Index

A

Acceptable exposure levels, establishing for natural and managed ecosystems, 21, 312

Acetaldehyde, 145, 365

Acetamide, 365

Acetonitrile, 365

Acetophenone, 365

2-Acetylaminofluorene, 365

Acid deposition, 111

Acid deposition modeling (ADOM), 64, 110

Acid rain (SO2 and NOx), reducing emissions of species that cause, 33

Acid rain program, 110, 204, 214

NOx provisions, 187

SO2 emissions trading, 196–202

targets for, 64

Acid Rain Title of CAA Amendments, 97

goals set by, 64–65

Acrolein, 365

Acrylamide, 365

Acrylic acid, 365

Acrylonitrile, 365

ADOM. See Acid deposition modeling

Aerometric Information Retrieval System (in EPA) (AIRS), 237

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 308

Agricultural Research Service (in the USDA) (ARS), 259

Agriculture, ecosystem effects from exposure to air pollution in, 258–259

Air pollutants

designing, testing, and implementing technologies and systems for efficiently preventing or reducing, 36

impacts of, 28–29

listing potentially dangerous but unregulated for regulatory attention, 21, 306–309

Air Pollution Control Act, 29

Air pollution science, 24–28

enhancing monitoring, 17, 286–287

factors influencing the pollutant mix in the atmosphere and the resultant impacts of pollution, 25

national average emission categories for CO, SO2, NOx, VOCs, PM10, and PM2.5, 27

Air quality management (AQM), 23

challenges ahead, 5, 13–16

current system for, 11–13

designing and implementing control strategies through the SIP process, 88–132

estimating the costs and benefits of, 37–39



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Air Quality Management in the United States Index A Acceptable exposure levels, establishing for natural and managed ecosystems, 21, 312 Acetaldehyde, 145, 365 Acetamide, 365 Acetonitrile, 365 Acetophenone, 365 2-Acetylaminofluorene, 365 Acid deposition, 111 Acid deposition modeling (ADOM), 64, 110 Acid rain (SO2 and NOx), reducing emissions of species that cause, 33 Acid rain program, 110, 204, 214 NOx provisions, 187 SO2 emissions trading, 196–202 targets for, 64 Acid Rain Title of CAA Amendments, 97 goals set by, 64–65 Acrolein, 365 Acrylamide, 365 Acrylic acid, 365 Acrylonitrile, 365 ADOM. See Acid deposition modeling Aerometric Information Retrieval System (in EPA) (AIRS), 237 Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 308 Agricultural Research Service (in the USDA) (ARS), 259 Agriculture, ecosystem effects from exposure to air pollution in, 258–259 Air pollutants designing, testing, and implementing technologies and systems for efficiently preventing or reducing, 36 impacts of, 28–29 listing potentially dangerous but unregulated for regulatory attention, 21, 306–309 Air Pollution Control Act, 29 Air pollution science, 24–28 enhancing monitoring, 17, 286–287 factors influencing the pollutant mix in the atmosphere and the resultant impacts of pollution, 25 national average emission categories for CO, SO2, NOx, VOCs, PM10, and PM2.5, 27 Air quality management (AQM), 23 challenges ahead, 5, 13–16 current system for, 11–13 designing and implementing control strategies through the SIP process, 88–132 estimating the costs and benefits of, 37–39

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Air Quality Management in the United States forecasting in, 239–240 future of improving, 39–41 growth areas and emission trends, 9 implementing emission controls on mobile sources, 133–173 implementing emission controls on stationary sources, 174–216 iterative nature of, 4 long-term objectives for, 10 measuring the progress and assessing the benefits of, 216–267 moving forward, 21–22 progress in, 5 setting goals and standards, 45–87 system adapting to climate change, 277–278 transforming the nation’s system to meet the challenges of the coming decades, 268–315 in the United States, 29–35 Air quality management (AQM) recommendations for advances in environmental instrumentation, 315 for developing an integrated program for criteria pollutants and hazardous air pollutants, 20–21, 304–311 for enhancing protection of ecosystems and other aspects of public welfare, 21, 311–313 for expanding national and multistate performance-oriented control strategies to support local, state, and tribal efforts, 18–19, 291–296 for implementation, 371–374 for meeting the challenges ahead, 6–7, 16–21 for needed research and development, 369–371 for strengthening scientific and technical capacity to assess risk and track progress, 17–18, 284–290 for transforming the SIP process, 19–20, 296–304 Air quality management plan (AQMP), 6, 19–20, 297–307, 310 ensuring a successful transition to, 304 Air quality measurement techniques, 235–236 Air-quality modeling, 103–114 delays in incorporating new scientific insights from models into policy design, 112–113 dynamic partnership between technical and regulatory communities, 112 emerging multipollutant models, 114 emissions-based air quality models, 105–112 empirical rollback model, 104 lessons learned about air quality models, 112–114 model uncertainties, 113 need for regulators to apply model results appropriately, 112 need to subject models to comprehensive performance evaluations, 112 over-reliance on models for O3 SIPs, 113–114 receptor models, 104–105 Air quality monitoring designing and implementing technologies and methods for documenting pollutant exposures, 36 siting of stations, 233–235 trend analysis techniques, 236–237 Air quality standards, overview of, 46–47 Air Resources Board, 157 AIRMoN. See Atmospheric Integrated Research Monitoring Network AIRNow website, 237, 239 AIRS. See Aerometric Information Retrieval System (EPA) ALAPCU. See Association of Local Air Pollution Control Officials Allocation of emission allowances, fairness in, 208 Allowable concentration increments (micrograms per cubic meter), for prevention of significant deterioration (PSD), 182 Allyl chloride, 365 Ambient air quality, methods for monitoring in ecosystems, 371 Ambient concentrations used to confirm emission trends, 217–220 emission inventories and changes in average pollutant concentrations derived from air quality monitoring networks, 220 EPA’s trends in estimated nationwide pollutant emissions and average measured concentrations, 218

