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Index A Academic research, see Universities and colleges Adams Act, 223 Administration, see Organization and management Advanced Photon Source, 73-74 Advisory committees, 2, 42, 44, 48, 51, 57, 60, 61, 78-79, 86, 92, 100-101, 134, 193, 233, 234-235, 240, 243, 248, 256 intellectual property, 186-187, 190 Advocacy and advocacy groups Human Genome Project, 31, 33 NIH funding, 95 AIDS, see HIV/AIDS Alliance for Cellular Signaling, 55-56 American Association for the Advancement of Science, 221, 244 American Institute of Physics, 246-256 (passim) Animal models cancer, 41, 46, 50-52, 114 genomics, 28, 34, 36, 40, 121-122 Antitrust regulations, 172-173, 174 Applied Biosystems Incorporated, 37 269 Argonne National Laboratory, 73-74 Assessment, see Evaluation and assessment Association of University Technology Managers, 175 Atomic Energy Act, 240-241 Atomic Energy Commission, 232, 233, 240-241 see also Department of Energy B Bayh-Dole Act, 28(n.2), 47, 116, 163, 166, 175, 188, 189 Bermuda Rules, see International Strategy Meeting on Human Genome Sequencing Best practices, 4, 194 Bioinformatics see also Databases cancer research, 23 cooperative agreements, 122-123 definition of large-scale research, 17, 23 Human Genome Project, 34, 35 Human Proteome Organization, 71 small- vs large-scale research, 2,18

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270 Biomarkers, 69-70 definitional issues, 22, 23-24 Early Detection Research Network, 4748 Brain, 96-97 Broad Agency Announcement, 49 C Cancer, 1, 3,12, 30, 81,193 see also National Cancer Institute bioinformatics, 23 biomarkers, 23-24 breast, 98 definition of large-scale research, 14- 15,18, 22-24 (passim) Human Genome Project, 13 National Cancer Policy Board, 14-15 National Institute of General Medical Sciences, 56 proteomics, 22-23 small projects, 1, 12, 192 structural biology, 22 Cancer Chemotherapy Program, 4143 Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, 13, 22, 4547, 113 Cancer Virus Program, 4445 Celera, 32, 3840, 121-122,123 Center for Scientific Review, 106-107 see also Peer review Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 44, 64 Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humaine, 34 CERN, see European Organization for Nuclear Research Chemical Carcinogenesis Program, 43-44 Chemotherapy, 4143 Clinical trials, 62, 63, 64 HIV/AIDS, 65 National Cancer Institute, 105 Women's Health Initiative, 62-64 Coast Survey, 218, 220-222 Colleges, see Universities and colleges Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy, 87 Computer applications see also Bioinformatics; Databases; Internet Confidentiality and consent, 62,183-184 Index Contracting and contracts, 7, 9, 59, 61, 76, 196 National Cancer Institute, 40-49 (passim), 53, 101,103,105,196 Pathogen Functional Genomics Research Center, 9 reagents, 198-199 Cooperative agreements, 66, 68,101,103, 105, 110, 112, 122-123 Cooperative Extension Services, 223 Cost-benefit factors, 6,18-19, 25, 85, 254, 264 see also Economic factors; Funding grant application process, 125 Human Genome Project, 33, 38, 40, 80, 81 patent pools, 173 Protein Structure Initiative, 58, 61 reagents, 5, 8, 9, 199 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Consortium, 70 small- vs large-scale research, 2, 3,19, 20, 80, 81 student researchers, 26-27 Women's Health Initiative, 63 D Data sharing, 13, 27-28, 184-191,198 see also Intellectual property; Internet; Technology transfer Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, 4647 high-energy particle physics, 263 National Institutes of Health, general, 7, 8-10, 186-191, 198 Pathogen Functional Genomics Resource Center, 9, 61-62,198 reagents, 5, 8, 9, 62, 78,198-199 Weather Service, 224-225 Databases see also Bioinformatics; Internet Alliance for Cellular Signaling, 56 confidentiality and consent, 62,183-184 definition of large-scale research, 17, 20, 24 genomics, 21-22, 46, 47 Howard Hughes Medical Institute, 72 intellectual property, 182-183, 186 confidentiality and consent, 62, 183-184 Molecular Targets Laboratory, 53

