• Implement a reformulated fuels program.

In addition, SIPs for extreme O3 areas must

  • Include a plan for use of clean fuels and advanced technology for electric utility, industrial, and commercial boilers.

  • Implement an NSR for VOC sources that includes an offset ratio of emission reductions to new emissions of at least 1.5:1 (or 1.2:1 if areawide BACT is used).

  • Implement a reformulated fuels program.


As described in Section 110 of the CAA.


As described in Section 172 of the CAA.


As described in Section 175(a) of the CAA.


As described in Section 182 of the CAA.


This provision has resulted in the development and operation of the photochemical assessment monitoring (PAM) network described in Chapter 6.


See Chapter 4 for discussion of this program.


See Chapter 4.

pollutants are currently focused on nonattainment areas, our discussion here will be largely limited to the “attainment-demonstration SIP” submitted by an area after it has been designated a nonattainment area. As indicated in Box 3-3, the CAA requires that an attainment-demonstration SIP be submitted to EPA within 3 years of an area’s being designated a nonattainment area. The agency or agencies responsible for preparing an attainment-demonstration SIP vary from state to state. Often, it is prepared by the relevant state or tribal authority; in other cases, a local or regional government is given primary responsibility.


The key elements of an attainment-demonstration SIP are the following:

  • An emissions inventory.

  • An analysis involving air quality model simulations as well as observational data and related evidence to determine the amount and types of emission reductions needed to bring about compliance by the appropriate date.

  • A description of the emission-control strategies and enforcement measures to be adopted to achieve the required reductions.

The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement