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2 The Role of Materials tin Critical Infrastructure The stability of the nation's critical infrastructures ant} its economic health rely in many ways on an improved unclerstanding of the behavior of materials ant! on the cievelopment of new processing and products. For example, some of society's most pressing needs for new technology are in the areas of energy sv~tem.s en c! national C7, .~ ~ security, especially in the wake of September I 1, 2001. New materials also play a continuing and important role in enabling advances in the manufacturing sector, especially commercial vehicle production, which is a key part of the nation's economic infrastructure. MATERIALS IN NATIONAL SECURITY Session Chair Julia Phillips, Sandia National Laboratories i,, Materials Issues in Microsystems for National Security, Duane Dimos, Sandia National Laboratories Advanced Sensors for Counterterrorism, Frances Ligler, Naval Research Laboratory Transportation Infrastructure and Security, Lyle Malotky, Transportation Security Administration 1 The national security environment is complex and full of difficult challenges for materials scientists. In all of the key tasks involved in national security, i.e., surveillance and assessment, protection of assets ant! infrastructure, and the use of weapons for defending and defeating, materials science and engineering play an important role. As an example, improved surveillance and threat assessment, a national need certainly made more urgent by the events of September ~ I, 2001, will require development of the key microchemical analytical systems that are at the heart of hanclheld components with multifunctional capability. The development path for such a system is shown in Figure 2-~. The materials that emerge when such systems are developing will have roles in communications, chemical and biological warfare sensors, ant! other surveillance equipment. The primary materials advances relevant to this technology are miniaturizes! optics and fluidics. The materials must be inexpensive and rugged, which suggests polymeric materials may be promising. However, given that very few currently available plastics are suitable for optical crevices, improvements specifically in optical properties and ease of processing are key to their application for biowarfare detection. Another possibility is the development of biological materials that exhibit a specific response to a biochemical; this is a growing field of research. In only the past few years, users' needs and perceptions about detection devices in security applications have changer! considerably. Among the new requirements for these as

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MATERIALS AND SOCIETY systems are full automation, simplicity of use in the field, minimal logistical burden, absence of false positives, proper sensitivity for rapi(l screening, appropriate size and weight, ant! sustainability. All of these requirements present substantial challenges for materials engineers. In the area of aviation security, the goal is to prevent an explosive material from getting on board an airplane or, failing that, to minimize the damage caused by an explosion. The latter goal calls for more impact-resistant aircraft and toughener! containers for cargo on the aircraft and requires the development of haul, lightweight materials. A key challenge is to recluce cost while maintaining robustness. In the area of building security, an emerging priority is the clevelopment of materials ant] structures with improved fire resistance as well as structural materials and Winslow glass that are not only fracture-resistant but that shatter into clust-sizect particles on breaking. Advances by the materials community in these areas will be an important part of the overall protection strategy. Finally, weapons for clefencling against and defeating an enemy will require lightweight structural materials and miniaturizes] electronics for such applications as unmanned vehicles and aircraft. Another neec! is for very hard materials that are also lightweight; such materials are needed for use as earth and rock penetrators to breach targets that may be buried or protected! with materials that are hard to penetrate. Some issues cut across all of these applications. The ability to predict the reliability of materials' properties is becoming a science in its own right. Surety is important, for example, in the case of weapons in long-term storage or when nanostructured materials are used in a builcling expected to have a lifetime of many years. One impediment to fostering within the private sector the kind of innovation discussed here might be the very practical issue of development costs, which can be high for new innovative materials solutions. Another might be the low number of units manufactured for security applications. A small manufacturing contract may not be of sufficient interest to a large company, and small companies may not be able to produce the quality and quantity nee(lecl for such high-precision components. One solution is finding dual-use technologies and exploring the possibilities for contract manufacturing. Fincling an appropriate manufacturer that can fit the product into its mix can mean spin- off benefits for both military and commercial uses and can bring the cost of development down. One example of this would be applying the technology used for an implantable glucose monitor to the manufacture of a handheld device for monitoring levels of biological agents. Comments from the Speakers "Materials science plays an integral role in every step of the national security scene." Duane Dimos, Sanclia National Laboratories "Materials advances will drive advances in biowarfare detection." Frances Dialer, Naval Research Laboratory "Bulk explosives detection approaches neec! better sensors and must take full advantage of available computer technologies." Lyle Malotky, Transportation Security Administration 6

