shop participants imparted additional instructional strategies that would achieve desired learning outcomes.
To begin to shape how criteria would be used to evaluate such instruction and programs, two presenters offered examples of assessment strategies and tools. Gloria Rogers, Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology, described the fundamentals of evaluation for any educational program. Anton Lawson, Arizona State University, illustrated an instructional assessment tool and the contexts in which it was used as an example of how to measure effectiveness of instruction. Expanded summaries of the presentations, the learning outcomes proposed by workshop participants, as well as additional ideas and cautions put forward by participants during plenary discussions are detailed within this chapter.
Recent evidence suggests that, for many students, traditional didactic lectures that promote memorization of factual information may be unexpectedly ineffective for eliciting learning of more complex concepts when applied as the primary instructional method in science courses (Terenzini and Pascarella, 1994; Honan, 2002; Loverude, Kautz, and Heron, 2002). Although direct instruction is useful in some settings (e.g., Klahr, Chen, and Toth, 2001), and the lecture format can be improved by allowing learners to grapple with an issue on their own before they are provided with answers (Schwartz and Bransford, 1998) or by other modifications that add an element of interactivity (NRC, 2000; Laurillard, 2002), accumulating research indicates that the traditional approach with no additional cognitive assistance leads to memorization of facts rather than understanding of concepts for a majority of students (Wright et al., 1998; Loverude et al., 2002; see Appendix B, this volume). The evidence indicates, moreover, that most students who sit passively in lectures for an entire course are unlikely to appropriately link their prior conceptions to the new knowledge being presented. The conceptual misunderstandings they have when they enter a course are likely to persist if instruction does not address their difficulties specifically (King, 1994; Mestre, 1994; Loverude et al., 2002; Marchese, 2002). Even students who receive good grades and persist in science courses often gain little understanding of the basic science concepts (see Appendix B, this volume; Sundberg, 2002).
The broadened roles of introductory science courses, plus recent gains in