CHALLENGES FOR THE CHEMICAL SCIENCES IN THE 21ST CENTURY

MATERIALS SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

ORGANIZING COMMITTEE FOR THE WORKSHOP ON MATERIALS AND MANUFACTURING

COMMITTEE ON CHALLENGES FOR THE CHEMICAL SCIENCES IN THE 21ST CENTURY

BOARD ON CHEMICAL SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY

DIVISION ON EARTH AND LIFE STUDIES

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
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Materials Science and Technology: Challenges for the Chemical Sciences in the 21st Century CHALLENGES FOR THE CHEMICAL SCIENCES IN THE 21ST CENTURY MATERIALS SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ORGANIZING COMMITTEE FOR THE WORKSHOP ON MATERIALS AND MANUFACTURING COMMITTEE ON CHALLENGES FOR THE CHEMICAL SCIENCES IN THE 21ST CENTURY BOARD ON CHEMICAL SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY DIVISION ON EARTH AND LIFE STUDIES NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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Materials Science and Technology: Challenges for the Chemical Sciences in the 21st Century THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. Support for this study was provided by the National Research Council, the U.S. Department of Energy (DE-AT-01-EE41424, BES DE-FG-02-00ER15040, and DE-AT01-03ER15386), the National Science Foundation (CTS-9908440), the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DOD MDA972-01-M-0001), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (R82823301), the American Chemical Society, the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, the Camille and Henry Dreyfus Foundation, Inc. (SG00-093), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NA1341-01-2-1070 and 43NANB010995), the National Institutes of Health (NCI-N01-OD-4-2139 and NIGMS-N01-OD-4-2139), and the chemical industry. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organization or agencies that provide support for the project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-08512-8 (Book) International Standard Book Number 0-309-050691-3 (PDF) Additional copies of this report are available from: The National Academies Press 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Lockbox 285 Washington, DC 20055 800-624-6242 202-334-3313 (in the Washington Metropolitan Area) http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2003 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Materials Science and Technology: Challenges for the Chemical Sciences in the 21st Century THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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Materials Science and Technology: Challenges for the Chemical Sciences in the 21st Century ORGANIZING COMMITTEE FOR THE WORKSHOP ON MATERIALS AND MANUFACTURING KLAVS F. JENSEN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Co-chair CHARLES KRESGE, Dow Chemical Company, Co-chair TOBIN J. MARKS, Northwestern University JULIA M. PHILLIPS, Sandia National Laboratories ELSA REICHMANIS, Lucent Technologies DAVID A. TIRRELL, California Institute of Technology Staff JENNIFER J. JACKIW, Program Officer CHRISTOPHER K. MURPHY, Program Officer SYBIL A. PAIGE, Administrative Associate DOUGLAS J. RABER, Senior Scholar DAVID C. RASMUSSEN, Program Assistant ERIC L. SHIPP, Postdoctoral Associate DOROTHY ZOLANDZ, Director

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Materials Science and Technology: Challenges for the Chemical Sciences in the 21st Century COMMITTEE ON CHALLENGES FOR THE CHEMICAL SCIENCES IN THE 21ST CENTURY RONALD BRESLOW, Columbia University, Co-chair MATTHEW V. TIRRELL, University of California, Santa Barbara, Co-chair MARK A. BARTEAU, University of Delaware JACQUELINE K. BARTON, California Institute of Technology CAROLYN R. BERTOZZI, University of California at Berkeley ROBERT A. BROWN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology ALICE P. GAST,1 Stanford University IGNACIO E. GROSSMANN, Carnegie Mellon University JAMES M. MEYER,2 DuPont Company ROYCE W. MURRAY, University of North Carolina,t Chapel Hill PAUL J. REIDER, Amgen, Inc. WILLIAM R. ROUSH, University of Michigan MICHAEL L. SHULER, Cornell University JEFFREY J. SIIROLA, Eastman Chemical Company GEORGE M. WHITESIDES, Harvard University PETER G. WOLYNES, University of California, San Diego RICHARD N. ZARE, Stanford University Staff JENNIFER J. JACKIW, Program Officer CHRISTOPHER K. MURPHY, Program Officer SYBIL A. PAIGE, Administrative Associate DOUGLAS J. RABER, Senior Scholar DAVID C. RASMUSSEN, Program Assistant ERIC L. SHIPP, Postdoctoral Associate DOROTHY ZOLANDZ, Director 1   Committee member until July 2001; subsequently the Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology (BCST) liaison to the committee in her role as BCST co-chair. 2   Committee member until March 2002, following his retirement from DuPont.

