E Reports from the Breakout Session Groups

A key component of the Workshop on Materials and Manufacturing was the breakout sessions that allowed for individual input by workshop participants on questions and issues brought up during the presentations and discussions. Each color-coded breakout group (red, yellow, green, and blue) was assigned the same set of questions as the basis for its discussions. The answers to these questions became the basis for the data generated in the breakout sessions. After generating a large amount of suggestions and comments, the breakout groups attempted to organize and consolidate this information, sometimes voting to determine which topics the group decided were most important. After each breakout session, each group reported the results of its discussion to the entire workshop.

The committee has attempted in this report to integrate the information gathered in the breakout sessions and to use it as the basis for the findings contained herein.

SESSION 1:CONTEXT AND OVERVIEW

No Breakout Session was held.

SESSION 2:DISCOVERY

Breakout questions: What major discoveries or advances related to materials have been made in the chemical sciences during the last several decades? What is the length of time for them to show impact? What are the societal benefits of research in the chemical sciences? What are the intangible benefits, for example, in health and quality of life? What problems exist in the chemical sciences? Has



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Materials Science and Technology: Challenges for the Chemical Sciences in the 21st Century E Reports from the Breakout Session Groups A key component of the Workshop on Materials and Manufacturing was the breakout sessions that allowed for individual input by workshop participants on questions and issues brought up during the presentations and discussions. Each color-coded breakout group (red, yellow, green, and blue) was assigned the same set of questions as the basis for its discussions. The answers to these questions became the basis for the data generated in the breakout sessions. After generating a large amount of suggestions and comments, the breakout groups attempted to organize and consolidate this information, sometimes voting to determine which topics the group decided were most important. After each breakout session, each group reported the results of its discussion to the entire workshop. The committee has attempted in this report to integrate the information gathered in the breakout sessions and to use it as the basis for the findings contained herein. SESSION 1:CONTEXT AND OVERVIEW No Breakout Session was held. SESSION 2:DISCOVERY Breakout questions: What major discoveries or advances related to materials have been made in the chemical sciences during the last several decades? What is the length of time for them to show impact? What are the societal benefits of research in the chemical sciences? What are the intangible benefits, for example, in health and quality of life? What problems exist in the chemical sciences? Has

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Materials Science and Technology: Challenges for the Chemical Sciences in the 21st Century there been a real or sustained decline in research investment in either the public or the private sector? Has there been a shift in offshore investment? Red Breakout Group • Communications and information technologies are based on chemical processes or reactions and materials (microelectronics, photonics): Optical fibers and materials, LiNbO3, erbium-doped amplifiers Optoelectronic polymers Compound Semiconductors Magnetic materials Photoresists High critical temperature (Tc) semiconductors Chemical vapor deposition, etch processes Ultrapure materials • Engineering materials for advanced performance have been impacted by chemical processes and syntheses: Composites Paintings, coatings, and adhesives Teflon, polyolefins Silicones Block copolymers Living polymerization products and methods Metal complexes for polymerization Fibers—clothing • Advances in processing technologies have led to new materials and formulations: Combinatorial materials discovery Supercritical processing Cryogenic processing Genetic engineering • Electrochemical processes and devices underlie advances in energy and power systems: Electrochemical materials Batteries Fuel cells

