2
Variability in Operations

The purpose of a shipborne automatic identification system (AIS) display, stated briefly, is to present AIS-transmitted data in a form that is useful to mariners in decision making. Present-day display technology, combined with advances in computer capabilities, provides the capacity to satisfy that purpose by presenting AIS-transmitted data in many different forms. The types of operating environments in which AIS will be deployed and the display impacts of those environments are described in this chapter.

TYPES OF VESSELS AND OPERATING PARAMETERS

Since the onboard AIS display must function with the other components from which a mariner draws information, an understanding of the environment into which such displays must fit is critically important. The committee considered four types of vessels and their shipboard display impacts: SOLAS vessels—large oceangoing vessels engaged in international trade that are governed by the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) convention; non-SOLAS vessels—those vessels engaged in the U.S. domestic trade that are not governed by the SOLAS convention; offshore industry vessels; and public vessels. Each of these vessel types is considered in turn.

SOLAS Vessels

Large oceangoing ships—containerships, tankers, and bulk carriers—are one type of operating environment where AIS will be deployed. Oceangoing vessels are built and operated under the SOLAS treaty, which mandates the carriage of not only AIS but also gyrocompass, radar, automatic radar plotting aid (ARPA), and other equipment that may be required to interface with AIS. At sea, typically one officer and a helmsman are on watch in the wheelhouse, monitoring the transit and keeping lookout. When approaching pilotage waters, the officer of the watch (OOW) is normally joined by the master, then by the pilot and possibly another mate. Thus, aboard large oceangoing vessels there may be more than one person on the bridge of the



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Shipboard Automatic Identification System Displays: Meeting the Needs of Mariners - Special Report 273 2 Variability in Operations The purpose of a shipborne automatic identification system (AIS) display, stated briefly, is to present AIS-transmitted data in a form that is useful to mariners in decision making. Present-day display technology, combined with advances in computer capabilities, provides the capacity to satisfy that purpose by presenting AIS-transmitted data in many different forms. The types of operating environments in which AIS will be deployed and the display impacts of those environments are described in this chapter. TYPES OF VESSELS AND OPERATING PARAMETERS Since the onboard AIS display must function with the other components from which a mariner draws information, an understanding of the environment into which such displays must fit is critically important. The committee considered four types of vessels and their shipboard display impacts: SOLAS vessels—large oceangoing vessels engaged in international trade that are governed by the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) convention; non-SOLAS vessels—those vessels engaged in the U.S. domestic trade that are not governed by the SOLAS convention; offshore industry vessels; and public vessels. Each of these vessel types is considered in turn. SOLAS Vessels Large oceangoing ships—containerships, tankers, and bulk carriers—are one type of operating environment where AIS will be deployed. Oceangoing vessels are built and operated under the SOLAS treaty, which mandates the carriage of not only AIS but also gyrocompass, radar, automatic radar plotting aid (ARPA), and other equipment that may be required to interface with AIS. At sea, typically one officer and a helmsman are on watch in the wheelhouse, monitoring the transit and keeping lookout. When approaching pilotage waters, the officer of the watch (OOW) is normally joined by the master, then by the pilot and possibly another mate. Thus, aboard large oceangoing vessels there may be more than one person on the bridge of the

