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Support for this project was provided by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The views presented in this report are those of the Institute of Medicine Committee on Smallpox Vaccination Program Implementation and are not necessarily those of the funding agencies.

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The serpent has been a symbol of long life, healing, and knowledge among almost all cultures and religions since the beginning of recorded history. The serpent adopted as a logotype by the Institute of Medicine is a relief carving from ancient Greece, now held by the Staatliche Museen in Berlin.

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