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Materials Science and Technology: Challenges for the Chemical Sciences in the 21st Century • New materials and fabrication proceses have enabled new sensors and technologies for rapid analyses. Yellow Breakout Group Polymers Conductive polymers (no commercial impact yet: products are being developed) The discovery of plastic and crystalline materials that have promising transistor properties will likely impact future electronics (1972: conducting organic crystals; 1997: conducting polymers; 1990-ish: transistor sexithiophene) The discovery of light-emitting diode (LED) properties in conjugated polymers and organic molecules will probably impact new low-cost electronics (~1972: conducting organic crystals; ~1977: conducting polymers; ~1990 polymer LEDs) Semiconducting polymers: show promise for printable plastic electronics (not yet commercial) Chemically modified conductive polymers, optimized as gas sensors (impact: still small, prototype and R&D stage) Chemically processible conjugated polymers for semiconducting properties (“discovered”: 1991; impact: poised 2001-2002; “commercial”: 2002-2003; ~+13 years) Catalysis Mesoscopic materials (e.g., the mesoporous molecular sieve MCM-41) discovered by Mobil in the early 1990s, many microporous materials developed over the last decade Zeolites have had an important impact on the chemical industry, and they hold significance as hosts for growth of opticoelectronic materials—zeolite catalysts in petroleum processing Nanostructured catalysis (e.g., zeolites, pillared clays, monodispersed metal particles [impact: zeolites for cracking of oil]), discovery: ~1970s, technical implementation: ~10 years (new fluidized-bed reactor technology Metallocenes give better control of polyolefins and higher productivities. In 1986, industrial chemists were almost mocking the oligomerizing olefin catalysts being developed, now we have new plants based on these metallocence catalysts. The catalytic converter has had a major impact on the quality of life. Supported gold catalysis for low-temperature oxidation of CO was discovered in approximately 1930 but its relevance was not appreciated. It was

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Materials Science and Technology: Challenges for the Chemical Sciences in the 21st Century picked up by the Haruta group in the 1980s-early 1990s. The technical impact on a commercial scale was seen in the 1990s. Biomedical Applications Advances in chiral synthesis allow manufacture of entantiopure pharmaceuticals with reduced side effects. Drug exploration using combinatorial synthesis Encapsulation has allowed controlled release for drug delivery systems. Biodegradable materials as drug delivery devices (1997) Polymers for biomedical applications (drug delivery, tissue engineering) Tissue engineering—the combination of engineering, polymer chemistry, and medicine—has rapidly advanced from a pure scientific curiosity to the market and may replace tissue, skin, etc. New synthetic methods in polymer chemistry have led to a huge array of new materials (cross-coupling radical control). Instrumentation Scanning probe microscopy has enabled understanding of interfacial phenomena. Scanning tunneling microscopy was discovered in ~1984 and showed impact in the 1990s (~10-15 year time line). The inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy has become a pervasive analytical tool with broad impact. Giant magnetic resistance (GMR) for spin-sensitive memory (information techonology) was discovered in ~1990 (?) and implemented in ~3-4 years, with impact around 1995. Materials processing: molecular beam epitexy (diode lasers) Electronics Photonic band gap materials for photonics. Not yet commercialized due to no processing methods Photoresist-enabled integrated circuit and computer technology. Chemically amplified photoresists, discovered in 1979, had commercial implementation in the 1990s. It is fundamentally important for the large-scale manufacturing of microelectronic devices with smaller feature sizes (continuation of Moore’s law). The concept of “chemically amplified resists” was developed in ~1980 and first implemented ~1990. It was accepted in general manufacturing around 1995. Low-K dielectric materials were identified as a need in the 1990s and

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Materials Science and Technology: Challenges for the Chemical Sciences in the 21st Century were implemented in 2001-2002. These were required for the continuation of Moore’s law. Soft lithography—imprinting: early 1990s; commercial implementation: 2002 (?); cheap way to make integrated circuits Combinatorial Chemistry Combinatorial chemistry has revolutionized drug discovery and catalyst development. Combinatorial chemistry has revolutionized drug discovery in the pharmaceutical industry. Macromolecules Buckyballs—quantum dots and wires Carbon nanotubes—no commercialization because no cost effective processing Dendrimers—discovered in 1985, commercialization in 2000; synthetic globular macromolecule as a scaffold-template for sensors (Army), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) agents, porous structures Computational/Modeling Density functional theory (DFT) allows understanding of reactivity at the atomic level, for complex systems; this was previously limited by computer power and accuracy. Computational capability and software have enabled molecular design in organic synthesis. Molecular modeling over the last decade enables materials characterization and understanding of materials growth mechanisms previously limited by lack of reliable intermolecular potentials and computer power. Superconductors/Telecommunications High-Tc superconductors, discovered mid-1980s; no impact yet High-Tc superconductors in communication shielding; benefits: cell phones High-purity optical fibers (erbium-doped optical fibers) “Sol-gel” processing for telecommunication-optical fiber applications; initial research ~1985 (?); implementation: ~2000