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Air Quality Management in the United States AmeriFlux, 259 4-Aminobiphenyl, 365 Aniline, 365 o-Anisidine, 365 Anthropogenic sources, contributing emissions resulting in the deposition of acidic compounds, 61 Antimony compounds, 367 Applicability issues with NSR and PSD, 181–185 complexity and inefficiency, 182–183 definition of significant, nonroutine modification, 185 grandfathering of facilities, 184 NOx emissions from coal-fired boilers, by vintage, 184 older, dirtier facilities remaining in operation, 183–184 AQIRP. See Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program AQM. See Air quality management AQM system, recommendations for an enhanced, 283–313 AQMP. See Air quality management plan ARCO. See Atlantic Richfield Company Area-source regulations, 212–214 present status of, 214 ARS. See Agricultural Research Service (USDA) Arsenic compounds (inorganic), 55, 367 Asbestos, 55, 365 Assessing ecosystem benefits from improved air quality, 252–261 Assessing health benefits from improved air quality, 241–252 assessments based on data from short-term air pollution events, 243 assessments using risk functions and exposure estimates, 243–249 monitoring actual human exposure, 249–252 Assessing the economic benefits of air quality improvements, 261–265 economic assessments, 263–265 pollution abatement cost and expenditures (PACE) survey, 265 Assessments based on tracking public health status and criteria pollutant risk over time, 244–246 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 245 National Children’s Study (NCS), 245 Pew Environmental Health Commission, 244–245 Assessments using risk functions and exposure estimates, 243–249 efforts to track the effects of HAP emission reductions, 246–248 other HAP assessments, 248–249 tracking progress in reducing HAPs-related health effects for the future, 249 Association of Local Air Pollution Control Officials (ALAPCU), 100, 286 Atlantic Richfield Company (ARCO), 157 Atmospheric composition monitoring networks, 220–228 enhanced PM2.5 monitoring networks, 227 gaseous pollutant monitoring program, 226 hazardous air pollutants, 227–228 interagency monitoring of protected visual environments, 226 locations of initial PM25 supersites, 228 major U.S. monitoring networks, 222–223 monitoring visibility, 226 national, state, and local air monitoring stations, 220–224 photochemical assessment monitoring stations (PAMS), 224–226 surface O3 monitoring sites and ozonesonde sites in North America, 224 Atmospheric Integrated Research Monitoring Network (AIRMoN), 232, 257 Attainment-demonstration SIPs, 92 air-quality modeling, 103–114 emission-control strategy development in an attainment demonstration SIP, 115–120 emission inventories, 97–103 main components of, 96 overemphasis on, 128–130 using the weight-of-evidence approach in the attainment demonstration, 114–115 Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program (AQIRP), 158

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Air Quality Management in the United States B BACT. See Best available control technology Banking emission allowances for the future, 207 opportunity for, 201–202 BART. See Best available retrofit technology Baselines of ecosystem condition, establishing, 372 Behavioral and societal strategies to reduce mobile-source emissions, 162–167 controls on transportation infrastructure planning and investment, 164 linking highway capacity expansion to air quality through the National Environment Policy act, 164–167 regulation of motorists’ vehicle use, 162–163 Benzene, 55, 57, 145, 158, 307, 365 trends in annual concentrations in metropolitan areas, 230 Benzidine, 365 Benzotrichloride, 365 Benzyl chloride, 365 Beryllium compounds, 55, 367 Best available control technology (BACT), 180–183 Best available retrofit technology (BART), 123 Bioaccumulative toxins, 308 Biphenyl, 365 Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, 365 1,1-Bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDE), 365 Bis(chloromethyl) ether, 365 Blood lead concentrations in the U.S. population, 156 Bromoform, 365 Bureaucratic process, 128 1,3-Butadiene, 365 C CAA. See Clean Air Act (1963) Cadmium compounds, 367 CAFE. See Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards Calcium cyanamide, 365 California, unique role in controlling mobile emissions, 137 California Air Resources Board (CARB), 145, 274 California and federal reformulated gasoline programs, 158–159 California Clean Air Act, 157 California Comparative Risk Project (CCRP), 249 Cap-and-trade provisions acid rain SO2 emissions trading program, 196–202 early trading programs implemented in the U.S., 197–198 for major stationary sources, 196–210 in proposed multipollutant legislation, 204 savings from the SO2 emissions trading program, 200 SO2 emissions from electric utilities in the United States, 199 Caprolactam, 55 Captan, 365 CARB. See California Air Resources Board Carbaryl, 365 Carbon dioxide (CO2), 73–74, 126, 194, 205, 208 Carbon disulfide, 365 Carbon monoxide (CO), 4, 11, 14, 27, 37, 48, 92–93, 130, 139, 143–144, 151, 158, 172, 194, 217, 268 emissions-based models for, 105 national average emission categories for, 27 Carbon tetrachloride, 365 Carbonyl sulfide, 365 Cardiopulmonary disease. See Pope/ American Cancer Society Study CASAC. See Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (of EPA) CASTNet. See Clean Air Status and Trends Network Catechol, 365 CCRP. See California Comparative Risk Project CDC. See Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CEM. See Continuous emissions monitoring CENRAP. See Central States Regional Air Partnership Center for Evaluation of Reproductive Health Risks, 308 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 245, 288 assessment of pollutant risk over time from, 245

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Air Quality Management in the United States Central States Regional Air Partnership (CENRAP), 123 Certainty of penalties, 201 Certification standards on new vehicles and motors, controlling emissions through, 136–148 CFCs. See Chlorofluorocarbons CFR. See Code of Federal Regulations CH4. See Methane Challenges ahead for AQM, 5, 13–16 climate change, 16 environmental justice, 15 health effects at low pollutant concentrations, 15 multistate, cross-border, and intercontinental transport, 15–16 new standards, 15 protecting ecosystem health, 15 recommendations for meeting, 6–7, 16–21 toxic air pollutants, 15 transforming the nation’s AQM system to meet, 268–315 trends in emissions versus ambient concentrations of various primary pollutants, 14 Chemical transport model (CTM), 106, 110, 239 modern multipollutant, multiscale, 110–111 Chloramben, 365 Chlordane, 365 Chlorine, 365 Chloroacetic acid, 365 2-Chloroacetophenone, 365 Chlorobenzene, 365 Chlorobenzilate, 365 Chlorofluorocarbons (compounds made up of chlorine, fluorine, and carbon) (CFCs), 198 phasing out, 198 Chloroform, 365 Chloromethyl methyl ether, 365 Chloroprene, 365 Chromium compounds, 367 Civil Rights Act of 1964, 65 Classification of nonattainment areas for O3 and CO, as mandated in the CAA Amendments of 1990, 92 Clean Air Act of 1963 (CAA), 3, 5, 7–15, 19, 21, 29, 32–33, 131, 133, 174, 216, 268, 316, 363–364 goals of, 4, 32–33 Clean Air Act of 1963 (CAA) requirements for SIPs, 94–96 for all states, 94 for nonattainment areas, 94–95 for O3 nonattainment areas, 95–96 Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (of EPA) (CASAC), 50–51 Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet), 231–232, 257 Climate change, 16 Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory (CMDL), 241 Clinton administration, 185 CLTRAP. See Convention on the Long-Range Transport of Transboundary Air Pollution CMDL. See Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory CO. See Carbon monoxide CO2. See Carbon dioxide Cobalt compounds, 367 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), 129 Coke oven emissions, 367 Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission, 123 Committee on Air Quality Management in the U.S., 9 charge to, 41–43, 363–364 Complexity, of the NSR and PSD requirements, 182–183 Compliance assurance, and CEM, 210 Compliance assurance for traditional control programs, 190–196 cap and trade in proposed multipollutant legislation, 204 compliance monitoring of stationary sources, 192–195 evaluation of cap-and-trade approaches to air regulations, 205–210 government on-site inspections of stationary sources, 192 NOx emissions trading programs, 202–204 off-normal emissions, 195–196 Title V operating permit program, 190–191 Compliance monitoring of stationary sources, 192–195 continuous emissions monitoring, 194–195 economic and emissions performance of the SO2 trading program, 199–202

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Air Quality Management in the United States emissions estimation models, 192–193 opportunity for banking emission allowances, 201–202 parametric emissions monitoring, 193–194 periodic source testing, 193 remote sensing, 195 Comprehensive suite of indicators, measuring consistently, 372 Concentration-response estimation on cardiopulmonary disease mortality, 77 Conformity requirement, 170–172 regulations for, 165–167 retaining and improving, 301–303 Consolidated metropolitan statistical area (CMSA), 90 Consumer Products Safety Commission (CPSC), 85 Continuous emissions monitoring (CEM), 97, 192, 194–195, 201, 215, 217, 265 availability of systems for, 97, 201 compliance assurance and, 210 Contribution of nonroad emissions to mobile-source total and to manmade total, 143 Contribution to the sulfate column burden at 00UT (vertical integral of the concentration), 276 Control technique guidelines (CTG), 186, 213 Controls on atmospheric sources of nitrogen, evaluating, 374 designing and implementing, 12–13, 21, 312–313 of in-use motor-vehicle emissions, 148–162 of mobile-source air toxic emissions, 145 on motorists’ behaviors, 170 strategies for designing and implementing through the SIP process, 88–132 on transportation infrastructure planning and investment, 164 Controls on acid rain precursors before the CAA Amendments of 1990, 61–64 acid rain goals set by the CAA Amendments of 1990, 64–65 anthropogenic sources and natural sources contributing emissions resulting in the deposition of acidic compounds, 61 controls on acid rain precursors before the CAA Amendments of 1990, 61–64 role of NAPAP in shaping the acid rain provisions of the CAA Amendments of 1990, 64 trends in nationwide SO2 and NO2 emissions, 63 Controls on emissions through certification standards on new vehicles and motors, 136–148 California’s unique role in controlling mobile emissions, 137 control of mobile-source air toxic emissions, 145 emission standards for heavy-duty vehicles, 142–143 emission standards for light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks, 137–142 emission standards for nonroad engines, 143–145 evolution of California and federal tailpipe standards on passenger car exhaust emissions, 138–139 implementation of emission standards for new mobile sources, 145–148 technology innovation and emission controls, 140 Convention on the Long-Range Transport of Transboundary Air Pollution (CLTRAP), 277 Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards, 136 Cost of fuel, 163 Costs and benefits of the federally mandated AQM system, 37–39 growth areas and emission trends, 38 CPSC. See Consumer Products Safety Commission Cresols/cresylic acid m-Cresol, 365 o-Cresol, 365 p-Cresol, 365 Criteria pollutants, 47–48, 304 lack of thresholds for health effects of, 77–78

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Air Quality Management in the United States mitigating potentially harmful human and ecosystem exposure to the six, 32 “Critical loads,” and Europe’s approach to setting acid rain goals, 81–82 Critical species, measuring in a regular monitoring mode, 233 Cross-border transport, 15–16 Cross-media pollution, beyond one atmosphere to one environment, 280 CTG. See Control technique guidelines CTM. See Chemical transport model Cumene, 365 Current standard-setting procedure for HAPs, 55–58 Current system for AQM, 11–13 assessing status and measuring progress, 13 designing and implementing controls, 12–13 standard-setting, 12 Cyanide compounds, 367 D DALYs. See Disability-adjusted life-years Data availability, 237–240 air quality forecasting, 239–240 case study on pollutant trend analysis in O3, 238 Demographic and economic trends, quantifying the expected, with and without air pollution control strategies, 35 Deposition monitoring networks, 228–232 clean air status and trends network, 231–232 National Atmospheric Deposition Program and Mercury Deposition Network (NADP/MDN), 230–231 National Atmospheric Deposition Program and National Trends Network (NADP/NTN), 228–230 rated Research Monitoring Network (AIRMoN), 232 trends in wet sulfate deposition in the United States, 231 DIAL. See Differential absorption LIDAR Diatomic oxygen (O2), 194 Diazomethane, 366 Dibenzofurans, 366 1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane, 366 Dibutylphthalate, 366 1,4-Dichlorobenzene(p), 366 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine, 366 Dichloroethyl ether, 366 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (including salts and esters) (2,4-D), 366 1,3-Dichloropropene, 366 Dichlorvos, 366 Diesel engines, reducing emissions from older and nonroad, 169 Diesel fuels, regulating the content of, 153–162 Diethanolamine, 366 Diethyl sulfate, 366 Differential absorption LIDAR (DIAL), 315 3,3'-Dimethoxy benzidine, 366 p-Dimethyl amino azobenzene, 366 N,N-Dimethyl aniline, 366 3,3'-Dimethyl benzidine, 366 Dimethyl carbamoyl chloride, 366 N,N-Dimethyl formamide, 366 1,1-Dimethyl hydrazine, 366 Dimethyl phthalate, 366 Dimethyl sulfate, 366 4,6-Dinitro-o-cresol (including salts), 366 2,4-Dinitrophenol, 366 2,4-Dinitrotoluene, 366 1,4-Dioxane, 366 1,2-Diphenylhydrazine, 366 Dirtier facilities remaining in operation, and the application of NSR and PSD, 183–184 Disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), 264 DOE. See U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Draft Report on the Environment, 17, 267, 289 E ECO. See Employee commute options Ecological Indicators for the Nation, 261 Economic and emissions performance of the SO2 trading program, 199–202 availability of CEM systems, 201 certainty of penalties, 201 simplicity, 201 substantial emission reductions, 201 transparency, 201 Economic assessments, 263–265

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Air Quality Management in the United States Ecosystem benefits from improved air quality, 252–261 action needed for enhanced ecosystem monitoring, research, and risk assessment, 260–261 integrated ecosystem studies, 259–260 tracking and characterizing ecosystem effects from exposure to air pollution, 254–259 tracking ecosystem exposure, 253–254 Ecosystem effects from exposure to air pollution need for a coordinated strategic program to assess, 79–80 tracking and characterizing, 254–259 Ecosystem exposure, tracking, 253–254 Ecosystem health, assessing and protecting, 274–275 Ecosystem studies of air pollution effects on, 72–76 need for intensive, 373 Ecosystems, need for alternative forms of air quality standards to protect, 80 Effectiveness of the SIP process, 126–132 barriers to addressing multistate airshed pollution, 131 classifications and numbers of nonattainment areas remaining in nonattainment, 127 critical discussion of, 128–130 overemphasis on attainment demonstrations, 128–130 overly bureaucratic, 128 single-pollutant focus of, 130 EGUs. See Electric utility steam-generating units EIIP. See Emission Inventory Improvement Program EKMA. See Empirical kinetic modeling approach Electric utility steam-generating units (EGUs), 189 for HAPs, focusing on mercury, 189 Electricity generation by fuel, in billion kilowatt hours, 40 Emission allowances fairness in allocating, 208 opportunity for banking, 201–202 Emission-control strategy development in an attainment demonstration SIP, 115–120 federal measures, 115–119 institutional accountability in the SIP process, 124–126 mandatory local measures, 116–120 multistate regional measures, 120–124 relative roles of federal, state, and local controls, 117 technological change versus social or behavioral measures, 116 Emission controls on mobile sources behavioral and societal strategies to reduce mobile-source emissions, 162–167 controlling emissions through certification standards on new vehicles and motors, 136–148 controlling in-use motor-vehicle emissions, 148–162 critical discussion of mobile-source emission-control programs, 167–172 implementing, 133–173 limitations of the mobile-source emission-control program, 172–173 strengths of the mobile-source emission-control program, 172 types of vehicles and engines regulated by AQM in the United States, 134–135 Emission inventories, 97–103, 131 and changes in average pollutant concentrations derived from air quality monitoring networks, 220 continuous emissions monitoring systems, 97 critical review of, 99–101 development, evaluation, and improvement of, 101 mobile-source, 101–103 Emission Inventory Improvement Program (EIIP), 100–101, 286 Emission-reduction credit (ERC), 197 Emission standards for heavy-duty vehicles, 142–143 for light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks, 137–142 Emission standards for nonroad engines, 143–145 contribution of nonroad emissions to mobile-source total and to manmade total, 143