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Index NIH funding, general, 95 Pathogen Functional Genomics Resource Center, 61-62 patient, general, 24, 52, 183-184 professional career tracking, 158-159 Protein Structure Initiative, 60-61 specimen banks, 24, 183-184 Decision making, 14, 24, 135, 138 see also Funding; Organization and management Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, 29, 74-77, 78, 129 funding, 75-76, 77 Definitional issues see also Models and modeling bioinformatics, 17, 23 biomarkers, 22, 23-24 genomics, 35 intellectual property, 162, 164 large-scale research, 2, 3, 14, 15, 17-28 proteomics, 22 small-scale research, 17, 18, 19 structural biology, 22 Department of Agriculture, 4, 90, 195, 218 Land Grant College Acts, 222-223 Department of Commerce, 224, 242 Department of Defense, 4, 42, 88, 91, 194, 229, 240 see also Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Department of Education, 91 Department of Energy, 4, 194-195, 240- 241, 263 Atomic Energy Commission, 232, 233, 240-241 funding, general, 87, 88, 91, 122-123 Human Genome Project, 14, 31, 33, 34- 35 National Laboratories, 8, 73-74, 122- 123, 136, 139, 198, 230-232, 241- 242, 246, 254, 255, 256-257, 263 organization and management, 134-135 Department of Health and Human Services, 91-92, 94, 185, 190 see also National Institutes of Health Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 44, 64 Food and Drug Administration, 43, 44 Department of Health, Education and Welfare, 42 Department of Justice, 172, 185 271 Department of the Interior, see Geological Survey Department of the Treasury, 220 Department of Veterans Affairs, 55, 92-93 Developmental Therapeutics Program, 4243 Diagnostics biomarkers, 23-24 definitional issues, 23-24 National Cancer Institute, general, 104 Unconventional Innovations Program, 49, 77 Discovery science, 1, 192, 201 Drugs, see Pharmaceutical industry DuPont, 168 E Early Detection Research Network, 4748, 113 Economic factors, 264, 265 see also Cost-benefit factors; Employment and personnel issues; Funding; Intellectual property; Private sector Education and training, see Professional education; Universities and colleges Employment and personnel issues, 26-27, 140-161, 255-263 see also Organization and management; Professional education Cancer Chemotherapy Program, 41 databases, career tracking, 158-159 graduate students, 7, 26, 60, 65, 66, 130, 131, 136, 145, 151-152, 157- 158, 237-238, 261 historical perspectives, training and career paths, 141-145, 148-153, 156 Human Genome Project, career tracking, 158-159 non-tenure track scientists, 73, 140, 151, 157 occupational diseases, 43 postdoctoral scientists/fellows, 26, 60, 65, 107, 130, 131, 141, 142, 145, 148-154, 157-158, 160, 261 foreign, 150-151 historical perspectives, 242, 258

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272 M.D. scientists, 155-157, 160 Ph.D. scientists, 36, 130, 140, 155, 157, 159, 160, 260 training grants, 151-153 recruitment and retention, general, 8, 42, 197-198 Science and Technology Centers Program, 66 staffing, general, 5, 7, 26, 65, 140-161, 251-252 tenure-track scientists, 65, 137, 141, 142, 145-146, 154, 197-198 trainees, 7, 26, 140-161 Energy Reorganization Act, 241 Environmental Protection Agency, 93, 100 Epidemiology Chemical Carcinogenesis Program, 43 Early Detection Research Network, 47 National Cancer Institute, funding applications, 112 patient databases, 24 Ethical issues, 64 genome research, 34, 35, 36(n.2) peer review, 109 European Communities databases, intellectual property protections, 182-183 Human Genome Project, 34 European Organization for Nuclear Research, 242-243 Evaluation and assessment, 6, 83-85, 195 see also Peer review advisory committees, 2, 42, 44, 48, 51, 57, 60, 61, 78-79, 86, 92, 100-101, 134, 193, 233, 234-235, 240, 243, 248, 256 intellectual property, 186-187, 190 Chemical Carcinogenesis Program, 43- 44 federal funding, general, 83-84 funding sources, 25 National Institutes of Health, 6, 62-64, 195, 196-197, 198 organization and management, 25-26, 131-133, 197-198 Science and Technology Centers Program, 66 tenure-track scientists, 65, 137, 141, 142, 145-146, 154, 197-198 Expressed sequence tag, 37-38, 177 Index F Federal Advisory Committee Act, 86 Federal funding, general, 3, 4, 6, 10, 25, 29, 80-115, 127, 218, 263-264 see also Contracting and contracts; Grants; "funding" under specific federal departments and agencies Cancer Chemotherapy Program, 41, 42 cooperative agreements, 66, 68, 101, 103, 105, 110, 112, 122-123 earth sciences, 223-225, 231, 233-234, 239 Geological Survey, 226 high-energy particle physics, 231, 247- 249, 252 historical perspectives, 82-83, 222-223, 226, 229-265 (passim) Human Genome Project, 14, 33-36, 38- 39,40 intellectual property issues, 27, 174- 175, 191 Land Grant College Acts, 222-223 legislative process, overview, 88-94, 98, 247-249 management, 131-133 Manhattan Project, 236-238 program announcements, 53, 86, 111, 114, 128-129, 176 recruitment and retention, 8, 42 request for applications, 53-55, 59, 111-112, 114, 128-129, 187 results and funding, time lag, 87, 93- 94, 250-251, 257 small- vs large-scale research, 2, 18, 80-81, 249-250, 265 Small Business Innovation Research, 59 Small Business Technology Transfer, 59 Federal Technology Transfer Act, 122 Federal Trade Commission, 172-173 Food and Drug Administration, 43, 44 Funding, 3, 4, 13, 14, 15, 30-31, 80-129 see also Contracting and contracts; Cost-benefit factors; Federal funding; Grants; Industry; National Science Foundation; Nonprofit organizations; Private funding; Training grants

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Index definition of large-scale research, 17, 18-19, 24-25, 26 Human Genome Project, 14, 28, 33, 80- 81, 127 international perspectives, 115-116, 117, 119, 125-126, 127 private funding by companies, 115- 116, 119 recruitment and retention, 197 results and funding, time lag, 87, 93- 94, 250-251, 257 small- vs large-scale research, 2, 18, 80-81, 249-250, 265 standard practices, 25, 84-85, 87-88 state government, 116, 117 university, 116, 117, 118, 222-223, 239, 251-252, 257, 259-260 G General Accounting Office, 190 Genetics, general, 30 breast cancer, 98 Cancer Virus Program, 4445 discovery science, 1, 192 Howard Hughes Medical Institute, 72 Genomics, 21-22, 28, 30 see also Human Genome Project brain, 96-97 Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, 13, 22, 45-47, 113 Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, 75 patents, 28, 36-37, 39-40, 176-181, 184, 185-186 Pathogen Functional Genomics Resource Center, 9, 61-62 private funding, 14, 36-37, 39, 117-123, 181 professional career tracking, 158-159 Protein Structure Initiative, 3, 57-61, 114, 160-161, 193 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Consortium, 10, 27-28, 67-70, 123, 178 Geological Survey, 218, 225-227 Global Forum for Health Research, 115, 126 Government Performance and Results Act, 87, 88 273 Graduate students, 7, 26, 60, 65, 66, 130, 131, 136, 145, 151-152, 157-158, 237-238, 261, 262, 263 see also Postdoctoral scientists/ fellows; Training grants Grants, 19 see also Funding; Nonprofit organizations NIH, 2, 54, 56, 109-115, 128, 156-157, 193 training grants, 151-153 H Hatch Act, 222-223 Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, 184, 185 High-energy particle physics, 17, 20, 27, 29, 36, 83, 126, 131, 213-218, 230-232, 235-238, 241-265 (passim) Historical perspectives, 1, 12, 192, 218-268 Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, 74 earth sciences, 223-225, 231, 233-234, 239 funding, 25, 120, 