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Materials Science and Technology: Challenges for the Chemical Sciences in the 21st Century Other Manhattan Project—the basic chemistry of plutonium (redox, separation, materials, etc.) enabled the nuclear age. Self-assembly materials (surfactants, block polymers, etc.) Synergistic properties of multiple components of material system (i.e., composites) Supercritical CO2 processing; discovered in the 1980s; facilitates the synthesis of fluoropolymers (2000). Green Breakout Group • Low volatility organics and adhesives Volatile organic compounds and water-based 1950-1960s: emulsion polymerization Particle engineering Coatings, surface treatments Weatherability Paints Reflective powder paints Adhesives • Inorganic electronic materials Zone refining-1950s; semiconductors Hydrothermal synthesis—1950s and 1960s Picoelectric Thermoelectric materials SiO2 dielectrics Optoelectronics Other inorganic electronic materials and applications Self-assembly processing Microcontact printing for use in lab on a chip Self-assembled monolayers: microcontact printing Spatially addressable synthesis has spawned Symyx, Affymax, Affymetrics Copper processing techniques for ICs (deposition, patterning, etching); impact: late 1990s Porous silicon nanocrystalline behavior; research 1990s Metelorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) processes for materials—GaAs, InP

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Materials Science and Technology: Challenges for the Chemical Sciences in the 21st Century Sol-gel glass research: early 1980s; commercialization: late 1990s (~15 years) Nanocrystalline TiO2 —sunscreen GMR read heads for high-density data storage; impact: 2000 Gallium nitride epitaxy-ready on sapphire for blue lasers; commercialization: ~ 10 years (~2000) Semiconductor lasers wide-band gap High-quality low-loss silica optical-fiber manufacturing; impact: telecommunications Thermoelectrics: refrigerants, energy for space probes, portable coolers • Active organic materials Liquid crystals: 1800s Conducting polymers 1970s Organic semiconductors—transistors Low LED displays: 1990s + Other active organic materials and applications Liquid-crystal polymers (e.g., zylon); impact: late 1990s Polymer LEDs for displays; impact: today Organic LEDs; commercialization: ~2000; impact: lower cost, better visual display • Reinforced composites Fiber-reinforced composites; basic work on carbon and composite fibers • Electrochemical devices ferrocenes lithium-ion and lithium-polymer batteries; impact: 1990s • Homo- and heterogeneous catalysis Organometallic chemistry-1950s 1950s—mesoporous materials (e.g., MCMs) Catalytic converter Other catalysts Metallocene catalysts, ~1990 Living polymerization has been used to make block copolymers and other materials previously inaccessible:

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Materials Science and Technology: Challenges for the Chemical Sciences in the 21st Century Glycopolymers Peptide polymers Site-selective porous inorganics (zeolites) for control of catalytic activity; impact: petroleum and plastics industry Organometallic chemistry, 1950s: first homogeneous catalysis; 1950s-1970s: catalysis with asymmetric induction-chiral drugs Well-defined homogeneous living polymerization catalysis: ring opening metathesis polymerization and atom transfer radical polymerization Catalysis for olefin polymerization at low pressure; Ziegler-Natta: 1950s, single-site metallocene: 1990s; designer polyolefins—better garbage bags and car bumpers, etc.—could replace polyvinyl chloride (PVC) in many areas • Thin films and coatings Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) 1950s Diamond-like carbon thin films 1970s Chemical vapor deposition widespread (thin films, coatings, coatings for memory) Plasma chemical vapor deposition Combustion chemical vapor deposition 1980s Wear resistance 1990s Heat dissipation (thin films, coatings) Other Thin Films and Coatings CVD diamond 1970s—Russia, Japan 1990s—Impact CVD coatings Magnetic disk/tribology Diamond-like carbon coatings for low friction Diamond-like films; impact: coating of tools, thermal management • High critical temperature superconductors 1911 Low temperature superconductors – magnets 1960s 1986-1988 High critical temperature cuprate superconductors Processing Volume, scaling 1990s Filters: niche power applications

