been often overlooked (attention to emerging air quality problems, especially those relating to HAPs, and exposure of people and sensitive ecosystems; and verification of emission inventories, accountability, and AQM-related atmospheric process studies).

  • New monitoring methods to respond to the changes in air quality and monitoring data needs that have occurred over the past 30 years. A more active program of methods development within EPA and deployment through the redesigned network should be initiated. Novel approaches that allow higher spatial resolution (both horizontally and vertically) will be necessary to address the future challenges in AQM.

  • Increased number and distribution of air quality monitoring stations in rural, agricultural, and remote forest areas, aided by a statistical design that will improve spatial and temporal estimates of exposure. Colocated long-term measurements of air quality, meteorology, atmospheric deposition, and ecosystem response to air pollutants (for example, along pollution gradients).

  • Review of the methods used to determine statistically significant long-term trends in ambient pollutant concentrations to ensure that the results of such analyses are robust.

  • Enhanced accessibility of ambient air quality measurement data to the scientific community and the public.

A recent effort by EPA to work with states, tribes, and local air quality agencies to develop the National Core Monitoring Network (NCore), which is assessing the current system and recommending areas for reduced or increased investment, is a valuable first step in enhancing the monitoring network. To achieve substantial enhancement, however, will require sustained agency commitment to implementing such efforts as NCore and applying substantial additional funds to continue key efforts. It will also require innovative programs, including ones that give incentives to the private sector to develop and implement advanced monitoring technologies.

Improve Modeling

The following key steps would enhance the current models for air quality planning and management:

  • Continued and expanded efforts by EPA to develop shared modeling resources by supporting regional modeling centers to train and work with states and multistate organizations on air quality planning. Ideally, these centers would support multiple state-of-the-science models and data analysis.

  • Thorough evaluations of models required before they are used for attainment demonstrations of SIPs and other planning purposes. Beyond

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