124, 218, 222-225, 228-229, 230, 235-238, 251-258 (passim) Geological Survey, 218, 225-227 high-energy particle physics, 17, 20, 27, 29, 36, 83, 126, 131, 213-218, 230-232, 235-238, 241-265 (passim) Human Genome Project, 31-39 Land Grant Colleges, 222-223 Manhattan Project, 235-238, 241 National Cancer Institute, 29, 40-54, 82-83, 232-233 National Institutes of Health, 6, 33-39 (passim), 63, 82, 227-228 Naval Research Laboratory, 228-229 nonprofit organizations, 124 organization and management, 131, 251-257 patents, 163, 164-165, 168, 172, 230 small-scale research, 1, 12, 132, 192 technological innovations, 30, 31, 218- 265 (passim) training and career structures, 141- 145, 148-153, 156

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274 university research, 218, 222-223, 237- 238, 257-263, 264 Weather Service, 223-225 HIV/AIDS, 45, 64-65 Hormone replacement therapy, 62, 63 Howard Hughes Medical Institute, 34, 71- 73,115,124,125 Human Genome Organization, 34 Human Genome Project, 1-2, 3, 13, 14, 20, 29, 31-40, 69, 184-185, 192-193 bioinformatics, 34, 35 Cancer Genome Anatomy Project and 46 Department of Energy, 14, 31, 33, 34- 35 dissemination of research results, 7 funding, 14, 28, 33, 80-81, 127 industry, 34, 37-40, 181 intellectual property issues, 28, 36-37, 3940, 176-181, 184, 185-186 professional career tracking, 158-159 proteomics and, 22-23, 40, 181 Human Proteome Organization, 70-71 Immigration and Naturalization Service, 151 Imperial Cancer Research Fund, 34 Industry, 7, 26, 136, 198, 199-200, 250 see also Intellectual property Human Genome Project, 34, 3740, 181 private funding, 10, 24, 82, 115-125, 250 Protein Structure Initiative, 59 reagent contracts, 9 Unconventional Innovations Program, 48 university/industry cooperation, 10- 11, 54, 66, 67, 165, 198, 200-201, 252 Institute for Genomic Research, 38 Integrated review groups, 101, 103, 106- 107, 112, 113 Intellectual property, 7, 8, 9, 13, 16, 27-28, 78, 162-191 Bayh-Dole Act, 28(n.2), 47, 116, 163, 166, 175, 188, 189 Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, 46 confidentiality and consent, 62, 183- 184 Index databases, 182-183, 186 definitional issues, 162, 164 Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, 184, 185 high-energy particle physics, 263 Howard Hughes Medical Institute, 73 patents, 36-37, 3940, 47, 60, 116, 118, 121, 162-191 (passim) genomics, 28, 36-37, 3940, 176-181, 184, 185-186 historical perspectives, 163, 164- 165, 168, 172, 230 licensing, 5, 9-10, 73, 164, 167-174, 175-176, 187, 191, 199-200 National Institutes of Health, 167- 169, 199-200 patent pools, licensing, 164, 172- 174 proteomics, 181-182 reach-through licensing, 164, 169- 170 research exemptions, licensing, 164, 170-172 small-scale research, 163, 169 universities, 116, 163, 164-176 (passim), 179, 184, 185-186, 191 Pathogen Functional Genomics Resource Center, 9, 61-62 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Consortium, 68 Interdisciplinary approaches, see Multidisciplinary approaches International AIDS Vaccine Initiative, 64- 65 International collaboration, 14, 125-126, 127, 195, 252, 253 definition of large-scale research, 19 Early Detection Research Network, 48 federal funding criteria, general, 85 genomics, 3, 34, 69, 193 Human Proteome Organization, 70-71 Protein Structure Initiative, 59 International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium (HapMap), 3, 69, 193 International perspectives, general federal funding benchmarks, 87 funding, 115-116, 117, 119, 125-126, 127 genomics, 3, 34, 69, 178, 193 postdoctoral scientists in U.S., 150-151

