Click for next page ( R2


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page R1
Materials and Society From Research to Manufacturing 1 Report of a Workshop Committee on Materials and Society: From Research to Manufacturing National Materials Advisory Board Solid State Sciences Committee of the Board on Physics and Astronomy Board on Manufacturing and Engineering Design Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

OCR for page R1
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Contract/Grant No. MDA 972-01-D-001 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Department of Defense. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number: 0-309-08907-7 (paperback) International Standard Book Number: 0-309-50599-2 (pdf) 1 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2003 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America 1

OCR for page R1
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medirine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in ~ 863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of . . engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council www.national-acaclemies.org

OCR for page R1
COMMITTEE ON MATERIALS AND SOCIETY FROM RESEARCH TO MANUFACTURING SYLVIA M. JOHNSON, NASA Ames Research Center, Chair HARRY E. COOK, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign FRANCIS J. DISALVO, Cornell University JAY LEE, University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee LINDA J. (LEE) MAGID, University of Tennessee, Knoxville ROBERT C. PFAHL, JR., National Electronics Manufacturing Initiative JULIA M. PHILLIPS, Sandia National Laboratories HENRY J. RACK, Clemson University ASHOK SAXENA, Georgia Institute of Technology JOEL S. YUDKEN, AFL-CIO Stay 1 TONI MARECHAUX, Director, National Materials Advisory Board TERI THOROWGOOD, Research Associate, National Materials Advisory Board MICHAEL MOLONEY, Program Officer, Solid State Sciences Committee EMILY ANN MEYER, Research Associate, National Materials Advisory Board IV l l

OCR for page R1
SOLID STATE SCIENCES COMMITTEE SOL M. GRUNER, Cornell University, Chair LINDA J. (LEE) MAGID, University of Tennessee, Vice Chair A. PAUL ALIV}SATOS, University of California, Berkeley DAVID R. CLARKE, University of California, Santa Barbara FRANCIS J. DISALVO, Cornell University JAMES P. ElSENSTEIN, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena PATRICK D. GALLAGHER, National Institute of Standards ant! Technology J. MURRAY GIBSON, Argonne National Laboratory PETER F. GREEN, University of Texas, Austin FRANCES HELLMAN, University of California, San Diego FRANZ HIMPSEL, University of Wisconsin BARBARA JONES, IBM AImaden MARK B. KETCHEN, IBM Thomas I. Watson Research center HERWIG KOGELNIK, Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies ANTHONY J. LEGGETT, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign THOMAS F. ROSENBAUM, University of Chicago SAMUEL I. STUPP, Northwestern University ELLEN WIGWAMS, University of Maryland Staff DONALD C. SHAPERO, Director MICHAEL H. MOLONEY, Program Officer PAMELA A. LEWIS, Project Associate NELSON QUINONES, Project Assistant v

OCR for page R1
NATIONAL MATERIALS ADVISORY BOARD JULIA PHILLIPS, Sandia National Laboratories, Chair JOHN ALLISON, Ford Motor Company PAUL BECHER, Oak Ridge National Laboratory BARBARA BOYAN, Georgia Institute of Technology FlONA DOYLE, University of California, Berkeley GARY FISCHMAN, Palatine, Illinois HAMISH FRASER, Ohio State University JOHN GASSNER, Army Natick SoIclier Center THOMAS HARTWICK, Snohomish, Washington ARTHUR H. HEWER, Case Western Reserve University FRANK E. KARASZ, University of Massachusetts, Amherst SHEILA F. KlA, General Motors Research and Development ENRIQUE LAVERNIA, University of California, Davis TERRY LOWE, Los Alamos National Laboratory ALAN G. MILLER, Boeing Commercial Airplane Group ROBERT C. PFAHL, National Electronics Manufacturing Initiative HENRY RACK, Clemson University LINDA SCHADLER, Renssalaer Polytechnic University JAMES C. SEFERIS, University of Washington T.S. SUDARSHAN, Materials Modification, Inc. JULIA WEERTMAN, Northwestern University Staff TONI MARECHAUX, Director ARUL MOZHI, Senior Staff Officer JAMES KWLIAN, Senior Staff Officer BONNIE SCARBOROUGH, Staff Officer TER} THOROWGOOD, Research Associate LAURA TOTH, Senior Project Assistant Vl 1 1