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Shipboard Automatic Identification System Displays: Meeting the Needs of Mariners - Special Report 273 ship in pilotage waters. A schedule for phasing in AIS carriage requirements for SOLAS vessels was described in Chapter 1. The United States is one of the largest trading nations in the world, and large ships of every variety carry import and export cargoes to and from its major ports and waterways on all of its coasts. The four major categories of oceangoing ships are petroleum tankers, container carriers, bulk cargo ships, and passenger ships. While the ships that carry domestic cargo (from one U.S. port to another) are all registered under the U.S. flag, most of the ships in international trade are registered under a foreign flag, and these are by far the largest segment of the oceangoing fleet operating in U.S. waters. These foreign-flag ships are governed by the SOLAS convention, which means that most of the SOLAS vessels operating in U.S. waters will be required to carry AIS. The U.S. regulations will apply to vessels in U.S. waters regardless of flag, and since vessels in international trade will generally be required by SOLAS to carry AIS, U.S. domestic regulations must be compatible to avoid the need to change equipment for entry into U.S. waters. This underscores the necessity that the United States work with other nations and international bodies to ensure harmonization of standards for the technology and for training and certification of operating personnel. The SOLAS ships that will carry AIS will operate in all major U.S. ports. The largest and most sophisticated of these vessels represent significant capital investments, and it can be expected that operators will readily incorporate systems that promise safety improvements. In addition, because the United States is such a large trading nation, almost all owners of major ships in the international trade will consider using their vessels in U.S. trade at some point in their lifetime. Thus the world fleet of more than 25,000 major merchant ships, registered in dozens of countries, will begin carrying AIS over the next several years and will be candidates for AIS displays as well. Non-SOLAS Vessels Non-SOLAS vessels are those vessels engaged in U.S. domestic trade that are not governed by the SOLAS convention. The vast majority of these vessels operating in the United States domestically that are likely to carry AIS units are shallow-draft tugboats, towing vessels, and passenger vessels of various sizes. This holds true even in the busiest ports. Specifically, four types of vessels in the United States will probably be required to carry AIS by a

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Shipboard Automatic Identification System Displays: Meeting the Needs of Mariners - Special Report 273 domestic carriage requirement: commercial vessels exceeding 20 meters, vessels carrying more than 50 passengers, commercial towing vessels exceeding 8 meters, and dredges and floating plants. A recent analysis by the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) indicates that on the order of 8,000 non-SOLAS vessels falling within those four categories will be required to carry AIS (USCG 2003). Included in this figure are 2,697 passenger vessels and 4,191 tow/tug boats. The exact number of non-SOLAS vessels affected will not be finalized until completion of the rulemaking process now in progress. Most of these vessels are one-person wheelhouses, with that one person acting as helmsman, mate on watch, pilot, and master. Thus, in the wheelhouses of non-SOLAS vessels in the domestic trade, there is usually only one person on watch. Clearly, then, a domestic carriage requirement for AIS must meet the needs of the large fleet of smaller non-SOLAS vessels. After fishing vessels, towing vessels make up the largest segment of the U.S. commercial vessel industry. About two-thirds of towing vessels are involved in the transportation of hazardous materials and petroleum products (NTSB 1998). Towing vessels, or tugboats, and coastal integrated tug/barges operate in coastal waters and along the U.S. intracoastal waterways, rivers, harbors, bays, sounds, and the Great Lakes on a system encompassing some 25,000 miles of inland waterways. These vessels operate in all weather conditions, 24 hours per day, 365 days per year. Towboats push flotillas of barges called tows. Tows vary in their number of barges and tow configuration. The area of operation and the size and power of the towing vessel determine the number of barges and how they are arranged to form the tow. A tow may consist of a towboat and 1 or 2 barges or a towboat with 50 barges. The larger tows with their accompanying larger and more powerful towing vessels are found in an area of the U.S. inland waterways known as the Mississippi River System but historically designated as the “Western Rivers.” Passenger vessels represent a huge variety of vessels, equipment, routes, and applications. Within the passenger vessel fleet there is a segment of large ferries, overnight cruise vessels, and high-speed vessels that tend to have a sophisticated array of electronic equipment. However, most passenger vessels are small and travel on very short routes with only the most basic equipment appropriate for their operation and operating area. The latter group includes charter fishing vessels, whale watchers, dinner boats, and excursion