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Materials Science and Technology: Challenges for the Chemical Sciences in the 21st Century 2000s Transformers • Other breakthroughs or advances Scaffolds for tissue engineering Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) Utility as refrigerants Demonstrate that chemists response to environmental challenge Substitutes for Freon (new chlorofluorocarbons) Refrigeration, air conditioning, cleaning solvents Benefit: efficiency of Freon without the environmental impact Advanced positive photoresist (I-line, deep ultraviolet, etc.) Photolithography (chip production) ~1980 for fundamental work ~1990 for I-line use 1995 for deep ultraviolet Benefit: computing Power and computer-active memory increases that have enabled powerful personal computers and servers, liquid crystal displays Quasi-crystalline metal films (hard, corrosion-resistant coatings); impact: late 1990s Advanced ion-exchange resins Original work 1950s, but improvements continue today Benefits: cheap clean water, water pure enough for semiconductor manufacture Longer-lived boilers, catalysts Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and related molecular biology techniques have been used to engineer organisms to overproduce commodity polymers (polyhydroxylalkanoates) as well as produce highly organized peptide materials. Catalytic converters for autos, 1970s; impact: cleaner air Single-walled nanotube

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Materials Science and Technology: Challenges for the Chemical Sciences in the 21st Century Blue Breakout Group • Analytic techniques—enablers for miniaturization Instrumentation Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) Synchrotron Spot profile analysis (SPA), atomic force microscopy (AFM)—1980 to now Emissions control—also relied on new chemical understanding of the impact of emissions on air quality, etc. • Materials Intrinsically conducting polymers: around 1971 Nylon—invented: 1933; commercialized: 1939; impact: 1944 Teflon—invented: 1938; impact: 1945 Electrochromic materials: late 1970s Polyethylene, high-density polyethylene Thermoplastics— Lexan, etc.: about 20 years from innovation to profitability Alloy development—shape memory, superalloys Photographic film; phosphors; organic light-emitting polymers Catalysts—homo, hetero, zeolites, organic templates Block copolymers Quantum materials: quantum dots, buckyballs Composites • Processing and synthesis Sol-gel processing Semiconductor metallization—electrochemical processing Petroleum refining, catalytic cracking Direct process for synthetic rubber; silicone polymerization Synthesis of inorganic solids (mesoporous oxides, zeolites) Hydrothermal solid-state synthesis Ziegler-Natta catalysts Single-site catalysis Living polymerization Total synthesis Combinatorial approaches Self-assembly

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Materials Science and Technology: Challenges for the Chemical Sciences in the 21st Century Purification of (elemental) silicon: led to silicon-based electronics Photolithography; first mention: 1880s, with chromate; 1960s, practical for microelectronics Controlled morphology SESSION 3:INTERFACES Breakout questions: What are the major discoveries and challenges related to materials at the interfaces between chemistry or chemical engineering and areas such as biology, environmental science, materials science, medicine, and physics? How broad is the scope of the chemical sciences in this area? How has research in the chemical sciences been influenced by advances in other areas, such as biology, materials, and physics? Red Group • Chemistry Biology, Medicine Met: Implantable devices Implantable power Separation technologies Commodity production of biocatalysts, monomers, polymers To meet: Devices for functional metabolism In situ drug production Artificial organs (lungs, skin, ligaments, etc.) Nanocellular systems Human integrated computing • Chemistry Materials Science Need: Ultrahard materials Cementitious materials (not CO2 producing) High temperature materials for power and propulsion Multifunction materials Construction Energy production Technology to reduce corrosion losses • Chemistry Physics To Meet: Quantum computing Magnetic computing Photonic computing