OCR for page R1
BOARD ON PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY JOHN P. HUCHRA, Harvarci-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Chair ROBERT C. RICHARDSON, Cornell University, Vice Chair JONATHAN A. BAGGER, Johns Hopkins University GORDON A. BAYM, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign CLAUDE R. CANIZARES, Massachusetts Institute of Technology WIGWAM EATON, National Institutes of Health WENDY L. FREEDMAN, Carnegie Observatories FRANCES HELLMAN, University of California, San Diego KATHRYN LEVIN, University of Chicago CHUAN SHENG LlU, University of Maryland LINDA J. (LEE) MAGID, University of Tennessee THOMAS M. O'NElL, University of California at San Diego JULIA M. PHILLIPS, Sandia National Laboratories BURTON RICHTER, Stanford University ANNElLA I. SARGENT, California Institute of Technology JOSEPH H. TAYLOR, Jr., Princeton University THOMAS N. THElS, IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center CARL E. WlEMAN, University of Coloraclo/~LA Staff DONALD C. SHAPERO, Director ROBERT L. REIMER, Senior Program Officer MICHAEL H. MOLONEY, Program Officer TIMOTHY I. MEYER, Program Associate BRIAN D. DEWHURST, Program Associate PAMELA LEWIS, Project Associate NELSON QUINONES, Project Assistant . . V11

OCR for page R1
BOARD ON MANUFACTURING AND ENGINEERING DESIGN PAMELA A. DREW, The Boeing Company, Chair CAROL ADKINS, Sandia National Laboratories ROBERT FONTANA, JR., Hitachi Global Storage Technologies PAUL B. GERMERAAD, Intellectual Assets ROBERT HATHAWAY, Oshkosh Truck Corporation RICHARD L. KEGG, Milacron, Inc. (retired) PRADEEP KHOSLA, Carnegie Mellon University JAY LEE, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee JAMES MA0ICE, Universal Technology Corporation MANISH MEHTA, National Center for Manufacturing Sciences ANGELO M. NINIVAGGI, JR., Plexus H.M. REININGA, Rockwell Collins JAMES B. RICE, JR., Massachusetts Institute of Technology ALFONSO VELOSA III, Gartner, Inc. JACK WHITE, Altarum JOEL SAMUEL YUDKEN, AFL-CIO Stay All ,' TONI MARECHAUX, Director EMILY ANN MEYER, Research Associate . . . v'', 1 1 1 1

OCR for page R1
Preface The Committee on Materials and Society: From Research to Manufacturing was appointed by the National Research Council (NRC) to convene a workshop in the spring of 2002. The purpose of the workshop was to bring together government policy makers, members of the materials research en c! manufacturing communities, and end users of materials to review, consider, and discuss the current state of materials science and engineering in the Uniter! States and the challenges in the coming years. This workshop was part of an ongoing series at the National Academies that have been convened approximately every 2 years by the Solid State Sciences Committee ant! the National Materials Advisory Board. The Solid State Sciences Committee and the National Materials Advisory Board were joined in presenting the 2002 workshop by the NRC's Boarc] on Manufacturing Engineering and Design and by the University Materials Council. The University Materials Council is composed of department heads, chairpersons, directors, and group leaders from academic programs in the materials field at U.S. and Canadian universities. The agenda for the 2002 workshop was designed by the Committee on Materials and Society to address the role of materials against the backdrop of such pressing national concerns as the September ~ ~ attacks on the United States, the escalating use of energy across the country, and rapid transitions in the materials science and engineering workforce and education strategies. The workshop highlighte(l such advances in materials research as optical sensors for biological weapons and improved surface treatments to improve engine efficiency in commercial vehicles. The future of materials science in such new industries as nanotechnology and biotechnology was also addressed. Although the committee as a whole organized anti approved the agenda for each session of the workshop, the session chairs (see the table below) were responsible for communication with and coordination of the speakers in their respective sessions. In adclition, different committee members were appointed as rapporteurs for the individual sessions. The rapporteurs were responsible for taking notes and for summarizing the general themes presenter] during the session. They also took responsibility for choosing appropriate quotes ant! illustrated data from the speakers for this final report. The agenda presented opportunities for participants to discuss their own issues an(l challenges as materials professionals, along with the issues raised by the workshop speakers, with invited congressional staff and leaders of government agencies that support materials research and development. These interactions resulted in much lively discussion, and the Committee on Materials and Society observed that many themes recurring during the course of the event. In writing this reports the committee sought to summarize themes as reflec~ter1 in the presentations and discussion during the workshop. The chapters in the report are intended to encapsulate the essential ideas presented during the workshop so as to give the reader an overall sense of the presentations, the panel discussions, and the attendant question-and-answer sessions. Only material presented at the workshop is presented in this report; other information, including more recent data, is not included. - - -A --- 7 ~ ~~ V ~~ ~ __ 4.AJ, lX