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Shipboard Automatic Identification System Displays: Meeting the Needs of Mariners - Special Report 273 boats. For many of these small passenger vessels, there is little variation in route or schedule. In many ports in the United States, frequent users of the waterway know that the dinner boats sail at 7 p.m., are off Point A at 8 p.m., off Point B at 8:30 p.m., and back at their dock at 9:30 p.m., for example. Offshore Industry Vessels Several thousand boats are engaged in the support of offshore marine industry. These vessels are sleek, highly maneuverable, powerful, and often equipped with the latest navigational and communication equipment. They operate in both inland and offshore environments. In U.S. ports and harbors their voyages require interaction with both shallow-draft non-SOLAS vessels and deep-draft SOLAS vessels. They also interact with SOLAS vessels in international waters. The size and power of offshore industry vessels are dictated by their particular function. Generally, these vessels fall into one of three categories: crew boats, offshore supply vessels, and utility vessels. Crew boats are fast and used primarily to transport offshore oil rig crews and light supplies to and from offshore rigs. These vessels range from 30 to 100 feet in length. Supply boats carry all the supplies that an offshore rig or platform needs to operate—drilling equipment, mud, tubulars, cement, auxiliary machinery, oil and lubricants, and sufficient food and water for the workers on the platform. They are equipped to operate in all weather conditions. They are typically shaped like a tug with a high foredeck and are powered by two strong diesel engines. Many of these vessels will also double as towing/ anchor-handling vessels and are used to move the rig when the need occurs. Most supply vessels are between 300 and 500 gross tons and can be as long as 800 feet. Utility vessels are generally between crew boats and supply boats in size. They are the less sophisticated and lower-powered members of the supply boat family and are used to transport rig crews and supplies to and from an offshore oil field. They work with pipe-laying barges, shuttling fresh tubulars out from the shore or attending the operations of divers or subsea engineers. They also serve as standby or emergency evacuation vessels. Public Vessels SOLAS exempts warships, naval auxiliaries, and ships owned or operated by governments for public rather than commercial uses from the requirement

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Shipboard Automatic Identification System Displays: Meeting the Needs of Mariners - Special Report 273 to carry AIS. In the United States the largest number of vessels in this category are military vessels. U.S. military vessels are owned and operated by the United States government as public vessels. Every service of the armed forces owns or operates waterborne vessels of some type. They range from small outboard motorboats to the largest Navy aircraft carriers. As part of the military fleet, these vessels are largely exempt from SOLAS convention agreements. However, Navy and other services’ policy guidance requires compliance with all SOLAS and other International Maritime Organization (IMO) requirements to the extent possible. Accordingly, although there are currently no legal obligations for military vessels to carry and use AIS, the benefits of doing so are being investigated and recognized by the military leadership. AIS is considered to provide vital safety and operational information that should be at the disposal of the public ship operator and shared with other shipping traffic in nonhostile, piloting navigation situations. Public vessels are an integral, and in many localities not an insignificant, component of vessel traffic. Thus, the inclusion of public vessels into the overall AIS field of vision can only increase the utility and effectiveness of AIS for all users. AIS, when installed on military vessels, and particularly on the larger, newer, high-value military vessels, can be interfaced with electronic chart display information systems (ECDIS), ARPA, voyage data recorders, and other bridge equipment making up an integrated bridge system. Requirements addressing which specific vessels will ultimately need to carry AIS, and when, are still being developed. To the extent consistent with their missions and without adversely affecting their operational capabilities and readiness or compromising force protection requirements, military vessels should be identified by AIS. Within the Navy, the Office of the Navigator of the Navy is working closely with USCG to develop policies and procedures to this end. Potential issues and concerns identified to date by the military in the course of deliberations on AIS are not unique or very different from those expressed by other segments of the maritime population and include the following: Security and force protection concerns arising from open, unrestricted broadcast of AIS data; Costs associated with implementation, regardless of the benefits;

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Shipboard Automatic Identification System Displays: Meeting the Needs of Mariners - Special Report 273 The accuracy and reliability of the system and the information conveyed; and The degree to which operators can control and manipulate AIS data and the potential for misuse. Efforts to fully understand the implications of these issues and concerns within the military context are continuing. TYPICAL BRIDGE OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTS While there are good arguments for finding the optimal configuration for AIS display, in reality the existing wheelhouse or bridge environment will have a large impact on display design and effectiveness. For smaller vessels, which will make up the bulk of AIS-equipped vessels, this means that the size, placement, and configuration of the AIS equipment must conform to tight quarters. The wheelhouses of inland towing vessels vary in size and configuration and may be as small as 50 square feet. Some of the wheelhouses on larger river vessels may be several hundred square feet. In this space fits the non-SOLAS vessel’s radar, radios, steering mechanism (commonly referred to as “sticks”), a swing meter, compass, and other equipment such as a fax machine, computer, and electronic chart unit. AIS units will need to fit within this space and remain in the mariners’ peripheral vision while not interfering with their view of the outside or other equipment. AIS visual displays will need to find a balance between being large enough to convey the necessary information and small enough to fit unobtrusively among other equipment. In some cases, vessel operators will find it advantageous to combine AIS with other charting and radar equipment. In other cases, operators may simply add AIS to an already existing piece of equipment. This is likely to be dictated by individual needs and existing onboard equipment. One consideration that must be factored into AIS display issues is the limited opportunities available for mariners to input data into the system. Towing vessels and most other inland vessels operate a one-person wheelhouse. The vessel operator will of necessity have at least one hand occupied steering the vessel. (See Figures 2-1, 2-2, and 2-3 for pictures of three types of wheelhouses.) This will make it impractical and perhaps unsafe to require the operator to type information into the AIS unit. Any system that requires

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Shipboard Automatic Identification System Displays: Meeting the Needs of Mariners - Special Report 273 FIGURE 2-1 Wheelhouse of a small towing vessel. (Photo courtesy of Kirby Corporation.) the operator to scroll through information or search through data fields may also be impractical. Passenger vessels cover a wide range of technology, service, manning, and training. From the sophisticated high-speed ferry (see, for example, Figure 2-3) to a vessel with the simplest of equipment (see, for example, Figure 2-1), the application of AIS will pose a challenge to the operator as well as the regulator and the designer. Domestic regulations for small passenger vessels take into account their sizes and unique operations. Unlike the larger oceangoing vessels, many domestic vessels are not required to carry much of the equipment with which AIS would need to interface for proper operation. For small passenger vessels, the only navigation equipment required under U.S. regulations is a radar and a magnetic compass. An electronic position-fixing device is only required for vessels with an oceans route endorsement. A ferry on an inland river or a vessel on

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Shipboard Automatic Identification System Displays: Meeting the Needs of Mariners - Special Report 273 FIGURE 2-2 Wheelhouse of a medium towing vessel. (Photo courtesy of Kirby Corporation.) a short, restricted route can be exempted from the requirement to be fitted with a radar (46 CFR 121). Thus, AIS carriage requirements for domestic, non-SOLAS vessels should consider the range of operating conditions, available space, and available electronic equipment likely to be encountered on different vessels. In the bridge or wheelhouse environment of a non-SOLAS vessel, audible alarms of AIS activities, such as approaching vessels or potential meeting situations, are of limited value. The background noise of the non-SOLAS vessel, combined with radio monitors and the proliferation of cellular telephones, would all compete with audible alarms. In addition, every vessel meeting situation in any congested port or river is a potential collision, and alarms could sound so often as to be ignored or turned off. In critical situations, text messages sent to operators of non-SOLAS vessels via AIS could negatively affect vessel safety, especially if the mariner

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Shipboard Automatic Identification System Displays: Meeting the Needs of Mariners - Special Report 273 FIGURE 2-3 Wheelhouse of the Victoria Clipper, a high-speed ferry. (Photo courtesy of David Natali, Clipper Navigation, Inc.) were required to respond. For instance, a number of vessel information systems are currently used by inland vessel operators. Most have a function that allows for text messaging between the vessel and shoreside offices. In general, vessel operators are encouraged to respond to these text messages only when they are not busy with other tasks. NEED FOR EFFECTIVE SHIPBOARD AIS DISPLAYS As an important source of navigational information, AIS displays should be tailored to facilitate operator use of the transmitted information in decision making. Several major areas of concern have been identified,1 two of which are discussed below. 1 See Lee (2002) for a representative discussion of the issues in professional journals.