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Index International Strategy Meeting on Human Genome Sequencing (Bermuda Rules), 178, 197 International Union of Pure and Applied Physics, 243 Internet see also Bioinformatics; Databases Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, 46 Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, 74-75 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Consortium, 68(n.38) J Joint Center for Structural Genomics, 59 L Land Grant College Acts, 222-223 Lawrence Berkley Laboratory, 230-232 Legislation Adams Act, 223 Atomic Energy Act, 240-241 Bayh-Dole Act, 28(n.2), 47, 116, 163, 166, 175, 188, 189 Energy Reorganization Act, 241 Federal Advisory Committee Act, 86 Federal Technology Transfer Act, 122 funding process, overview, 88-94, 98, 247-249 Government Performance and Results Act, 87, 88 Hatch Act, 222-223 Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, 184, 185 Land Grant College Acts, 222-223 Morril Act, 82 National Cancer Act, 99 National Cancer Institute Act, 107, 232-233 National Science and Technology Policy, Organization, and Priorities Act, 243 Public Health Service Act, 86, 105 Smith-Lever Act, 213 Stevenson-Wydler Technology Innovation Act, 28(n.2) Licensing, see Intellectual property 275 M Management, see Organization and management Manhattan Project, 235-238, 241 M.D. scientists, 155-157, 160 Merck, 54, 56, 117 Minority groups foreign postdoctoral scientists in U.S., 150-151 Science and Technology Centers Program, 66 Models and modeling, general, 9, 14, 15, 20-24, 29-79 see also Animal models; Computer applications; Definitional issues; National Laboratories; Organization and managment; specific large-scale projects biomarkers, 23-24 high-energy particle physics, 17, 20, 27, 29, 36, 83, 126, 131, 213-218, 230-232 industrial research, 26, 136-139 Molecular Targets Laboratory, 53-54 Morril Act, 82 Mouse Models of Human Cancers Consortium, 50-52, 114 Multidisciplinary approaches, 3, 4, 8, 13, 78, 135, 198, 252 Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, 45- 46 definition of large-scale research, 17, 18, 20, 25-26 funding, general, 80 Mouse Models of Human Cancers Consortium, 50-51 National Cancer Policy Board, 15 National Institute of General Medical Sciences, 54-61 National Institutes of Health, 139 small- vs large-scale research, 2, 18 Specialized Programs of Research Excellence, 52-53 Unconventional Innovations Program, 49 Vaccine Research Center, 65

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276 N National Advisory Committee for Aeronatuics, 234-235 National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 88, 93 Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and, 76 Unconventional Innovations Program (NCI), 49 National Cancer Act, 99 National Cancer Advisory Board, 100, 102, 107 National Cancer Institute, 3, 5, 6, 15, 20, 29, 40-54, 193, 194-195, 196 Advanced Photon Source, 73-74 Cancer Chemotherapy Program, 4143 Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, 13, 22, 45-47, 50, 51 Cancer Virus Program, 4445 Chemical Carcinogenesis Program, 43- 44 contracting, 4049 (passim), 53, 101, 103, 105, 196 Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and, 76 Early Detection Research Network, 4748, 113 funding, 40-53 (passim), 65, 73, 82, 98, 99-105, 111-114, 128, 233 historical perspectives, 29, 40-54, 82- 83, 232-233 Molecular Targets Laboratory, 53-54 Mouse Models of Human Cancers Consortium, 50-52, 114 National Cancer Act, 99 National Cancer Institute Act, 232-233 preventive interventions, 104, 105 Specialized Programs of Research Excellence, 52-53 Unconventional Innovations Program, 48-50, 77, 195 Vaccine Research Center, 65 National Cancer Institute Act, 232- 233 National Cancer Policy Board, 14-15, 95, 96 National Defense Research Committee, 234-235 National Human Genome Research Institute, 32, 69(n.40), 94, 121- 122, 127, 178 National Institute of Standards and Technology, 221 Index National Institutes of Health, 4, 5, 6, 14, 15, 40-54, 78, 193, 194-195, 201 see also National Cancer Institute Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and, 76, 78 dissemination of research results, 7, 8- 10, 186-191, 198 evaluation