forecasting in, 239–240

future of improving, 39–41

growth areas and emission trends, 9

implementing emission controls on mobile sources, 133–173

implementing emission controls on stationary sources, 174–216

iterative nature of, 4

long-term objectives for, 10

measuring the progress and assessing the benefits of, 216–267

moving forward, 21–22

progress in, 5

setting goals and standards, 45–87

system adapting to climate change, 277–278

transforming the nation’s system to meet the challenges of the coming decades, 268–315

in the United States, 29–35

Air quality management (AQM) recommendations

for advances in environmental instrumentation, 315

for developing an integrated program for criteria pollutants and hazardous air pollutants, 20–21, 304–311

for enhancing protection of ecosystems and other aspects of public welfare, 21, 311–313

for expanding national and multistate performance-oriented control strategies to support local, state, and tribal efforts, 18–19, 291–296

for implementation, 371–374

for meeting the challenges ahead, 6–7, 16–21

for needed research and development, 369–371

for strengthening scientific and technical capacity to assess risk and track progress, 17–18, 284–290

for transforming the SIP process, 19–20, 296–304

Air quality management plan (AQMP), 6, 19–20, 297–307, 310

ensuring a successful transition to, 304

Air quality measurement techniques, 235–236

Air-quality modeling, 103–114

delays in incorporating new scientific insights from models into policy design, 112–113

dynamic partnership between technical and regulatory communities, 112

emerging multipollutant models, 114

emissions-based air quality models, 105–112

empirical rollback model, 104

lessons learned about air quality models, 112–114

model uncertainties, 113

need for regulators to apply model results appropriately, 112

need to subject models to comprehensive performance evaluations, 112

over-reliance on models for O3 SIPs, 113–114

receptor models, 104–105

Air quality monitoring

designing and implementing technologies and methods for documenting pollutant exposures, 36

siting of stations, 233–235

trend analysis techniques, 236–237

Air quality standards, overview of, 46–47

Air Resources Board, 157

AIRMoN. See Atmospheric Integrated Research Monitoring Network

AIRNow website, 237, 239

AIRS. See Aerometric Information Retrieval System (EPA)

ALAPCU. See Association of Local Air Pollution Control Officials

Allocation of emission allowances, fairness in, 208

Allowable concentration increments (micrograms per cubic meter), for prevention of significant deterioration (PSD), 182

Allyl chloride, 365

Ambient air quality, methods for monitoring in ecosystems, 371

Ambient concentrations used to confirm emission trends, 217–220

emission inventories and changes in average pollutant concentrations derived from air quality monitoring networks, 220

EPA’s trends in estimated nationwide pollutant emissions and average measured concentrations, 218



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