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Materials Science and Technology: Challenges for the Chemical Sciences in the 21st Century Green Group Medicine and health—biocompatible materials (implants, dental, neuroprosthesis, synthetic muscles); sensors, diagnostics (instrumentation, contrast agents) Structural materials—alloys-metallurgy, housing, roads, coatings, concrete and asphalt, composites, polymers-rubber, corrosion inhibition, amorphous materials, sealant, composites, recycled materials, transparent materials, insulation, functional materials, self-repairing and diagnosing materials, amorphous materials, fasteners Art and literature—e-paper, inks/paints, conservation, paper science, coatings, archival media, entertainment, displays Agriculture and food services—delivery, packaging, sensors, animal health diagnostics, bioengineered materials, processing or separations, soils, refrigeration Space and national security—lightweight materials, sensors, high-temperature materials, multifunctional materials, reliability and robustness, electronic materials, armor, advanced textiles, coatings, energetic materials Textiles—synthetic fibers, waste reduction, dyes, fibers or plastics, coatings (multifunctional), composites, Gortex, synthetic elastomers, superabsorbents (diapers), velcro and fasteners, processing Personal hygiene—shampoos and conditioners, soaps and detergents, hair sprays, sunscreen, diapers, cosmetics, tooth brushes and toothpaste, colorants IT and communication—optical fibers and coatings, optoelectronics, microelectronics, displays, RF and microwave, portable communications, storage, hard copy and printing, packaging, processing, personal electronics, reduced waste stream in processing, amorphous materials Environment—PVC pipe, water purifications, catalytic converters, waste treatment, sensors, fuel cells and photovoltaics, coatings, green processing and green materials, nuclear waste separation and containment Transportation—tires, roads, lightweight materials, coatings, corrosion-resistant or reflective paints, ceramics, strength-temperature-wear, sensors, fuels

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Materials Science and Technology: Challenges for the Chemical Sciences in the 21st Century Blue Group • Biology-Medicine Biomedical engineering Tissue engineering Bone scaffolding Biomimetics Protein engineering Biofabrication Biosensors Medical diagnostics Medical imaging Rapid DNA screening Microfluidics Solid-phase synthesis Templating Genomics Genetically modified organisms • Physics Liquid crystals Surface chemistry (monolayers) Spin glasses Electron-phonon coupling • Materials Ceramics Magnetic materials High-temperature materials Semiconductors Conducting polymers High-temperature superconductors Microphotonics High temperature sensors Imaging Quantum devices Nonlinear optics Data and storage

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Materials Science and Technology: Challenges for the Chemical Sciences in the 21st Century Theory and modeling How broad is the scope of the chemical sciences in this area? The nature of the interaction is driven by the nature of the problem. Superparamagnetic effect: higher storage density Molecular electronics: new modes of logic Materials design from first principles and modeling Biological sensing detection: advanced imaging Complex synthesis (many different scales): protein templates Advanced micro- and nanofabrication Crystal growth and engineering Combinatorial synthesis Protein folding Self-assembly How has research in the chemical sciences been influences by advances in other areas? Dynamics of processes: Selective catalyst design “Impossible” materials Global climate change Energy of recapture Advanced battery and fuel cells (alternative energy) Emergence Transport phenomena Funding

