sampling intensity for ozone injury should be increased, and foliar sampling should be co-located with active ozone monitors.

6. Probability sample designs for monitoring will ensure coverage within a domain of existing populations.

For example, sampling can be proportional to the area coverage of different forest types or the number of first order streams (Olsen et al. 1999). The plot design and the survey design need to be sufficient to determine differences between sites.

7. Conduct intensive ecosystem studies at a subset of representative plots.

Such studies will increase the understanding of mechanisms of response to multiple factors, including air quality and climate.

8. Improve National Weather Service meteorological data by adding measurement of incident total solar radiation.

Incident radiation strongly influences ozone formation. It is a key variable used in environmental analysis, and is critical for spatial modeling of meteorology, ozone distribution, and ecosystem effects.

9. Release for regional analysis the exact locations of forest survey plots on public lands.

An amendment to the Food Security Act (2001) prohibits release of exact locations of Forest Inventory and Analysis and Forest Health Monitoring (FIA/FHM) plots, including those on public lands. The release of exact plot locations will allow scientists outside FIA/FHM to investigate air pollution effects on forest ecosystems in a spatial context. Currently, investigators who are collaborating with FIA personnel may make complicated arrangements with some regions to allow FIA personnel to run specific analyses for them, but the practice is inconsistent among regions, it is usually impractical because of the complexity of the analyses, and because there are extremely long delays in data processing (processing often delayed for years or never accomplished).

10. Expand the EPA Temporally Integrated Monitoring of Ecosystems/Long-Term Monitoring (TIME/LTM) program for monitoring surface waters to include sites from regions sensitive to atmospheric deposition (for example, Southeast, Upper Midwest, West).

Measurements should be long-term to ensure continuity for trends detection. The TIME/LTM program should be integrated with national networks to quantify atmospheric deposition and watershed information on soil, forest vegetation, and other attributes. Measurements should be linked with biogeochemistry modeling to predict both effects of acidic deposition



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement