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Working in Olmsted’s Shadow Guidance for Developing a Scope of Services for the Update of the Master Plan for the U.S. Capitol and Grounds Committee to Provide Assistance to the Architect of the Capitol to Develop a Scope of Services for the Update of the Master Plan for the U.S. Capitol and Grounds Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS WASHINGTON, DC www.nap.edu
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Purchase Order No. 202616 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Office of the Architect of the Capitol. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project. Copyright 2003 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Available from: Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment National Research Council 500 5th Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202-3334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area) Internet, <http://www.nap.edu>. Printed in the United States of America
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org
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COMMITTEE TO PROVIDE ASSISTANCE TO THE ARCHITECT OF THE CAPITOL TO DEVELOP A SCOPE OF SERVICES FOR THE UPDATE OF THE MASTER PLAN FOR THE U.S. CAPITOL AND GROUNDS JONATHAN BARNETT, Chair, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia MAX BOND, Davis, Brody, Bond, LLP, New York, New York ROBIN DOUTHITT, University of Wisconsin-Madison DOUGLAS SARNO, The Perspectives Group, Alexandria, Virginia ERIC TEICHOLZ, Graphic Systems, Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts Staff RICHARD LITTLE, Project Director JASON DREISBACH, Research Associate JAMES HARDCASTLE, Consultant DANA CAINES, Financial Associate PAT WILLIAMS, Senior Project Assistant
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BOARD ON INFRASTRUCTURE AND THE CONSTRUCTED ENVIRONMENT PAUL GILBERT, Chair, Parsons, Brinckerhoff, Quade, and Douglas, Seattle, Washington MASSOUD AMIN, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis RACHEL DAVIDSON, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York REGINALD DESROCHES, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta DENNIS DUNNE, California Department of General Services, Sacramento PAUL FISETTE, University of Massachusetts, Amherst YACOV HAIMES, University of Virginia, Charlottesville HENRY HATCH, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (retired), Oakton, Virginia AMY HELLING, Georgia State University, Atlanta SUE McNEIL, University of Illinois, Chicago DEREK PARKER, Anshen+Allen, San Francisco, California DOUGLAS SARNO, The Perspectives Group, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia WILL SECRE, Masterbuilders, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio DAVID SKIVEN, General Motors Corporation, Detroit, Michigan MICHAEL STEGMAN, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill DEAN STEPHAN, Charles Pankow Builders (retired), Laguna Beach, California ZOFIA ZAGER, County of Fairfax, Fairfax, Virginia CRAIG ZIMRING, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta Staff RICHARD LITTLE, Director, Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment LYNDA STANLEY, Executive Director, Federal Facilities Council MICHAEL COHN, Program Officer JASON DREISBACH, Research Associate DANA CAINES, Financial Associate PAT WILLIAMS, Senior Project Assistant
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Preface The United States Capitol is among the most architecturally impressive and symbolically important buildings in the world. In addition to its iconic value as a shrine of democracy and national historic site, it is also a functioning workplace for thousands and a preeminent tourist attraction in Washington, DC. In March 1791 the Commissioners of the City of Washington, appointed by President George Washington, selected the French engineer Pierre Charles L’Enfant to plan the new federal city. The L’Enfant Plan expressed in physical form the concepts of separation of powers and equilibrium of federal and state governments. Symbolically balancing the executive and legislative branches, L’Enfant located the Capitol on Jenkins (now Capitol) Hill, the most prominent elevation between the Potomac and the Anacostia Rivers, and the President’s House on a similarly elevated site to the northwest. In 1901, responding to concerns about reviving, refining, and extending the framework of the L’Enfant Plan to manage growth in the national capital, Congress adopted a resolution directing that a plan for the improvement of the entire park system of the District of Columbia be prepared and reported to the U.S. Senate. Senator James McMillan, as chairman of the newly created Park Improvement Commission of the District of Columbia (better known as the McMillan Commission), was responsible for this charge. For support in this endeavor, Senator McMillan enlisted such renowned experts as Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr., for the landscaping aspects of the plan and Charles McKim and Daniel Burnham for the architectural aspects. The central feature of the McMillan Commission’s plan for the national capital was itself an open green space. The Mall was reconfigured to frame and emphasize the formal link between the Washington Monument and the Capitol. Reinforcing L’Enfant’s themes, the McMillan Commission further highlighted the relationship among the grand axial streets and avenues, and the groupings of major public buildings along the Mall. The Architect of the Capitol is charged with the operation and maintenance of the United States Capitol Complex, which is still governed by provisions of the L’Enfant Plan of 1792 and the McMillan Commission Plan of 1901 as well as legislation that has been enacted from time to time. The most recent master plan for future development of the U.S. Capitol grounds and related areas was developed in 1981. Although many of the recommendations of the 1981 Master Plan for new construction have been implemented, much has changed in America over the past 20 years. Since 1983, increased security measures have been continuously put into effect, including the installation of barriers at vehicular entrances, other physical security features, and the initiation of construction of the Capitol Visitor Center. The events of September 11, 2001, and the subsequent anthrax attack on the Hart Senate Office Building in October of that year added yet another dimension to security concerns for Senators, Members, staff, and visitors. In light of the increased emphasis on security, ensuring open public access to national landmarks and maintaining the operational efficiency of the Congress and Supreme Court are paramount concerns. Additionally, planning for the Capitol Complex must also recognize the emergent goal of sustainability in the constructed environment and the potential impact of new and emerging technologies on the nature of the workplace. The Architect of the Capitol has proposed that the 1981 Master Plan be updated and revised through a contractual effort that comprehensively addresses current and foreseeable
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issues. The Architect of the Capitol requested that the National Research Council (NRC) convene a panel of experts to identify and discuss these issues, prepare a summary record of the discussions, and offer recommendations. Specifically, a workshop was to be convened to identify the topics that should be addressed in the Master Plan and discuss how they should be organized and integrated so that the scope of services set forth in the request for proposals (RFP) will be well focused, comprehensive, and unambiguous. The workshop was to give particular emphasis to such transcendent issues as security and public accessibility, sustainability, and technology and their effect on the planning and future operation of the U.S. Capitol Complex. Under the auspices of the Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment, the NRC appointed a committee of five experts in planning, architecture, public involvement, human ecology, and facilities management to plan and conduct a 1 1/2-day workshop (see Appendix A for biographies of committee members, Appendix C for the workshop agenda). The committee augmented its capabilities by inviting thirteen additional experts of national renown from industry, academia, and government to participate in the workshop (see Appendix B for biographies of workshop participants). The Workshop to Provide Assistance to the Architect of the Capitol to Develop a Scope of Services for the Update of the Master Plan for the U.S. Capitol and Grounds was held on September 23-24, 2002, at the National Academies Building in Washington, DC.
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Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Nancy Rutledge Connery, Consultant Jill Dowling, Lee and Associates, Inc. Martha Droge, Ayers/Saint/Gross Architects & Planners Paul R. Fisette, University of Massachusetts Craig Zimring, Georgia Institute of Technology Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Stuart L. Knoop, Oudens and Knoop, Architects, PC. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.
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Contents 1 WORKSHOP SYNOPSIS 1 2 COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS 10 APPENDIXES A Biographies of Committee Members 17 B Biographies of Workshop Participants 19 C Workshop Agenda 23
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List of Figures and Tables FIGURE 1.1 The U.S. Capitol Complex and Grounds, 2 TABLE 1.1 Ongoing Program Activities of the Architect of the Capitol, 3