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MATERIALS IN FUTURE INDUSTRIES | Biochemistry development, | I FY86 (USAMRIID) l | BURP Biosensor for | clinical BWD 91-94 1- Prototype fabricatio n, | FYB7~0NR) l Jump Start Fluidics automation, FY94 {ONR) Automated portable prototype, FY96 (ONR) ... 8 lends for Desert Storm, FY 91 (NAVSEA) . at. __ _.... | Biosensoron unmanned air l \ ~ I vehicle, FY96 - FY97 {DA RPA) I Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon it. dete~ion, FY97 (EPA) | Explosive detection I FY96-98 (ESTCP) Portable RAPTOR, FYO6-FY01 (OS D, USIMlC DTM, Research Ilite rn at i o n al) FIGURE 2-] Steps in the research, development, and commercialization of a sensor system for biological weapons. Research leading to the product is shown on the left; products are shown on the right. This schematic demonstrates how many different agencies and laboratories must cooperate to implement a new technology in the field. These organizations include the Biological Defense Research Program (BDRP) of the Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI); the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA); the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA); the Environmental Protection Agency (ESPA); the Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP); the Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA); the Office of Naval Research (ONR); the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD); the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID); and the U.S. Marine Corps. SOURCE: Frances Ligler, Naval Research Laboratory. MATERIALS IN COMMERCIAL VEHICLES Session Chair- Harry Cook, University of Illinois Energy/Fuel Efficiency in Commercial Vehicles, Gary Rogers, FEV Engine Technology, Inc. Materials in Commercial Autos and Trucks, Alan Taub, General Motors Since 1974, General Motors has improved vehicle fuel efficiency 132 percent for passenger vehicles and 75 percent for trucks. Better lightweight and functional materials offer further opportunities for improvements by enabling more efficient vehicle propulsion and reductions in vehicle weight. Alan Taub, GM Research and Development, presentation at the workshop. Available at . Slide 6. January2003. 7

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MATERIALS AND SOCIETY Developments in lightweight structural materialsincluding high-strength steels, composite materials, aluminum ant! magnesium alloys, and tire materials have led to a reduction in vehicle weight. These materials contribute to lightweight romnnnent~ in the belly, chassis, an(l powertrain of toclay's vehicles. A few of them are i(lentifiecl in Figure 2-2. O~ --rid v ~4 ~,44_ Functional materials can be fount! throughout an entire automobile. They are used, for example, in fuels and lubricants and catalysts and particulate traps, which lead to increaser! efficiencies in internal combustion engines ant] in aftertreatment exhaust systems. They are also use(1 in batteries, fuel cells, and hydrogen systems for energy storage ant! conversion; in sensors, actuators, ant! microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) (levices for automotive electronics: and in optical components continua once structural materials. ~ . . .. --rid , -~--~.=,~, A _ ~~mu~auon loots can help optimize materials properties such as stiffness, strength, ant! design thickness, thereby helping to improve the structural integrity of a vehicle. Novel ant! hybrid material structures could be fabricates! by low-cost and robust processes. For example, modeling has enabler! thinner castings using the lost foam process; these thinner castings reduce the weight of an engine block cIramatically. The fabrication process uses patterns macie from expanded polystyrene in a cavityless moIcI. The foam pattern is replaced by molten metal to produce the casting. Another mocleling success is hyciroformed frames that can double their torsional rigidity, resulting in a potential 15 percent weight savings as well as improved safety and ride quality. Hydroforming uses water pressure to efficiently and effectively force sheet metal into a die to produce complex shapes. Aluminum is still an important vehicle component, and magnesium is beginning to be used. Replacing a stamped part with a casting can enable part consolidation and can facilitate assembly. The use of reinforcer} reaction-injection-molded snap-on outer panels has also reduced the weight of vehicles. Other advances include aluminum alloy pistons; thin-wall, cast-iron exhaust manifolds; thinner glass wincishields and backlights; and titanium exhaust systems. Future improvements may include using nanocomposites to achieve much lighter weight ant! functional benefits such as thermal insulation or integrated sensors. For example, it is predicted that nanocomposite thermoplastic olefin parts will be more than 20 percent lighter.2 In engine technology, reductions in weight and friction have resulted! in substantial fuel consumption savings over the last decade. Analysis shows that in the next 10 years, a further fuel consumption saving of approximately 10 to 15 percent couIcl be achieved with these technologies.3 The further reduction of friction has the largest potential for improving today's engines. Reduced friction in cirive trains, pistons, and bearings can be achieved, for example, by reducing the weight of dynamic components. Engineers can also use smart materials that change their properties in response to engine temperature or speecI. 2Alan Taub, GM Research and Development, presentation at the workshop. Available at . Slide 26. January 2003. 3Gary Rogers, FEV Engine Technologies, presentation at the workshop. Available at . Slide 17. January 2003. 8

