and periodic examinations of actual costs incurred in a subset of past regulatory programs, including comparisons of actual costs to the costs predicted by various parties prior to adoption of regulations.

  • Invest in research to facilitate multipollutant approaches that targets the most significant risks, including enhanced research into the full range of ambient, hot-spot, and indoor exposures and their potential risks.

  • Invest in human and technical resources through programs and incentives to attract and train a diverse corps of scientists and engineers contributing to AQM and the development of an environmental extension service.

Recommendation Two

Expand national and multistate performance-oriented control strategies to support local, state, and tribal efforts.

The role of EPA in establishing and implementing national and multistate emission-control measures should be expanded so that states can focus their efforts on local emission concerns. The most critical actions are

  • Expand federal emission-control measures especially for nonroad mobile sources (for example, aircraft, ships, locomotives, and construction equipment), area sources (relatively small dispersion), and building and consumer products. Development of these measures should actively involve states, local agencies, and stakeholders and allow for continued control-measure innovation at the state and local level.

  • Emphasize technology-neutral standards for emission control. Whenever practical, control measures should cap the total emissions from a given source or group of sources, as opposed to limiting the rate of emissions per unit of resource input or product output. In cases where a cap is not practical, standards should be set that promote improved technologies rather than being tied to a single technology and that are stringent enough to offset projected emission increases caused by future growth in economic activity.

  • Use market-based approaches whenever practical and effective through the expanded use of approaches, such as the acid rain SO2 emissions cap-and-trade program, that have the potential to be highly effective and realize substantial cost savings. Such programs must incorporate continuous emissions monitoring to ensure that emission goals are met and be designed to identify and minimize geographic and temporal disparities in results. Expansion to new industrial sectors will require enhanced continuous emission-monitoring systems, technologies to ensure that required re-

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