 X Xiamen, 104 z Zambia, 224, 283, 348-349 Zhuhai, 104 Zimbabwe, 237, 293