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Air Quality Management in the United States Emissions from existing facilities and vehicles, reducing, 19, 294–295 improving tracking of, 17, 285–286 major and area sources of, 175 spatial redistribution of, 205–207 substantially reducing, 201 Emissions-based air quality models, 105–112 empirical kinetic modeling approach, 109 first-generation 3D CTMs, urban-scale photochemical grid models for O3, 106–110 modern multipollutant, multiscale CTMs, 110–111 observation-based model for O3, 111–112 the VOC, NOx, and O3 challenge, 107–108 Emissions by vehicle model years for medium- and heavy-duty trucks average NOx, 153 average PM23, 152 Emissions caps, setting and revising, 208–209 Emissions estimation models, 192–193 Emissions from heavy-duty vehicles and engines, 150–153 getting the lead out of gasoline, intended and unintended consequences of, 155 regulating the content of gasoline and diesel fuels, 153–162 Empirical kinetic modeling approach (EKMA), 107–109 Empirical rollback model, 104 Employee commute options (ECO), 163 Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975, 136 Enhancing the AQM system, 278–282 beyond one atmosphere to one environment, accounting for cross-media pollution, 280 dynamic AQM in a constantly changing technological society, 281 emphasizing performance rather than the process, 282 one atmosphere approach for assessing and controlling air pollutants, 278–279 principles for, 278–282 risk determined by actual exposure, 279–281 Environmental instrumentation, recommendations for advances in, 315 Environmental justice, 15 ensuring, 273–274 greater consideration of, 298 EPA. See U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Epichlorohydrin, 366 1,2-Epoxybutane, 366 ERC. See Emission-reduction credit Estuarine systems ecosystem effects from exposure to air pollution on, 257–258 expanding existing monitoring programs, 374 Ethyl acrylate, 366 Ethyl benzene, 366 Ethyl carbamate, 366 Ethyl chloride, 366 Ethylene dibromide, 366 Ethylene dichloride, 366 Ethylene glycol, 366 Ethylene imine, 366 Ethylene oxide, 366 Ethylene thiourea, 366 Ethylidene dichloride, 366 Evaluation of cap-and-trade approaches to air regulations, 205–210 banking emission allowances for the future, 207 compliance assurance and CEM, 210 fairness in allocating emission allowances, 208 implicit emission increases following transition to a trading program, 209–210 regional SO2 emission from electric utilities, 206 setting and revising the emissions cap, 208–209 spatial redistribution of emissions, 205–207 Evaluation of traditional control programs for major stationary sources, 188–190 electric steam-generating units regulation for HAPs, focusing on mercury, 189 Executive Orders, 51 No. 12898, 66

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Air Quality Management in the United States Exposure to ultrafine particles enhancing assessment of, 17, 288 and monitoring for health response, 69 F FACE. See Free air CO2 experiment Facilities, major, technology-based standards imposed on, 186–188 Fairness, in allocating emission allowances, 208 Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1970, 165 Federal AQM legislation, 30–32 Federal emission-control measures, 115–116 expanding, 18, 292–293 Federal equivalent methods (FEM), 235 Federal implementation plan (FIP), 88, 90, 124–125, 300 Federal reference methods (FRM), 235 Federal Register, 51, 186, 213 Federal test procedure (for vehicle emissions) (FTP), 146 FEM. See Federal equivalent methods FIA/FHM. See Forest Inventory and Analysis and Forest Health Monitoring Program FIP. See Federal implementation plan First-generation 3D CTMs, urban-scale photochemical grid models for O3, 106–110 Foliar injury to cotton, induced by chronic exposure to ozone, 54 Food Security Act, 373 Forest Inventory and Analysis and Forest Health Monitoring Program (FIA/ FHM), 256, 372–373 Forest issues, 254–257 ecosystem effects from exposure to air pollution in, 254–257 forest soils, 254–256 forest vegetation, 256–257 Forest survey plots on public lands, releasing exact locations of, 373 Formaldehyde, 145, 366 Four-chamber greenhouse-based exposure system, constructed to study effects of elevated CO2 on plants, 73 Free air CO2 experiment (FACE), 74–75, 259–260 used to elucidate forest ecosystem responses to elevated CO2, 75 FRM. See Federal reference methods FTP. See Federal test procedure (for vehicle emissions) Fuels cost of, 163 regulating the content of, 153–162 timeline of significant federal and state regulations for motor vehicle, 156 Future of improving AQM, 39–41 electricity generation by fuel, in billion kilowatt hours, 40 high cancer risk counties for urban air toxics by county, 41 NAAQS violations in the continental United States, 40 potential violations of the PM2.5 and O3 NAAQS by county, 42 Future reformulated gasoline program, 159 G GACT. See Generally available control technology GAO. See U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO) GAP. See General assistance program Gas chromatography (GC), 194 Gaseous Pollutant Monitoring Program (of NPS) (GPMP), 226 Gasoline, regulating the content of, 153–162 GC. See Gas chromatography GCVTC. See Grand Canyon Visibility Transport Commission General assistance program (GAP), 90 Generally available control technology (GACT), 56–57, 67, 214 Gila River Indian Community, 89 Globalization, of trade, 281 Glycol ethers, 367 Goals for mitigating visibility degradation, 59 Goals of the Clean Air Act, 4, 32–33 curbing the use of chemicals having the potential to deplete the stratospheric O3 layer, 33 limiting the sources of and risks from exposure to HAPs (air toxics), 32 mitigating potentially harmful human and ecosystem exposure to the six criteria pollutants, 32

