with relatives, because many patients hide their disease from their families and relatives but tell it to the physician, such as metrodynia and hemorrhoids. Thus the physician must try to keep the secrets of the patients confidential even more than the patients themselves.

“The physician must conform his deed and creed to what Hippocrates has said. He must be popular, doing his best to cure needy patients. He must not seek material gain from his medical practice, and pay for the drugs himself if the patient does not have money to pay. He is requested to prescribe and explain about drugs. If the patient has an acute disease, the doctor must visit him day and night to help him recover health, because acute diseases change conditions quickly.

“A physician must keep himself from lust and material gain, and from being involved in menial and useless jobs. He must not drink excessive wine because it is harmful to brain, adds excretion, and destroys the mind. The daily amusement of a physician should be studying books, and pondering them, specifically upon medical texts. He must not become tired of reading. He must memorize whatever he has learned and review material even when walking in order to learn whatever aspect of science and deed he needs. He must learn and grow scientifically so that he does not need to refer to the books, because his books may be lost, then his mind will help him. He ought to memorize materials when he is young, because learning when one is young is better than learning when one is old.

“A student of medicine should be always at the service of skilled masters of medicine in the hospitals and clinics to serve patients, to be compassionate to them, and to compare what clinical signs and complications of sickness he sees with those he has read in books, and to come to know about benign and malignant diseases.

“Then, it is that he who acts upon the above will make best use of the medical profession and he who wants to be an able physician should act upon this recommendation and enrich his learning with whatever ethical materials we wrote about and not understate this recommendation. If he does so he will treat people well, and they will trust and gather around him, and he will enjoy all goodness and friendship, and benefit from these people. And God is the wisest.”10


Ali ibn Abbas Majussi (Haly Abbas). Kamel al-Sanaat al-Tibbia (The Perfect Art of Medicine); Vol. I pp. 8-9, (Arabic Language). Al-Dassuqi, Ed. Saadat Press, Cairo: 1877.

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