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Materials Science and Technology: Challenges for the Chemical Sciences in the 21st Century SESSION 4:CHALLENGES Breakout questions: What are the materials-related grand challenges in the chemical sciences and engineering? How will advances at the interfaces create new challenges in the core sciences? Red Group • Understanding and manipulating chemistry at interfaces Solid-solid Solid-liquid Functional integration of linking cells and biomolecules to materials • Sustainable routes to materials Energy efficiency Materials efficiency (e.g. recycle—whole polymers or component monomers) No toxics No emissions or greenhouse gases Also: maximization of limited resources; molecular recycling • Materials by design Process control and property prediction across 18 orders of magnitude in length and time Also: modeling to design; structure and property process control at molecular level • Materials for energy generation, storage, and conservation Hydrogen, solar, photovoltaics Improved handling of materials for nuclear fuel-power cycle • Diagnostic tools for intelligent processing: instrumentation for real-time, atomic-level resolution, high-sensitivity, high-chemical-specificity, nondestructive analysis • Infrastructure issues—education funding, interfaces within chemistry departments, communicating between disciplines • Also: large parallel synthetic matrix experiments

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Materials Science and Technology: Challenges for the Chemical Sciences in the 21st Century Yellow Group Grand Challenges • Address: Water Energy Food Air (Must be revolutionary) Use chemistry to decouple environmental impact from a worldwide standard of living. Alleviate diminishing resources. Remediate existing environmental problems. Find replacements for strategic materials. Decentralize the power supply. Apply chemistry to harness the power of biology for materials science. Spatial and temporal control of chemistry Self-assemble on a macroscale Build a multifunction sensor in a single step. Dot Votes for Challenges Pill to stop AIDS (7 votes) Miniaturization of medical sensor systems (5 votes) High-performance materials—easy to process (4 votes) Self-scaling materials (bio-inspired vs. biomimetic) (4 votes) Safe storage of H2 (4 votes) Make materials disassembly friendly (3 votes) Optical computing, photonic circuits (2 votes) Room-temperature fixation of N2—100 percent selective catalysts (2 votes) Scaling (understanding, manufacture) (2 votes) Chemistry-materials alleviation of diminishing resources

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Materials Science and Technology: Challenges for the Chemical Sciences in the 21st Century Green Group What are the materials-related grand challenges in the chemical sciences and engineering? How will advances at the interfaces create new challenges in the core sciences? Three Challenges 1. Putting it together (and processing) • Arrangement at the atomic and other length scales • Control (kinetic versus thermodynamic) Weak bonding Assembly (directed, templated, mechanical) • Hierarchical construction with feedback Bioinspired Catalysis 2. Analysis • Understanding what we make Structure (over all length scales) Function (over all length scales) • Defects and impurities • High resolution 3-dimensional element-specific mapping Nondestructive, real time Noncrystalline, multiple length scales 3. What to make Modeling Application Driven Capital Structure (length scales) Theory • Accurate a priori design of materials and a road map of how to make them

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Materials Science and Technology: Challenges for the Chemical Sciences in the 21st Century Blue Group Seamless manipulation of matter and information from molecular to macrosize scales: (1) interconnects (2) synthesis (3) dynamics: • Interconnections at all length scales Understanding and modeling transitions between nano- and microscales Nano- or micro fabrications in all dimensions Photonic materials Transition from electronics to photonics • Control matter at all scales Harness capabilities and power of nature Self-assembly and crystallization Understanding nonequilibrium steps and structures Understanding all steps in self-assembly Understanding protein folding • Materials that enable unlimited clean energy High-capacity reversible energy storage Alternative energy sources—unlimited New recyclable and biodegradable materials • Restoration and enhancement of function of living materials Nanostructures and bioapplications Expression of human genome Restoration of lost organ function Human computer interface • What are the challenges for the next few decades? Particle science and engineering Understanding complexity Understanding scale-up Investigation of larger-scale, more realistic systems Influence of fields Detecting hydrogen in metals (local analysis) Effects of “impurities” in alloys and metals Understanding scattering effects Accelerated testing methods