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Air Quality Management in the United States protecting and improving visibility impairment in wilderness areas and national parks, 33 reducing emissions of species that cause acid rain (SO2 and NOx), 33 Government on-site inspections of stationary sources, 192 GPMP. See Gaseous Pollutant Monitoring Program (NPS) Grand Canyon Visibility Transport Commission (GCVTC), 123–124, 275 Grandfathering of facilities, and the application of NSR and PSD, 184 Greenhouse gas emissions, 363 H H2S. See Hydrogen sulfide Haagen-Smit diagram, 107 Hammer requirement, 189 Hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), 55–58, 227–228, 365–367 assessments, 248–249 current standard-setting procedure for HAPs, 55–58 developing a system to set priorities for, 20 emission reductions, efforts to track the effects of, 246–248 identifying new, 308 limiting the sources of and risks from exposure to air toxics, 32 potential classification scheme for, 307 static list of, 78–79 HCl. See Hydrogen chloride HDV. See Heavy-duty vehicles and engines Health-based standards, need for additional strategic planning of research that underpins, 76–77 Health effects studies, 67–72 dose-response relationships between pollutant exposure and human health effects and crop or vegetation effects, 68 exposure to ultrafine particles and monitoring for health response, 69 health impact of ozone on the human respiratory system, 70 at low pollutant concentrations, 15 personal exposure monitor measuring actual exposures to PM and gases during daily activities, 72 Heavy-duty vehicles (HDV) and engines, 47, 133–135, 142–143, 147, 150–151 in-use emissions from, 150–153 Heinz Center, 261 Heptachlor, 366 Hexachlorobenzene, 366 Hexachlorobutadiene, 366 Hexachlorocyclopentadiene, 366 Hexachloroethane, 366 Hexamethylene-1,6-diisocyanate, 366 Hexamethylphosphoramide, 366 Hexane, 366 High-emitting gasoline vehicles, 167–169 High-occupancy vehicle (HOV), 95 Highway capacity expansion, linked to air quality through the National Environment Policy Act, 164–167 Highway capacity expansion linked to air quality through the National Environment Policy Act, the conformity regulations, 165–167 Historical sequence of the periodic NAAQS reviews, and final decisions carried out by EPA since the passage of the 1970 CAA Amendments, 52 Hot-spot concentrations of HAPs, 263 greater consideration of, 298 need to address health risk associated with exposure in, 83–85 HOV. See High-occupancy vehicle Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, 75 Human and technical resources, investing in, 18, 290 Human exposure to indoor PM pollution, sources of, 84 Human health and welfare developing and implementing a system to assess and monitor, 17, 288–289 dose-response relationships between pollutant exposure and, 68 protecting in the absence of a threshold exposure, 272–273 Human respiratory system, health impact of ozone on, 70 Hydrazine, 366 Hydrochloric acid, 366 Hydrogen chloride (HCl), 194

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Air Quality Management in the United States O O2. See Diatomic oxygen O3. See Ozone OAQPS. See Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (of EPA) OBD. See On-board diagnostics OBDII, 149 Observation-based model for O3, 111–112 ODPs. See Ozone-depleting potentials Off-normal emissions, 195–196 Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (of EPA) (OAQPS), 50 Office of Environmental Justice (of EPA), 50 Office of Management and Budget (of the White House) (OMB), 39, 51, 262 Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics (of EPA), 78n, 272n Office of Research and Development (of EPA) (ORD), 48 Office of Science and Technology Policy (of the White House) (OSTP), 39, 261 Older facilities remaining in operation, and the application of NSR and PSD, 183–184 On-board diagnostics (OBD), 149 OBDII, 149 One atmosphere approach, for assessing and controlling air pollutants, 278–279 Open-market and other forms of trading, 210–212 and other noncapped forms of trading, 211 Operation of the NSR and PSD requirements, 180–181 ORD. See Office of Research and Development (of EPA) OSHA. See U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) OSTP. See Office of Science and Technology Policy (of the White House) OTAG. See Ozone Transport Assessment Group OTC. See Ozone Transport Commission OTR. See Ozone Transport Region Over-reliance on models for O3 SIPs, 113–114 Oxides of nitrogen (NO, NO2, or Nx). See Nitrogen dioxide; Nitrogen oxides Ozone-depleting potentials (ODPs), 198 Ozone Monitoring Sites in the United States, 234 Ozone (O3), 4, 24, 28–29, 33, 37, 41–43, 58, 73–77, 90–96, 107–117, 121, 129, 132, 175, 181, 238, 268 emissions-based models for, 105 foliar injury to cotton induced by chronic exposure to, 54 health impact on the human respiratory system, 70 observation-based model for, 111–112 Ozone Transport Assessment Group (OTAG), 103n, 121–122, 131, 270, 275 Ozone Transport Commission (OTC), 120–121, 131, 137, 214, 255, 275 Ozone Transport Region (the states from Maine to Virginia and Washington, DC) (OTR), 121–122, 203 Ozonesonde sites, in North America, 224 P PACE. See Pollution Abatement Cost and Expenditures Survey PAMS. See Photochemical assessment monitoring stations Parametric emissions monitoring (PEM), 192–194 Parathion, 366 Particulate matter (PM), 4, 26, 37–41, 59, 72, 77, 84, 105, 130–132, 151, 169, 217, 226–227, 235–236 with aerodynamic equivalent diameters of 2.5 micrometers (mm) or less (PM2.5), 27, 41, 48, 52, 91, 93, 111, 115, 168, 173, 227, 235, 275 with aerodynamic equivalent diameters of 10 (mm) or less (PM10), 14, 27, 48, 76, 93, 126, 142, 235, 262 Partnership, between technical and regulatory communities, 112 Passenger car exhaust emissions, evolution of California and federal tailpipe standards on, 138–139 Pb. See Lead PBDEs. See Polybrominated diphenyl ethers PCBs. See Polychlorinated biphenyls PEM. See Parametric emissions monitoring

