• “Zero” emission processing. This technology complements the process developments occurring in DOE’s Office of Fossil Energy Vision 21 Program by looking for new, closed-loop fuel production/electricity production cycles that involve essentially no pollutant emissions.

  • Direct flue gas treatment. This area is crucial for application to commercial fossil-fuel combustion processes. There are methods that should be explored, including flue gas biofiltration or advanced CO2 hydrate formation. (Also see Chapter 2, “Advanced Separations Techniques.”)

  • Removal of CO2 from ambient air. Alternative methods for low-cost, efficient removal of CO2 from the air may be feasible using biofiltration combined with wind-induced airflow through the filter. This area merits exploration as an alternative to biomass production. (Also see Chapter 2, “Advanced Separations Techniques.”)

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