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Materials Science and Technology: Challenges for the Chemical Sciences in the 21st Century BOARD ON CHEMICAL SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY KENNETH RAYMOND, University of California, Berkeley, Co-chair ALICE P. GAST, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Co-chair ARTHUR I. BIENENSTOCK, Stanford University A. WELFORD CASTLEMAN, JR., Pennsylvania State University THOMAS M. CONNELLY, JR., DuPont Company JOSEPH M. DESIMONE, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, and North Carolina State University CATHERINE FENSELAU, University of Maryland JON FRANKLIN, University of Maryland RICHARD M. GROSS, Dow Chemical Company NANCY B. JACKSON, Sandia National Laboratories SANGTAE KIM, Eli Lilly and Company WILLIAM KLEMPERER, Harvard University THOMAS J. MEYER, Los Alamos National Laboratory PAUL J. REIDER, Amgen, Inc. LYNN F. SCHNEEMEYER, Bell Laboratories JEFFREY J. SIIROLA, Eastman Chemical Company ARNOLD F. STANCELL, Georgia Institute of Technology ROBERT M. SUSSMAN, Latham & Watkins JOHN C. TULLY, Yale University CHI-HUEY WONG, Scripps Research Institute STEVEN W. YATES, University of Kentucky Staff JENNIFER J. JACKIW, Program Officer CHRISTOPHER K. MURPHY, Program Officer SYBIL A. PAIGE, Administrative Associate DOUGLAS J. RABER, Senior Scholar DAVID C. RASMUSSEN, Program Assistant ERIC L. SHIPP, Postdoctoral Associate DOROTHY ZOLANDZ, Director

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Materials Science and Technology: Challenges for the Chemical Sciences in the 21st Century Preface The Workshop on Materials and Manufacturing was held on June 13-15, 2001, in Washington, D.C. This workshop was the first in a series of six workshops that will make up the study Challenges for the Chemical Sciences in the 21st Century. The task for each of the workshops is defined as follows: Discovery: Identify major discoveries or advances in the chemical sciences during the last several decades. Interfaces: Identify the major discoveries and challenges at the interfaces between chemistry/chemical engineering and such areas as biology, environmental science, materials science, medicine, and physics. Challenges: Identify the grand challenges that exist in the chemical sciences. Infrastructure: Identify the issues and opportunities that exist in the chemical sciences to improve the infrastructure for research and education, and demonstrate the value of these activities to society. The Workshop on Materials and Manufacturing brought together a diverse group of participants (Appendix D) from the chemical sciences who were briefed on a variety of issues related to the impact of and challenges for the chemical sciences as they relate to materials science and technology. These presentations served as a starting point for discussions and comments by the participants. The workshop participants were then divided into small groups who went into breakout sessions to develop these discussions further. Each group provided this feedback to the workshop as a whole. This report is intended to reflect the concepts discussed and opinions ex

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Materials Science and Technology: Challenges for the Chemical Sciences in the 21st Century pressed at the Workshop on Materials and Manufacturing. The report is not intended to be a comprehensive overview of all of the potential challenges that exist for the chemical sciences in the areas of materials science and technology. The organizing committee has used this input from workshop participants as a basis for the findings expressed in this report. However, sole responsibility for these findings rests with the organizing committee. This study was conducted under the auspices of the National Research Council’s Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology, with assistance provided by its staff. The committee acknowledges this support. Klavs Jensen and Charlie Kresge, Co-chairs, Organizing Committee for the Workshop on Materials and Manufacturing Challenges for the Chemical Sciences in the 21st Century

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Materials Science and Technology: Challenges for the Chemical Sciences in the 21st Century Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: Robert Cava, Princeton University Edwin Chandross, Bell Laboratories Toby Chapman, University of Pittsburgh Frank E. Karasz, University of Massachusetts Lydia Sohn, Princeton University Jack Solomon, Praxair Inc. Joseph Wirth, GE Chemicals (retired) Gregg A. Zank, Dow Corning Corporation Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Dr. David C. Bonner, Cabot Corporation. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making cer

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Materials Science and Technology: Challenges for the Chemical Sciences in the 21st Century tain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

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Materials Science and Technology: Challenges for the Chemical Sciences in the 21st Century Contents     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1     INTRODUCTION   8 1   CONTEXT AND OVERVIEW   9     Introduction,   9     Technical Challenges,   9     Social Context,   12 2   DISCOVERY   18     Introduction,   18     Breakthroughs in Materials Development,   18     Methods of Discovery,   20     Summary and Findings,   24 3   INTERFACES   28     Introduction,   28     Materials Chemistry and Medicine,   28     Structural Materials,   30     Information Technology and Communications,   30     National Security,   31     Environment,   31     Agriculture and Food Services,   35     Art and Literature,   36     Summary and Findings,   36

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Materials Science and Technology: Challenges for the Chemical Sciences in the 21st Century 4   CHALLENGES   37     Introduction,   37     Major Research Challenges,   37     Summary and Findings,   42 5   INFRASTRUCTURE   44     Introduction,   44     Infrastructure Issues: University Research and Teaching,   45     Infrastructure Issues: Academic-Industrial Interface,   47     Infrastructure and Federal Support of Research,   48     Summary and Findings,   49     APPENDIXES         A Statement of Task   53     B Biographies of the Organizing Committee Members   54     C Agenda   56     D Participants   60     E Reports from the Breakout Session Groups   63