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Air Quality Management in the United States Pentachloronitrobenzene, 366 Pentachlorophenol, 366 Performance-oriented control strategies to support local, state, and tribal efforts, recommendations for expanding national and multistate, 18–19, 291–296 Periodic source testing, 193 Permits and standards for new or modified major stationary sources, 177–186 background, 178–179 NSR and PSD requirements, 179–185 reforming NSR, 185–186 voluntary programs to improve, 212 Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), 81, 252, 280 Personal exposure monitor, measuring actual exposures to PM and gases during daily activities, 72 Pew Environmental Health Commission, assessment of pollutant risk over time from, 244–245 Phenol, 366 p-Phenylenediamine, 366 Phosgene, 367 Phosphine, 367 Phosphorus, 367 Photochemical assessment monitoring stations (PAMS), 224–226, 234–235 network of, 225 Phthalic anhydride, 367 Planning and implementation process, 20, 298–304 encourage innovative strategies, 300–301 enhance public agency performance and accountability, 303–304 focus on tracking and assessing performance, 299 institute a dynamic, collaborative review, 299–300 reforming, 20, 298–304 retain and improve conformity requirement, 301–303 urban heat islands and other land-use impacts, 302 PM. See Particulate matter PM2.5. See Particulate matter, with aerodynamic equivalent diameters of 2.5 micrometers (mm) or less PM10. See Particulate matter, with aerodynamic equivalent diameters of 10 (mm) or less PM23 emissions, for medium- and heavy-duty trucks, by vehicle model years, 152 PM25 supersites, locations of initial, 228 Policy design, delays in incorporating new scientific insights from models into, 112–113 Political influence, and the cost of fuel, 163 Pollutants instituting a dynamic review of classifications of, 20, 309 trend analysis in O3, 238 Pollution Abatement Cost and Expenditures survey (PACE), 17, 265, 267, 289 Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), 79, 280 Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 367 Polycyclic organic matter, 367 Pope/American Cancer Society Study, 77 POPs. See Persistent organic pollutants Prevention of significant deterioration (PSD) requirement, 90, 174, 182–185, 214 applicability issues with, 181–185 complexity and inefficiency, 182–183 operation, 180–181 Priority setting, 84–86 Probability sample designs, for monitoring, 373 Procedure for setting NAAQS, 48–51 NAAQS in effect as of January 2003, 49 process by which the EPA administrator reviews and sets a new NAAQS, 50 Procedures used to designate an area’s attainment status, 93 Process-based models of ecosystem response to pollutants, for regional assessments, 370 Process by which the EPA administrator reviews and sets a new NAAQS, 50 Program effectiveness, assessing, 233 Progress assessing status and measuring, 13 on HAP control, preliminary indications of, 229 in reducing HAPs-related health effects for the future, 249 Project XL, 210, 212

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Air Quality Management in the United States 1,3-Propane sultone, 367 b-Propiolactone, 367 Propionaldehyde, 367 Propoxur (Baygon), 367 Propylene dichloride, 367 Propylene oxide, 367 1,2-Propylenimine, 367 Protection of ecosystems and establishment of secondary NAAQS, 51–53 and other aspects of public welfare, 15 recommendations for enhancing, 21, 311–313 PSD. See Prevention of significant deterioration Public agency performance and accountability, 303–304 Q Quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC), 235–236 Quinoline, 367 Quinone (p-benzoquinone), 367 R RACT. See Reasonably available control technology Radiation and Indoor Environments Laboratory, 90 Radionuclides (including radon), 55, 367 RADM. See Regional acid deposition model Reactive hydrocarbons (RHC), 26 Reactive organic gas (ROG), 26 Reasonably available control technology (RACT), 94, 116, 129, 174, 186, 203 Receptor models, 104–105 RECLAIM. See Regional Clean Air Management Program Recommendations for developing an integrated program for criteria pollutants and hazardous air pollutants, 20–21, 304–311 addressing multiple pollutants in the NAAQS review and standard-setting process, 21, 310 developing a system to set priorities for hazardous air pollutants, 20 enhancing assessment of residual risk, 21, 310–311 findings, 304–305 identifying new toxicants, 308–309 instituting a dynamic review of pollutant classification, 20, 309 listing potentially dangerous but unregulated air pollutants for regulatory attention, 21, 306–309 potential classification scheme for hazardous pollutants, 307 proposed actions, 306–311 Recommendations for enhancing protection of ecosystems and other aspects of public welfare, 21, 311–313 completing a comprehensive review of standards to protect public welfare, 21 designing and implementing controls, 21, 312–313 developing and implementing networks for comprehensive ecosystem monitoring, 21, 312 establishing acceptable exposure levels for natural and managed ecosystems, 21, 312 findings, 311–312 promulgating secondary standards, 21, 312 proposed actions, 312–313 tracking progress toward attainment of secondary standards, 21, 313 Recommendations for expanding national and multistate performance-oriented control strategies to support local, state, and tribal efforts, 18–19, 291–296 addressing multistate transport problems, 19, 295–296 emphasizing technology-neutral standards for emission control, 18, 293–294 expanding federal emission-control measures, 18, 292–293 findings, 291–292 proposed actions, 292–296 reducing emissions from existing facilities and vehicles, 19, 294–295 using market-based approaches whenever practical and effective, 18–19, 294

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Air Quality Management in the United States Recommendations for implementing AQM, 371–374 adding incident total solar radiation to National Weather Service meteorological data, 373 co-locating long-term measurements of air quality, meteorology, and ecosystem responses, 372–373 establishing baselines of ecosystem condition, 372 evaluating controls on atmospheric sources of nitrogen, 374 expanding EPA’s Temporally Integrated Monitoring of Ecosystems/Long-Term Monitoring (TIME/LTM), 373–374 expanding existing estuarine monitoring programs, 374 institutional framework for monitoring exposure and ecosystem response, 371–372 intensive ecosystem studies, 373 measuring a comprehensive suite of indicators consistently, 372 probability sample designs for monitoring, 373 releasing exact locations of forest survey plots on public lands, 373 transference of knowledge gained to monitoring programs, 372 Recommendations for needed research and development, 369–371 chronic effects of multiple air pollutants on ecosystems, 369–370 methods for monitoring ambient air quality in ecosystems, 371 process-based models of ecosystem response to pollutants for regional assessments, 370 risk assessment research, 371 tools for assessing impacts of pollutants on biological species, populations, and ecosystems, 370–371 Recommendations for strengthening scientific and technical capacity to assess risk and track progress, 17–18, 284–290 continuing to track implementation costs, 17–18, 289–290 developing and implementing a system to assess and monitor human health and welfare effects, 17, 288–289 enhancing air pollution monitoring, 17, 286–287 enhancing exposure assessment, 17, 288 findings, 284–285 improving emissions tracking, 17, 285–286 improving modeling, 17, 287–288 investing in human and technical resources, 18, 290 investing in research to facilitate multipollutant approaches that target the most significant risks, 18, 290 proposed actions, 285–290 Recommendations for transforming the SIP process, 19–20, 296–304 ensuring a successful transition to AQMP, 304 findings, 296–297 proposed actions, 297–304 reforming the planning and implementation process, 20, 298–304 transforming IT into an AQM plan, 19, 297–298 Reducing emissions from older and nonroad diesel engines, 169 Reforming NSR, 185–186 Reformulated gasoline (RFG), 157–161, 169–170, 173 Regional acid deposition model (RADM), 64, 110 Regional Clean Air Management Program (RECLAIM), 202–203, 206–207, 210 Regional haze rule, 122 Regional planning organizations (RPOs), 120 Regulation conformity, 165–167 of the content of gasoline and diesel fuels, 153–162, 169–170 of motorists’ vehicle use, 162–163 Regulators, applying model results appropriately, 112 Regulatory oversight, identifying chemicals for, 308–309 Reid vapor pressure (the vapor pressure of a petroleum product at 100°F) (RVP), 157, 160–161, 173 Reinventing Government Program, 212 Remote sensing, 195 of in-use vehicle emissions, 150 technology for, 150