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MATERIALS IN FUTURE INDUSTRIES Thin-Wall Cast-lron Exhaust Manifold .~ ~ at,. . ~ ~ l 11 - g :Y "e . Thinner Glass Windshield & Back Light =_ Aluminum Alloy Driveshaft FIGURE 2-2 Some advanced materials applications in the automotive industry. SOURCE: Alan Taub, GM Research and Development. for fuel processors and low-cost, high-temperature heat exchangers. Comments from the Speakers "Whenever cost can be reduced, that's important." In the clevelopment of both hybrid] electric anti fuel eel] power systems, overcoming the materials problems is critical. Challenges for fuel cell performance include electrode catalyst formulations for higher reaction rates and lower costs and polymer electrolyte membrane materials for proton conduction in fuel cells. In ad(lition, stable clielectric coolants are needed, as well as low-temperature catalyst formulations Gary Rogers, FEV Engine Technologies "The automotive industry is both a mature industry and a growth industry." Alan Taub, General Motors Corporation MATERIALS IN ENERGY SYSTEMS Session Chair Jay Lee, University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee Conventional Power Generation Technology, John Stringer, Electric Power Research Institute Alternative Energy Technologies, William P. Parks, Jr., Department of Energy Portable Power, Daniel Doughty, Sanclia National Laboratories The worIcl's civilization and economy are dependent upon the secure an(l reliable production, distribution, ant! consumption of energy in forms practicable for both inclustrial and private use. Throughout the world, energy consumption continues to rise, as illustrated in Figure 2-3. Today the average annual per capita consumption of electrical power is near 2,100 kilowatt-hours. By 2050, it is expected to exceed! 6,000 9

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MATERIALS AND SOCIETY En o ~ 8 co ._ Q Ct 4 2 n ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ . . ~ .. .~ ~ ~ ~ I. ~ ~ ~ ~ I... I. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ .~.~.~:~: ::: ~::~: ~ :~,.~::~:~:~: .::'::'::':.:. : ..:.~.~:~:~:~:~:~: ~ ~ ~:.~ ~ :.- ~.~ ~.~.~.~.~"'.' "~ ~.~.~---.~ 1940 ~ 960 ~ 980 Pooe 2020 2040 2060 Year FIGURE 2-3 Worldwide per capita electricity consumption, 1950-2050. SOURCE: John Stringer, Electric Power Research Institute. kilowatt-hours per persona Currently, coal-fired plants account for 50 percent of U.S. electrical production.s The scientific and technological response to the forecasted needs must include increased efficiency in the generation and use of energy. It must also embrace the development of new, large-scale energy sources, including new fuels and new generation schemes. The current energy economy is largely based on fossil fuels, but continuer] long-term reliance on these sources poses environmental concerns ant! is increasingly sensitive to geopolitical events. The environmental concerns include carbon dioxide generation and thermal and material by-products or waste (such as mercury or radioactive components in coal-fired plants). They cannot be entirely eliminated but, at some economic and political cost, can be reduced. One barrier to developing more efficient, less polluting energy resources is the lack of materials that enable the specific advance or technology. Important power sources for the future are likely to include biopower, hyclrogen, wincl, geothermal, solar, and hydropower. The technologies to efficiently and cost effectively generate ant! distribute the energy from these sources require advances in the properties of the relevant materials and their application. For example, superconducting materials can virtually eliminate transmission losses but are still not sufficiently mature for widespread application. Distributect-generation technologies such as small gas turbines, Stirling engines, or fuel cell systems must be become easier and cheaper to manufacture in order to outweigh the economies of scale larger generation systems enjoy. The economically important field of portable power inclucles applications such as batteries for internal power storage and fuel cells for external storage. While the ranges and sizes of power needled in these systems (dictate the potential solutions, performance is clictatec! by material composition. The properties of anocles, cathodes, ant! electrolytes, 4 John Stringer, Electric Power Research Institute, presentation to the workshop. Available at . Slide 4. January 2003. s John Stringer, Electric Power Research Institute, presentation to the workshop. Available at . Slide 5. January 2003. 10

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MA TERIALS IN FUTURE INDUSTRIES for example, determine the voltage and capacity of batteries and fuel cells, and the power produces] ciepencts on the resistance. Most materials advances in portable power today are in the field! of electrolytes and electrocatalysts. The need for new materials solutions is also relevant to current generation systems. For example, the efficiency of energy generation increases as the temperature of the process increases. However, the operational temperature limits are set by the availability of materials and by their economic and environmental processing costs. Lighter weight materials are needed! for windmill blades, ant} advancer! and afforcIable semiconductor materials are needed for photovoltaic ant! thermovoltaic generators. Progress is also being macle in developing other power-related materials with applications in a variety of systems, including high-heat-tolerant electrical transmission cables, energy storage systems, motors, efficient hydrogen storage systems, and improved catalysts for efficient chemical transformations. The ultimate source of energy for our society is the Sun. Converting the Sun's energy that reaches our planet into electrical and chemical energy has frequently been proposed as the only long-term solution to worIcl energy needs. It is unlikely that we can meet the energy needs of the near future, let alone attain the ultimate goal of reliance on solar techniques, without many of the above-mentioned materials advances. Comments from the Speakers "Rising energy consumption coupled with a growing world population and increased awareness of environmental issues poses significant challenges to economic ant! political systems both clomestically and internationally." John Stringer, Electric Power Research Institute "Materials dictate the performance of the power source, ant! the ranges of power dictate potential solutions. " Dan Doughty, San(lia National Laboratories "Power is not only technologies, but also includes the fuels, the generation, the clelivery, the storage, the end-use, ant] all the policies, regulations, ant! international issues that surround them." Bill Parks, Department of Energy 11

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