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Shipboard Automatic Identification System Displays: Meeting the Needs of Mariners - Special Report 273 “The seduction of safety” is a phrase apparently coined by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and used as early as 1999 as a shorthand means to express the sometimes false sense of precision and completeness conveyed to mariners by electronic navigational displays. Problems described by this phrase stem from such things as failure to appreciate errors inherent in such systems, which causes what is depicted to be accepted as reality without cross-checking with other sources of information. The resulting dangers were recognized, for example, in the investigation following a 2000 collision between two ships in Canadian waters, as shown by the following quotation from the subsequent report (Transportation Safety Board of Canada 2000). Given the immediate goal of passing the “LADY SANDALS,” the OOW focused on the apparently precise representation of the area provided by the ECS system, and did not appreciate the variance between its representation and the visual cues. The NTSB (1997) report on the Royal Majesty provides another example of this. Another potential area of concern is the issue of “stand-alone presentation of information,” which refers to the present-day situation in which mariners must draw and correlate data from a number of independent sources to develop information for decision making—typically a combination of visual cues, one or more radars, paper and electronic charts (ECDIS or ECS), conventional instruments such as compass, speed log, communications, machinery, instrumentation, and alarm panels. Mariners must not only correlate the data provided by these diverse sources but also resolve the differences between the various inputs and determine what is valid within a safety- and time-critical period. This difficulty is compounded by the lack of commonality in bridge layouts of commercial vessels, even those of the same class. A typical layout of the bridge of an 8- to 15-year-old tank ship is shown in Figure 2-4. As can be seen, not only is there a variety of instrumentation, but also the locations are such that the OOW must constantly move between locations to receive all of the data provided. Such movement is distracting and can introduce delays in decision making, particularly when a pilot is unfamiliar with the bridge layout. The prob-

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Shipboard Automatic Identification System Displays: Meeting the Needs of Mariners - Special Report 273 FIGURE 2-4 Typical wheelhouse layout of older ships. (GMDSS = Global Maritime Distress and Safety System.) lem is well recognized worldwide. For example, a 1991 Finnish study (Haapio 1991) reported that pilots, who in the course of their duties may be responsible for several ships a day, find it particularly difficult to adapt to the many different types of equipment on and layout of ships’ bridges.2 Ill-considered placement can also contribute to stress during operations in close quarters or low visibility and can increase fatigue. These problems may be exacerbated by the lack of instrumentation standards, particularly in the layout of controls for critical equipment such as radars, DGPS receivers, and the like. The literature dealing with marine accidents contains many examples of the casualties that result.3 Bridge layout standards have been developed by individual nations and classification societies,4 but those standards have yet to be applied on an international scale to new construction or retrofitted on existing ships. For the past several years IMO has been in the process of developing integrated bridge standards. Unlike aircrews, whose equipment certifications are related to specific types of aircraft, marine pilots and shipboard personnel 2 For a more recent discussion of this and related problems see the report of an interview of the president of the International Maritime Pilots Association (Professional Mariner 1997). 3 There are many supporting investigation reports. MSA MAIB (1993, 12–13) reports a typical example in which a watchstander, unfamiliar with the clutter controls of a radar, set that feature in a way that precluded detection of an anchored vessel and subsequently collided with it. In another case, a collision of the Ever Decent, a containership operated by Evergreen Marine, and the Norwegian Dream, a 2,400-passenger cruise ship, took place in clear visibility and light winds in the English Channel 20 miles from Margate. The proximate cause was inattention of the cruise ship’s watch officer, and the probability is that he was distracted by an “administrative task.” 4 Examples include Ship’s Bridge Layout and Associated Equipment; Requirements and Guidelines (British Standards Institution 1995).