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Air Quality Management in the United States Research and development, recommendations for needed, 369–371 Residual risk, enhancing assessment of, 21, 310–311 Responses of plants, to ambient levels of O3, 74 of sensitive ecosystems to acid rain emission controls, ecosystem effects from exposure to air pollution in, 255 Reviews needed (dynamic and collaborative), 299–300 RFG. See Reformulated gasoline RHC. See Reactive hydrocarbons Risk assessment, 84–86 Risk assessment research, 371 Risk to human health and public welfare determined by actual exposure, 279–281 over time, from pollutants, assessment of, 244–246 quantifying, 35 ROG. See Reactive organic gas Rollback model, empirical, 104 RPO. See Regional planning organizations RVP. See Reid vapor pressure (the vapor pressure of a petroleum product at 100°F) S SAB. See Science Advisory Board (of EPA) Safety factors, 55 Sanctions clock, 125 Savings from the SO2 emissions trading program, 200 SCAQMD. See South Coast Air Quality Management District Science, role of, 35–37 designing, testing, and implementing technologies and systems for efficiently preventing or reducing air pollutant emissions, 36 designing and implementing air quality monitoring technologies and methods for documenting pollutant exposures, 36 quantifying risks to human health and public welfare, 35 quantifying the expected demographic and economic trends with and without air pollution control strategies, 35 quantifying the source-receptor relationships relating pollutant emission rates to ambient pollutant concentrations, 35 tracking changes in pollutant emissions, pollutant concentrations, and human health and welfare outcomes, 36 Science Advisory Board (of EPA) (SAB), 50 Scientific and technical capacity to assess risk and track progress, recommendations for strengthening, 17–18, 284–290 Scientific basis for setting standards, 67–86 accounting for lack of thresholds for health effects of some criteria pollutants, 77–78 concentration-response estimation on cardiopulmonary disease mortality, 77 “critical loads” and Europe’s approach to setting acid rain goals, 81–82 health effects studies, 67–72 limitations of establishing standards for one pollutant at a time, 80–83 need for a coordinated strategic program to assess ecosystem effects, 79–80 need for additional strategic planning of research that underpins health-based standards, 76–77 need for alternative forms of air quality standards to protect ecosystems, 80 need to address health risk associated with exposure in hot spots and indoor environments, 83–85 risk assessment and priority setting, 84–86 sources of human exposure to indoor PM pollution, 84 static list of HAPs, 78–79 studies of air pollution effects on ecosystems, 72–76 SCR. See Selective catalytic reduction Sealed housing evaporative determination (SHED) test, 147 Secondary standards promulgating, 21, 312 tracking progress toward attainment of, 21, 313 Selective catalytic reduction (SCR), 183n Selenium compounds, 367

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Air Quality Management in the United States Sequential activities carried out by the nation’s AQM system, 34 Setting goals and standards, 45–87 goals for mitigating visibility degradation, 59 limitations of goal-setting procedures, 87 overview of air quality standards, 46–47 the scientific basis for setting standards, 67–86 the standard-setting process, 47–58 strengths of goal-setting procedures, 86 SFTP. See Supplemental federal test procedure (for vehicle emissions) SHED. See Sealed housing evaporative determination Simplicity, 201 Single-pollutant focus of SIPs, 130 SIPs. See State implementation plans Siting of air quality monitoring stations, 233–235 Ozone Monitoring Sites in the United States, 234 SLAMS. See State and local air monitoring stations Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act, 51 SO2. See Sulfur dioxide Soil organic matter (SOM), 254 Soils, forest, 254–256 SOM. See Soil organic matter Source “markers,” 82 Source-receptor relationships, relating pollutant emission rates to ambient pollutant concentrations, 35 South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD), 79, 129, 183n, 202–203, 210, 249, 297 Spatial redistribution of emissions, 205–207 Sport utility vehicle (SUV), 133, 173 STAGs. See State and tribal assistance grants Standard-setting process, 47–58 criteria pollutants, 47–48, 304 hazardous air pollutants, 55–58 historical sequence of the periodic NAAQS reviews and final decisions carried out by EPA since the passage of the 1970 CAA Amendments, 52 national emission standards mandated by Congress to help attain NAAQS, 53–54 procedure for setting NAAQS, 48–51 protection of ecosystems and establishment of secondary NAAQS, 51–53 scientific basis for setting, 67–86 See also Permits and standards for new or modified major stationary sources Standards for mitigating effects of acid rain, 59–67 controls on acid rain precursors before the CAA Amendments of 1990, 61–65 environmental justice as an air quality goal, 65–67 impact of haze on visibility, 60 Standards to protect public welfare complete comprehensive review of, 21 setting, 12 STAPPA-ALAPCU. See State and Territorial Air Pollution Program Administrators and Association of Local Air Pollution Control Officials State and local air monitoring stations (SLAMS), 93, 221 State and Territorial Air Pollution Program Administrators and Association of Local Air Pollution Control Officials (STAPPA-ALAPCU), 100, 286 State and tribal assistance grants (STAGs), 90 State implementation plans (SIPs), 3, 6, 11, 19, 88–132, 165, 178, 204, 270–271, 287, 291, 296, 364 attainment, 92 designing and implementing control strategies through, 88–132 the effectiveness of the SIP process, 126–132 limitations of the SIP process, 132 main components of an attainment-demonstration SIP, 96 the main components of an attainment-demonstration SIP, 96–126 nonattainment, 91 overview of SIP process, 88–96 recommendations for transforming, 19–20, 296–304 strengths of the SIP process, 131–132 tribes and the Clean Air Act, 89–91 unclassifiables, 92

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Air Quality Management in the United States State of the Environment report as indicating a new paradigm emerging at the EPA, 267 State of the Nation’s Ecosystems, The, 261 Stationary-source programs, trading and voluntary, 210–212 Stationary sources, implementing emission controls on, 174–216 Stratospheric O3 layer curbing the use of chemicals having the potential to deplete the, 33 protecting, 363 Strengths of goal-setting procedures, 86 of the SIP process, 131–132 of stationary-source control programs, 214 of techniques for tracking progress in AQM, 265–266 Studies of air pollution effects on ecosystems, 72–76 four-chamber greenhouse-based exposure system constructed to study effects of elevated CO2 on plants, 73 free air CO2 experiment (FACE) used to elucidate forest ecosystem responses to elevated CO2, 75 response of plants to ambient levels of O3, 74 Styrene, 367 Styrene oxide, 367 Sulfur dioxide (SO2), 4, 14, 26–27, 33, 37–39, 47–48, 51, 59–65, 93, 174, 217, 255, 268 national average emission categories for, 27 Sulfur in gasoline, restrictions on, 161 Supplemental federal test procedure (for vehicle emissions) (SFTP), 146 Surface O3 monitoring sites, in North America, 224 Surface waters, ecosystem effects from exposure to air pollution on, 257–258 SUV. See Sport utility vehicle T Tailpipe standards on passenger car exhaust emissions, evolution of California and federal, 138–139 TCM. See Transportation control measure TCP. See Transportation control plan TEA-21. See Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century Technological innovation and emission controls, 140 versus social or behavioral measures, 116 Technologies and systems for efficiently preventing or reducing air pollutant emissions, designing, testing, and implementing, 36 Technology-based standards imposed on major facilities, 186–188 acid rain NOx provisions, 187 maximum achievable control technology, 187–188 reasonably available control technology, 186 Technology-neutral standards for emission control, emphasizing, 18, 293–294 Temporally integrated monitoring of ecosystems (TIME), 257, 373–374 expanding, 373–374 2,3,7,8-Tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin, 367 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane, 367 Tetrachloroethylene, 367 Three-dimensional (3D) CTMs, first-generation, 106–110 TIME. See Temporally integrated monitoring of ecosystems Timeline of significant federal and state regulations for motor vehicle fuels, 156 TIP. See Tribal implementation plan Titanium tetrachloride, 367 Title V operating permit program, 190–191 TLEV. See Transitional low-emissions vehicle Toluene, 367 2,4-Toluene diamine, 367 2,4-Toluene diisocyanate, 367 o-Toluidine, 367 TOMS. See Total O3 mapping spectrometer satellite Tools, for assessing impacts of pollutants on biological species, populations, and ecosystems, 370–371 Total mobile-source emissions, 148 Total O3 mapping spectrometer (TOMS) satellite, 276

