Excerpts from Methods by the philosopher Rhazes, who died in 925 are as follows:

In summary, to date; I have written over 200 books and articles on various branches of philosophy, ranging from Divine sciences to wisdom…I have never joined an army nor have I been a government agent. Rather, if I have been in one’s company, it was merely for medical purposes, and my companion did not go beyond friendship while performing my medical duties…Those who have observed my eating, drinking, and bad habits know well that I have never tended to extremes…However, with regard to my interest in science, those who know me from my youth are well aware that I have devoted all my life to this subject. My patience and exertion in studying science was so great that I have written over 20,000 pages in small letters on a certain branch of science. I have worked hard during day and night for 15 years of my life to write Al Havi, and I have lost my eyesight in this endeavor. My hand muscles have grown weak, and all this has deprived me of reading and writing. However, I have not stopped my research and studies. I read and write with the assistance of my companions. I forgive my enemies and I confess to my faults, but I do not know what they will say in the scientific fields. If they see faults, why do not they come to me to make sure they are right, because I will make them understand that they are wrong. However, if they are critical of my way of life and my practical methods, I wish they would enjoy my knowledge and overlook my way of life.2


Hippocrates first introduced medical ethics to the world of science. Since then, these ethics have influenced the way of life of all physicians in the history of humanity.

Hippocrates was born in 460 B.C. on the island of Kos, Greece, and passed away in 375 B.C. He is regarded as the father of medicine. According to W. Durant, Hippocrates’s masterwork was saving medicine from the boundaries of philosophy and metaphysics although he himself in his “Food Legislation” says chanting spells is sometimes useful.

Hippocrates insisted that diseases had a natural cause, and he rooted his work in medical records and observations. 3

Hippocrates wrote an oath, (know as the Hippocratic Oath) and the physicians took the oath after graduation. He also wrote the “Medical


Djoneyd Issa ibn, N. Vessal, ed. Shad al-Ezar: Moin al-Din Djoneyd Shirazi (Arabic Language)/Persian Translation titled Hezar Mazar (A Thousand Tombs). Ahmadi Press, Shiraz: 1985.


Al-razi, K. al-Hawi fi ‘l-tibb.


The Story of Civilization, Vol. 2: p. 383; Tarikh-e-Dampezeshki va Pezeshki, Vol. 1: p. 259.

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