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Shipboard Automatic Identification System Displays: Meeting the Needs of Mariners - Special Report 273 are not licensed for specific vessel models.5 Consequently, pilots and ships’ officers may be assigned to ships in which they have no experience. Under those circumstances nonstandard bridge layouts impede the familiarization process. The need to bring order to this chaotic condition has long been recognized, but it was not until July 2000 that IMO (2000) moved to establish a work item “to harmonize the presentation of navigational information” in such a way as “to avoid confusion in the display of such information.” It is noteworthy that the IMO action was triggered by the new carriage requirement for AIS. IEC has established a Working Group (WG13) to develop specific standards. The group’s approach appears to be governed by several general principles (Lee 2002): The present arrangement, under which information is distributed among numerous sources, is unsatisfactory. Information overload is dangerous. Co-locating information on a single display can lead to cluttered results, and performance can be degraded by displaying information in a manner that masks or obscures it. Unfortunately, the results of the IEC working group are still several years away. In addition, it must be recognized that a significant number of international standards already apply to shipboard displays, which must also be considered in specifying AIS display requirements. With respect to AIS, the shipboard operating environment is shaped by a number of factors, among which are6 The range of data that will be transmitted, particularly the safety-related elements transmitted by shore stations to ships; The areas or routes used by the vessels equipped with AIS displays; The work environment, tasks, and workload of the shipboard bridge watchstanders charged with the safety of navigation; 5 Unlike aircraft, ships are usually constructed individually to a custom design. Marine licensing tends to be categorized by vessel tonnage, area of operation, and type of carriage, or some combination thereof. 6 The listing is not in order of importance.

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Shipboard Automatic Identification System Displays: Meeting the Needs of Mariners - Special Report 273 The skill level of the shipboard personnel who will use the AIS displays, and the training and qualifications required to use the displays effectively; The role technology should play, given prevailing and anticipated shipboard workload and skill levels, in converting AIS data into useful and timely information (this factor incorporates consideration of the limits of current “off-the-shelf” display technology); The benefits derived from mandated displays in comparison with the cost of fitting and maintaining the displays, including associated personnel costs (which encompass training); and The size of the crew and the number of bridge team members. The issue of displays is also made more complex by the present stage of AIS development. The current body of work published by IMO and the International Association of Aids to Navigation and Lighthouse Authorities, among others, addresses in detail the data to be provided and transmitted by vessels via the AIS medium. The same cannot be said for the shore-to-ship data flow. Absent clear definition, including specification of which shore-to-ship data sets will be in mandatory use for maritime safety, display requirements will remain in a state of flux. Considerable effort is necessary to define the shore-to-ship data flow to the same degree of precision as now exists for ship-originated data. Since those data will play a role in determining display requirements, early resolution is required before definitive requirements for displays can be generated. A related issue is the necessity for oversight and control by national-level “competent authorities” of those shoreside entities generating AIS-transmitted data to ensure consistency among the various waterways and that required shipboard components are not overburdened. COST CONSIDERATIONS One of the realities affecting the imposition of AIS displays through a carriage requirement is cost, in terms of both the overall impact of the requirement on the national economy and the affordability of the requirement by the individual user. From the U.S. regulatory standpoint, the rulemaking process must include an analysis of the economic and any other relevant consequences of each of these alternatives (USDOT 1980). In terms of the

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Shipboard Automatic Identification System Displays: Meeting the Needs of Mariners - Special Report 273 national interest, the cost–benefit analysis requirement is broadly stated as follows: Analyses should include comprehensive estimates of the expected benefits and costs to society based on established definitions and practices for program and policy evaluation. Social net benefits, and not the benefits and costs to the Federal Government, should be the basis for evaluating government programs or policies that have effects on private citizens or other levels of government. Social benefits and costs can differ from private benefits and costs as measured in the marketplace because of imperfections arising from: (i) external economies or diseconomies where actions by one party impose benefits or costs on other groups that are not compensated in the market place; (ii) monopoly power that distorts the relationship between marginal costs and market prices; and (iii) taxes or subsidies. (OMB 1992) In terms of the individual user—vessel owner, operating company, and so forth—the benefits of having a specified AIS display should outweigh the cost of acquisition, installation, operation, and maintenance. Operating costs encompass training and staffing issues as well as supplies, electrical power, and so forth. The issue of cost raises a number of concerns, the primary one stemming from the fact that increased capability imposes escalating costs. With respect to AIS unit cost, USCG is using $10,000 for both SOLAS and domestic installations through 2003. However, for 2007, the estimated AIS unit cost for SOLAS vessels is $8,000 to $10,000, and for non-SOLAS vessels it is $3,000. However, this is not the cost of an AIS display. Separate display costs have not yet been estimated by USCG. The upper range of costs may be viewed as prohibitive for some vessel classes or particular routes where such capabilities are either not needed or amount to “overkill.” SUMMARY Many types of vessels operate on U.S. waters, and even within a class of vessels, there is a lack of commonality in operating environments, bridge designs and layouts, equipment, and mariner experience and capabilities. Display designs and operator needs will vary for the near and the long term and from vessel to vessel, waterway to waterway, and traffic situation to traffic situation. Standards and guidelines for display technology must recognize