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Air Quality Management in the United States Total suspended particulate matter (TSP), 48, 227 Toxaphene, 367 Toxic air pollutants, 15, 272–273 Toxic Substances Control Act, 79 Toxicants, identifying new, 308–309 Toxics Release Inventory (TRI), 237, 308 Tracking and assessing performance, 299 Tracking and characterizing ecosystem effects from exposure to air pollution, 254–259 agriculture, 258–259 forest issues, 254–257 response of sensitive ecosystems to acid rain emission controls, 255 sensitive surface waters and estuarine systems, 257–258 Tracking changes, in pollutant emissions, pollutant concentrations, and human health and welfare outcomes, 36 Tracking ecosystem exposure, 253–254 Trading and voluntary stationary-source programs, 210–212 open-market and other forms of trading, 210–212 open-market and other noncapped forms of trading, 211 voluntary programs to improve permitting processes, 212 Trading programs implemented early on in the United States, 197–198 chlorofluorocarbon phase-out, 198 emission-reduction credit programs, 197 lead phase-out, 197–198 Traditional control programs compliance assurance for, 190–196 for major stationary sources, evaluating, 188–190 Transformation of the nation’s AQM system to meet the challenges of the coming decades, 268–315 adapting the AQM system to climate change, 277–278 addressing multistate, cross-border, and intercontinental transport, 275–278 assessing and protecting ecosystem health, 274–275 ensuring environmental justice, 273–274 long-term objectives for challenges that will face AQM in the coming decade, 269 meeting NAAQS for O3 and PM2.5 and reducing regional haze, 270–271 principles for enhancing the AQM system, 278–282 protecting human health and welfare in the absence of a threshold exposure, 272–273 recommendations for an enhanced AQM system, 283–313 toxic air pollutants, 272–273 Transformation of the SIP process into an AQM plan, 19, 297–298 greater consideration of hot spots and environmental justice, 298 integrated multipollutant plan, 298 Transitional low-emissions vehicle (TLEV), 141 Transparency, 201 Transportation control measure (TCM), 95 Transportation control plan (TCP), 162–163 Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21), 165 Trends in nationwide SO2 and NO2 emissions, 63 versus ambient concentrations of various primary pollutants (PM10, NO, SO2, Pb, and CO), 14 Trends in wet sulfate deposition in the United States, 231 TRI. See Toxics release inventory Tribal implementation plan (TIP), 88–89 Tribes and the Clean Air Act, SIP processes in, 89–91 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene, 367 1,1,2-Trichloroethane, 367 Trichloroethylene, 367 2,4,5-Trichlorophenol, 367 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol, 367 Triethylamine, 367 Trifluralin, 367 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane, 367 Truck emissions, inspection and maintenance programs, 148–150 TSP. See Total suspended particulate matter U UAM. See Urban airshed model ULEV. See Ultra-low-emissions vehicle

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Air Quality Management in the United States Ultra-low-emissions vehicle (ULEV), 141 Ultrafine particles, exposure to, and monitoring for health response, 69 Unclassifiables, in the SIP process, 92 United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE), 81 Urban air toxics, counties at high cancer risk from, 41 Urban airshed model (UAM), 107–108, 110 Urban heat islands, 302 U.S. air quality management (AQM) efforts, 29–35 federal AQM legislation, 30–32 sequential activities carried out by the nation’s AQM system, 34 U.S. Court of Appeals, Seventh Circuit, 185 U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), 256, 259, 289, 371 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), 39, 302 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 3, 8, 11–12, 19, 22, 33–34, 37, 45–47, 51–76, 80, 98, 115, 131, 146–152, 162, 175, 216 computer program to estimate emissions from mobile sources not used on roads (aircraft, trains, farm equipment, etc.) (NONROAD), 102 computer program to estimate mobile-source emissions (MOBILE), 101–102, 148, 171 regional haze rule, 122–123 trends in estimated nationwide pollutant emissions and average measured concentrations, 218 U.S. Forest System, 289 U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO), 102, 192–195 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), 289 U.S. monitoring networks, major, 222–223 U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 241, 289 U.S. National Park Service (NPS), 226 U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), 85 U.S. truck percentages within selected model years (MY) used for various primary daily driving ranges, 154 USDA. See U.S. Department of Agriculture USGS. See U.S. Geological Survey Utility companies, electric, 65 V Vegetation dose-response relationships between pollutant exposure and, 68 forest, 256–257 Vehicle emission standards promotion of new technologies using, 167–168 test using a dynamometer lasting for 240 seconds (IM240), 148 Vehicle inspection and maintenance (I/M), 95, 102–103, 116, 129, 148–149, 217 Vehicle miles traveled (VMT), 133, 151, 164, 301 Vinyl acetate, 367 Vinyl bromide, 367 Vinyl chloride, 55, 367 Vinylidene chloride, 367 Visibility impairment monitoring, 226 in wilderness areas and national parks, protecting and improving, 33 Visibility Improvement State and Tribal Association of the Southeast (VISTAS), 123 VMT. See Vehicle miles traveled VOCs. See Volatile organic compounds Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), 26–28, 95–96, 99, 103n, 107–108, 111, 117–118, 130, 139, 143, 155, 175, 194, 217 federal, state, and local emission-reduction measures, 118 national average emission categories for, 27 Voluntary programs, to improve the permitting processes, 212 W Weight-of-evidence approach, in the attainment demonstration, 114–115 WEPCO. See Wisconsin Electric Power Company Western Regional Air Partnership (WRAP), 89, 91, 121, 123–124

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Air Quality Management in the United States Wisconsin Electric Power Company (WEPCO), 185 WRAP. See Western Regional Air Partnership X Xylenes (mixed isomers) m-Xylenes, 367 o-Xylenes, 367 p-Xylenes, 367 Z Zero-emission vehicle (ZEV), 141–142 ZEV. See Zero-emission vehicle

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