and assessment, general, 6, 62-64, 195, 196-197, 198 peer review, 40, 77, 78-79, 81, 105- 109, 195 foreign postdoctoral scientists, 150-151 funding, 3, 8-9, 14, 19, 33-37 (passim), 39, 54-60 (passim), 65, 73, 81, 82, 86, 93-115, 116, 121-122, 127- 129, 189, 193, 195, 197, 198 grant process, 2, 54, 128, 156-157, 193 integrated review groups, 101, 103, 106-107, 112, 113 program announcements, 53, 86, 111, 114, 128-129, 176 request for applications, 53-55, 59, 111-112, 114, 128-129, 187 historical perspectives, 6, 33-39 (passim), 63, 82, 227-228 Human Genome Project, 14, 33-37, 39 intellectual property, 9-10, 36-37, 60- 61,78,168,175,178,182,185, 187-191 loan program, 129 National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, 121-122 National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, 9, 61-62, 65 National Institute of Environmental Health Science, 44 National Institute of General Medical Sciences, 54-61, 73, 160-161 Alliance for Cellular Signaling, 55- 56 Protein Structure Initiative, 3, 57- 61, 114, 160-161, 193 professional training and career tracking, 150-151, 154, 155, 156, 160-161 small- vs large-scale research, 2 Vaccine Research Center, 65 Women's Health Initiative, 62-64 National Laboratories, 8, 73-74, 122-123, 136, 139, 198, 230-232, 241-242, 246, 254, 255, 256-257, 263

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Index National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 220, 224 National Science and Technology Policy, Organization, and Priorities Act, 243 National Science Foundation, 4, 83, 88, 93, 242 Science and Technology Centers, 65- 67, 132-133 National Toxicology Program, 44 Naval Oceanographic and Atmospheric Research Laboratory, 230 Naval Research Laboratory, 228-229 Nonprofit organizations, 10, 21, 25, 38, 56, 68, 80, 115, 116, 119, 123-125, 199-20 high-energy particle physics, 218, 256 Howard Hughes Medical Institute, 34, 71-73, 115, 124, 125 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Consortium, 10, 27-28, 67-70, 123, 178 Wellcome Trust, 32, 39, 69(n.41), 115, 124, 125 Non-tenure track scientists, 73, 140, 151, 171 o Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 92 Office for Civil Rights, 185 Office of Management and Budget, 87-88, 94 Office of Naval Research, 239-240 Office of Science and Technology Policy, 131, 243, 248 Office of Scientific Research and Defense, 234-235 Office of Technology and Industrial Relations, 48 Office of Technology Assessment, 32, 248 Organization and management, 5, 6, 7-8, 13, 77-78, 130-138, 251-257 see also Contracting and contracts; Employment and personnel issues; Funding; International collaboration; Multidisciplinary approaches; Professional education Advanced Photon Source, 73-74 277 advisory committees, 2, 42, 44, 48, 51, 57, 60, 61, 78-79, 86, 92, 100-101, 134, 193, 233, 234-235, 240, 243, 248, 256 intellectual property, 186-187, 190 Cancer Chemotherapy Program, 4143 Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, 45- 46 Chemical Carcinogenesis Program, 43- 44 decision making, 14, 24, 135, 138 Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, 74-77 definition of large-scale research, 19, 25-26 Department of Energy, 134-135 Early Detection Research Network, 4748 education for, 7, 26, 27,130,197, 255 evaluation and assessment, 6 federal funding, general, 83-94 historical perspectives, 131, 251-257 Howard Hughes Medical Institute, 71- 73 Human Genome Project, 33-36 Human Proteome Organization, 70-71 Mouse Models of Human Cancers Consortium, 51-52 National Cancer Institute, 99-105, 111- 113 National Cancer Policy Board, 14-15, 95,96 National Institute of General Medical Sciences, 54-61 National Institutes of Health, general, 95-99, 105-115, 134, 188, 193, 194, 195-196 Pathogen Functional Genomics Resource Center, 61-62 Protein Structure Initiative, 57-61 Science and Technology Centers Program, 66-67 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Consortium, 67-70 small- vs large-scale research, 131-134 (passim), 186 Specialized Programs of Research Excellence, 52-53 spokespersons, 254 standards, 130-131, 138 steering committees, 48, 51, 57, 78-79, 134