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Shipboard Automatic Identification System Displays: Meeting the Needs of Mariners - Special Report 273 the variability and complexity of the system and provide adequate flexibility over time. The overall characteristics and operating environments for four generic types of vessels that might carry AIS displays when in U.S. waters—SOLAS vessels, coastal and inland vessels, offshore vessels, and public vessels—were reviewed. The overwhelming majority of SOLAS vessels that are subject to IMO carriage requirements are engaged in U.S. international trade and are registered under foreign flags. The prevalence of these vessels in U.S. waters underscores the need to work with international bodies to harmonize standards and guidelines for displays. Inland and coastal vessels represent the largest numbers of U.S.-registered vessels and are subject only to USCG regulation. Thus, USCG must develop standards and guidelines for AIS displays that meet the unique needs of these operators. Vessels in the offshore industry will need to be considered in the future when they operate in regions where AIS coverage and participation become important for traffic management and control. Finally, public vessels are mostly military, and decisions about their use of AIS will be made by the military. However, coordination with USCG and other waterway users will be necessary to ensure the safety of all waterway users and to gain other security benefits of AIS. Cost issues were considered only briefly because of lack of data. It is clear, however, that the cost of AIS displays will be a factor, especially for many inland and small vessel users. USCG is keenly aware of this factor and is required to consider cost impacts in any future rulemaking process. REFERENCES Abbreviations IMO International Maritime Organization MSA MAIB Maritime Safety Agency, Marine Accident Investigation Board (United Kingdom) NTSB National Transportation Safety Board OMB Office of Management and Budget USCG U.S. Coast Guard USDOT U.S. Department of Transportation British Standards Institution. 1995. Ship’s Bridge Layout and Associated Equipment; Requirements and Guidelines. BS EN ISO 8468. London.

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Shipboard Automatic Identification System Displays: Meeting the Needs of Mariners - Special Report 273 Haapio, A. 1991. Luotsien Koulutusksely, Laivasimulaattotikeskus, Rauman Merenkulkuoppilaitosu. Finland. IMO. 2000. NAV46 Output Paper Working Paper 1. July. Lee, R. G. 2002. Future Bridge Navigation. Seaways, March. MSA MAIB. 1993. Loss of Fishing Vessel After Collision with an Offshore Supply Vessel. Summary of Investigations, No. 3-93. NTSB. 1997. Marine Accident Report: Grounding of the Panamanian Passenger Ship Royal Majesty on Rose and Crown Shoal near Nantucket, Massachusetts, June 10, 1995. Report MAR-97/01. Washington, D.C. NTSB. 1998. NTSB Urges New Coast Guard Rules for Towing Industry to Prevent Major Pollution from Spills (press release). SB-98-27. Washington, D.C. OMB. 1992. Guidelines and Discount Rates for Benefit–Cost Analysis of Federal Programs. OMB Circular A-94. Oct. 29. Professional Mariner. 1997. International Pilot Chief Sounds Off on Pilotage Issues. Issue 27, Aug.–Sept. Transportation Safety Board of Canada. 2000. Marine Investigation Report of the Collision Between the Bulk Self-Unloader Atlantic Huron and Canadian Coast Guard Ship Griffon, 25 Sep. 2000. Report M00C0069. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. USCG. 2003. AIS Fact Sheet, February 2003. Office of Vessel Traffic Management, Washington, D.C. USDOT. 1980. Policies and Procedures for Simplification, Analysis, and Review of Regulations. Order 2100.5. May 22.