OCR for page R1
table. The committee members responsible for each session are listed in the following Session Chair Rapporteur~s) Setting the Scene Bob Pfahl and Julia Phillips Materials and National Security Julia Phillips Ashok Saxena Materials in Commercial Vehicles Harry Cook Materials in Energy Systems Jay Lee Jay Lee Frank Disalvo Workforce and Education Issues Ashok Saxena Lee Magid Bob Pfahl and Congressional Staff Pane! Sylvia Johnson Henry Rack Materials in Future Industries Lee Magid Sylvia Johnson Government Agency Panel Frank DiSalvo Harry Cook and x 1

OCR for page R1
1 Acknowledgments The Committee on Materials and Society: From Research to Manufacturing gratefully acknowledges the participants and exhibitors for their participation in this year's workshop. The committee would also like to acknowledge the following individuals, who prepared presentations for the event: 1 Rod Alferness, Lucent Technologies, Duane Dimos, Sandia National Laboratories, Dan Doughty, San(lia National Laboratories, Mildrec! Dresselhaus, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Gregory Farrington, Lehigh University, Sharon GIotzer, University of Michigan, Andrew Hunt, Microcoating Technologies, Fran Ligler, Naval Research Laboratory, Lyle Malotky, Transportation Security Administration, John Moran, Consultant, Cherry Murray, Lucent Technologies, Venkatesh Narayanamurti, Harvard University, William P. Parks, Jr., Department of Energy, Gary Rogers, FEV Engine Technology, Inc., John Stringer, Electric Power Research institute. Alan Taub, General Motors, David Tirrell, California Institute of Technology, Julia Weertman, Northwestern University, R. Stanley Williams, Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, ant! Wm. A. Wulf, National Academy of Engineering. 1 This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their (liverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC's Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible ant! to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the (deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Peter R. Bridenbaugh, Alcoa (retirecl), So! M. Gruner, Cornell University, Gary L. Messing, Pennsylvania State University, Paul S. Peercy, University of Wisconsin, xi

OCR for page R1
Frank Stillinger, Princeton University, and Kathleen Taylor, Genera] Motors (retirecI). Although these reviewers have provided many constructive comments ant! suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the report, nor die] they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Maxine Savitz, Honeywell Corporation (retirecI). Appointed by the National Research Council, Dr. Savitz was responsible for making certain that an inclepenclent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully consiclered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee ant! the institution. The workshop on Materials en c! Society: From Research to Manufacturing would not have been possible without the dedicated efforts of several members of the National Academies' staff, including Toni Marechaux, Teri ThorowgoocI, Michael Moloney, and Emily Ann Meyer. Their tireless efforts are greatly appreciated. In abolition, the committee thanks the Department of Defense, S&T Reliance Subarea for Materials ant] Processes, for its interest, support, and assistance throughout the project. Sylvia M. Johnson Chair Committee on Materials and Society: From Research to Manufacturing . . X11

OCR for page R1
Contents 1 1 THE IMPACT OF MATERIALS Speakers, 1 Presentations, 1 1 l THE ROLE OF MATERIALS IN CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE Materials in National Security, 5 Materials in Commercial Vehicles, 7 Materials in Energy Systems, 9 3 THE ROLE OF MATERL\LS IN FUTURE INDUSTRIES Nanomaterials, 13 Biomaterials, 14 Materials for Optical Communications, 15 Computational Materials Science, 16 4 PERSPECTIVES Workforce and Education Perspectives, 19 U.S. Congressional Perspectives, 21 Federal Agency Perspectives, 24 5 SUMMARY APPENDIXES 1 is 13 1 19 27 A Further Reading 31 B Workshop Agenda 33 C Workshop Organizers 37 D Exhibitors 39 E Acronyms 41 . . . X111

OCR for page R1
Figures 1-1 Impacts of materials on society 2-2 2-3 3-1 3-2 4-1 4-2 4-3 Steps in the research, clevelopment, ant! commercialization of a sensor system for biological weapons Some advancer! materials applications in the automotive industry Worldwide per capita electricity consumption, 1950-2050 Examples of some basic nanomaterial structures Technology roadmap for lightwave electronics Growth in science and engineering degrees Percent of federal research funding by fielc} Trends in fecleral research and development funding, 1990-2001 i 4 7 9 10 1 14 16 20 23 25 XIV