The diversity of nonhuman-primate species in research and the lack of comprehensive knowledge regarding the biology and epidemiology of each agent make the list of infectious hazards summarized in this chapter necessarily incomplete. However, the agents described here span the taxonomic groups of pathogens described to date, including those with the most clearly documented importance for laboratory primate research colonies. New findings should be appended to these listings, and the adequacy of safety programs should be reviewed accordingly. Criteria for inclusion in this chapter were the presence of published case reports of occupational exposures, the existence of population-based surveys in research settings or native habitats, and the biologic plausibility of accidental human exposures. The plausibility is clearly less for agents that require intermediate hosts, arthropod vectors, or environmental incubation, but accidental inoculation via a penetrating injury nonetheless warrants inclusion even for some of those agents. For ease of reference, agents are described at the host genus or species level, as appropriate. Some examples of infectious hazards introduced experimentally into nonhuman primates are considered, and assessments of their potential for human exposure should be re-examined in actual institutional contexts. However, a comprehensive review of the hazards associated with experimentally-induced infections in NHP is beyond the scope of this report.

Most agents likely to be encountered in common species in research use are listed in Table 3-1. Some significant taxonomic groups of nonhuman primates used less commonly in contemporary scientific studies (such as marmosets, owl monkeys, and mangabeys) have been largely excluded from the table because of insufficient descriptions of their potential role in infectious hazards, so this chapter should not be considered exhaustive. Furthermore, some nonspecific agents (such as dermatophytes and rabies) should be considered potential hazards from any species of nonhuman primate. Finally, the possibility of zoonotic disease transmission arising from xenotransplantation of nonhuman-primate tissues to humans raises a variety of additional concerns (Michaels 1998) that are beyond the scope of this work.

The information on infectious agents to which humans may be exposed through contact with nonhuman primates is organized into major sections of viral diseases, bacterial diseases, protozoan parasite diseases, metazoan parasite diseases and other agents of potential importance within the context of contemporary animal care and use programs. Information relevant to each agent is presented in four categories: disease profile in nonhuman primates, mode of transmission, incubation period and clinical signs, and diagnosis and prevention. It should be clarified that not all of the agents listed have been recognized as causes of any illness or other untoward effect in human beings to date. However, given



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