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278 Unconventional Innovations Program, 48-50, 77 universities, 7-8, 26, 65, 136-138, 193- 194, 198, 252, 256-257 Vaccine Research Center, 65 p Particle physics, see High-energy particle physics Patents, see Intellectual property Pathogen Functional Genomics Resource Center, 9, 61-62, 198 Patient rights, see Confidentiality and consent Peer review, 2, 6, 18, 48, 74, 77, 195 Advanced Photon Source, 74 Center for Scientific Review, 106-107 Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and, 77 Early Detection Research Network, 48 Human Genome Project, 35 National Cancer Institute, 40, 77, 106- 107 National Institute of General Medical Sciences, 56 National Institutes of Health, 40, 77, 78-79, 81, 105-109, 195 Pathogen Functional Genomics Resource Center, 62 Unconventional Innovations Program, 49 Personnel issues, see Employment and personnel issues Pharmaceutical industry, 200 chemotherapy, 41-43 dissemination of research results, 10 hormone replacement therapy, 62, 63 National Institute of General Medical Sciences, 56 Protein Structure Initiative, 59 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Consortium, 10, 27-28, 67-70, 123, 178 Ph.D. scientists, 36, 130, 140, 155, 157, 159, 160, 260 Polymorphisms, 10, 22 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Consortium, 10, 27-28, 67-70, 123, 178 Index Postdoctoral scientists/fellows, 26, 60, 65, 107, 130, 131, 141, 142, 145, 148- 154, 157-158, 160, 261 historical perspectives, 242, 258 M.D. scientists, 155-157, 160 Ph.D. scientists, 36, 130, 140, 155, 157, 159, 160, 260 training grants, 151-153 President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology, 190 President's Science Advisor, 243 President's Science Advisory Committee, 243, 256 Preventive interventions, 63, 64 hormone replacement therapy, 62, 63 National Cancer Institute, general, 104, 105 occupational diseases, 43 vaccines, 64-65, 71 Privacy, see Confidentiality and consent Private funding, 10, 24, 82, 115-125, 250 see also Nonprofit organizations genomics, 117-123 Human Genome Project, 14, 36-37, 39,117,181 HIV/AIDS, 64-65 intellectual property issues, 27-28 Molecular Targets Laboratory, 53-54 pharmaceutical industry, 115-116, 119 proteomics, 96 university/industry cooperation, 10- 11, 54, 66, 67, 165, 198, 200-201, 252 Private sector, see Industry; Private funding Professional education, 13, 15, 140-161, 257-263 see also Universities and colleges funding, general, 87 Howard Hughes Medical Institute, 72 Manhattan Project, 237-238 organization and management training, 7, 26, 27, 130, 197, 255 Pathogen Functional Genomics Resource Center, 61 Science and Technology Centers Program, 65-67 training grants, 151-153 Program announcements, 53, 86, 111, 114, 128-129, 176 Protein Data Bank, 60

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Index Protein Structure Initiative, 3, 57-61, 114, 160-161, 193 Proteomics, 21, 22-23, 30 Alliance for Cellular Signaling, 55 Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, 47 discovery science, 1, 192 funding, case example, 96 Human Genome Project and, 22-23, 40, 181 Human Proteome Organization, 70-71 Molecular Targets Laboratory, 53-54 patents, 181-182 professional career tracking, 158-159 Protein Structure Initiative, 3, 57-61, 114, 160-161, 193 Public Health Service Act, 86, 105 R Reach-through licensing, 164, 169-170 Reagents, 5, 8, 9, 62, 78, 198-199 Request for applications, 53-55, 59, 111- 112, 114, 128-129, 187 Research exemptions, patent licensing, Airs ~ mar 164, 170-172 S Sandia National Laboratory, 122-123 Science and Technology Centers, 65-67, 132-133 