termined learning outcomes that include both conceptual understanding of the subject and cognitive process skills.

At a national level, workshop participants considered what granting agencies such as the NSF can do to promote educational change by combining research and education in their policies, programs, and grant offerings. NSF currently offers some programs to promote educational change, including the Math and Science Partnership program, the Learning and Teaching Centers, the NSF Director’s Award for Distinguished Teaching Scholars (DTS), the Faculty Early Career Development (CAREER) program, Biocomplexity in the Environment (BE): Integrated Research and Education in Environmental Systems, and the Graduate Teaching Fellows in K–12 Education (GK–12) program. NSF has recently mandated that every proposal for scientific research must meet criteria for both “intellectual merit” and “broader impact.” The latter criterion requires that proposals demonstrate that the research will promote teaching, training, and learning; improve science education; include undergraduate or precollege students as participants; and contribute to educational materials or databases.

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