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Materials Science and Technology: Challenges for the Chemical Sciences in the 21st Century Visualizing nanoscale interactions Miniaturization Developing principles and theory for aggregation (self-assembly) of materials Broadened parallel investigations Increased computational power and tools • Other answers that were not completely related: Redefining the scientific method Student education New instrumentation: development and access SESSION 5:INFRASTRUCTURE Breakout questions: What are the materials-related issues in the chemical sciences, and what opportunities and needs result for integrating research and teaching, broadening the participation of underrepresented groups, improving the infrastructure for research and education, and demonstrating the value of these activities to society? What returns can be expected on investment in chemical sciences? How does the investment correlate with scientific and economic progress? What feedback exists between chemical industry and university research in the chemical sciences? What are the effects of university research on industrial competitiveness, maintaining a technical work force, and developing new industrial growth (e.g., in polymers, materials, or biotechnology)? Are there examples of lost opportunities in the chemical sciences that can be attributed to failure to invest in research? NOTE: There was no Blue Group for the last Breakout Session. Red Group What parts of the infrastructure ARE working well? Industrial/academic/national lab internships Major instrumentation laboratories Quality of the graduate students and their love of science Steps toward interdisciplinary research Research centers (where they exist) Startups or options for graduate students Technology transfer (at large universities) Motivation and incentives

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Materials Science and Technology: Challenges for the Chemical Sciences in the 21st Century National Science Foundation (NSF) Grant Opportunity for Academic Liaison with Industry (GOALI)-type programs What parts of the infrastructure are NOT working well? Support for research centers NSF funding for university research Servicing of funding Lack of long term research funding (>5 years) Outreach Science education structure (K-12) What payoffs are expected from having a healthy infrastructure? Laypersons’ better understanding of science and technology Improved quality of life Science education feeds a logically thinking workforce Feed the competitive engine Development of new areas of research, new fields Defense Yellow Group Infrastructure elements Instrumentation—maintenance funding, extent of utilization, staffing issues (considered service jobs), poor support for “medium” size Buildings—age of manufacturing plants, decaying infrastructure Academic department and tenure structure Legal system—intellectual property limitations, intellectual property benefits People—right number, right skills, chores of professional staff, refocusing of chemistry undergrads from chemistry R&D funding system Good and bad • People Good: Industry is getting the people it needs; universities are sustaining themselves Bad: Shortage of number of people in some areas Unnecessary and trivial responsibilities for professionals

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Materials Science and Technology: Challenges for the Chemical Sciences in the 21st Century Changing goals of students Lack of training in some areas • Instrumentation and faculty issues Good: Centers pool resources and enable larger investment; research centers foster collaboration, provide bridge between disciplines Bad: Funding for maintenance and staffing Underutilization Support for “medium” size • Payoff of (good) infrastructure Greater range of possible research Greater amount of research possible in given time Shorter time from idea to product Shorter time to degree Green Group What works (numbers refer to votes) Center grants (7) Major user facilities (7) Graduate fellowship programs (6) Private donations to universities (6) Number and quality of graduate students and graduates (4) Funding for single principal investigators (PIs) and departmental instrumentation (4) Junior faculty awards (4) Single PI system (2) Postdoctoral fellowships Connectivity Database access Research parks (industry-university) Startups are generating jobs Peer review system Multiple funding sources Problems Timeline for funding too long; funding cycle too short (8) Capitization (7)

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Materials Science and Technology: Challenges for the Chemical Sciences in the 21st Century Education—K-12 and undergraduate (6) Too few U.S. students (5) Traditional academic department structure (5) Top universities—diversity of faculty and graduate students and mentoring (5) Grants not able to support enough personnel (2) Too few graduate fellowships (2) Major user facilities—need to inform prospective users and make user friendly (1) Not enough support for centers (1) Globalization of R&D and manufacturing Lack of databases (e.g., thermodynamics and kinetics) Entrepreneurial initiative Intellectual property—university-industry interface