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Consortium, 10, 27-28, 67-70, 123, 178 Small Business Innovation Research, 59 Small Business Technology Transfer, 59 Small-scale research, general, 14 (passim), 11, 12-13, 20, 80, 132, 193, 265 assessment, 195 bioinformatics, 2, 18 federal funding, 2, 18, 80-81, 249-250, 265 historical perspectives, 1, 12, 132, 192 organization and management, 131- 134 (passim), 186 patents, 163, 169 Smith-Lever Act, 213 Special emphasis panels, 102 Specialized Programs of Research Excellence, 113 279 Specimen banks, 24, 183-184 Standardization best practices, 4, 194 bioinformatics, 20, 23, 48, 182 biomarkers, 47, 48 budgetary, 87 decisionmaking, 4, 14 funding sources, 25, 84-85, 87-88 management, 130-131, 138 patent pools, 174 reagents, 9, 198-199 tenure, 146 State government funding, 116, 117 National Cancer Policy Board, 15 Steering committees, 48, 51, 57, 78-79, 134 Stevenson-Wydler Technology Innovation Act, 28(n.2) Strategic Defense Initiative, 229 Structural biology, 22-23, 30 Howard Hughes Medical Institute, 72 professional career tracking, 158-159 Protein Structure Initiative, 3, 57-61 Sunerec)nductin~ Suner Collider, 246, T Technological innovations, 1, 2, 3, 6, 11, 13, 17, 19, 20, 27, 28, 30, 77, 78, 192, 200-201 see also Computer applications; Intellectual property high throughput, 24, 37-38, 98 high-energy particle physics, 17, 20, 27, 29, 36, 83, 126, 131, 213, 230- 232, 235-238, 264 historical perspectives, 30, 31, 218-265 (passim) Howard Hughes Medical Institute, 72 Human Genome Project, 31, 36, 37-38 Human Proteome Organization, 71 Mouse Models of Human Cancers Consortium, 51, 52 NIH funding, general, 95 Protein Structure Initiative, 58 Unconventional Innovations Program, 48-50, 77, 195 Technology transfer, 10, 184-190 see also Data sharing; Databases; Intellectual property; Internet

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280 Tenure-track scientists, 65, 137, 141, 142, 145-146, 154, 197-198 Time factors, 6 see also Historical perspectives dissemination of research results, 7, 199 funding and results, time lag, 87, 93- 94, 250-251, 257 Human Genome Project, 40 intellectual property restrictions, 184 NIH grant application process, 109 organization and management, general, 133 project entry and phase out, 195-196 small- vs large-scale research, 2, 13, 14, 18, 19 student researchers, 27 tenure-track scientists, 146 Trainees, 7, 26, 140-161 see also Graduate students; Postdoctoral scientists/fellows Training, see Professional education Training grants, 151-153 see also Postdoctoral scientists/fellows U Unconventional Innovations Program, 48- 50, 77, 195 Undergraduate students, 66, 237, 259, 262, 263 Universities and colleges, 140-161 (passim), 198 Advanced Photon Source, 73-74 Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, 77 funding, 116, 117, 118, 222-223, 239, 251-252, 257, 259-260 graduate students, 7, 26, 60, 65, 66, 130, 131, 136, 145, 151-152, 157- 158, 237-238, 261, 262, 263 Index historical perspectives, 218, 222-223, 237-238, 257-263, 264 industry collaboration, 10-11, 54, 66, 67, 165, 198, 200-201, 252 Land Grant College Acts, 222-223 non-tenure track scientists, 73, 140, 151, 157 organization and managment, 7-8, 26, 65, 136-138, 193-194, 198, 252, 256-257 patent rights, 116, 163, 164-176 (passim), 179, 184, 185-186, 191 postdoctoral scientists/fellows, 26, 60, 65, 107, 130, 131, 141, 142, 145, 148-154, 157-158, 160, 261 recruitment and retention, 8, 26-27, 197-198 tenure-track scientists, 65, 137, 141, 142, 145-146, 154, 197-198 undergraduate students, 66, 237, 259, 262, 263 Universities Research Association, 256- 257 V Vaccine Research Center, 65 Vaccines, 64-65, 71 Viruses, 40 Cancer Virus Program, 4445 HIV/AIDS, 45, 64-65 W Weather Service, 223-225 Wellcome Trust, 32, 39, 69(n.41), 115, 124, 125 Women's Health Initiative, 62-64 World Wide Web, see Internet