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ties in Minnesota and Wisconsin in 1993; eight other communities in the region served as a control group. CMCA emphasized environmental factors that affect the supply of alcohol to youth and used a community organization approach to achieve policy changes among local institutions. The community coalitions included a variety of citizens with differing connections to the community and the issue: parents, youth involved in school service activities, and social service workers, as well as law enforcement officers and politicians. Adults and young people in each community identified and promoted a variety of issues designed to change the local environment in ways that made alcohol more difficult to obtain and made underage drinking less acceptable (Wagenaar et al., 1999, 2000a, 2000b).

The specific objectives of the project were to change community policies and procedures to reduce: access to alcohol by underage youth, whether through retail sales to youth or purchase or provision by parents, other adults, or older youth; number and proportion of alcohol outlets selling to underage individuals; youth and adult support for or tolerance of underage purchase and consumption of alcohol; prevalence, quantity, and frequency of alcohol consumption among youths aged 15 to 20; and incidence of alcohol-related health and social problems among youths aged 15 to 20 (Wagenaar and Perry, 1994).

Outcomes included increases in intervention communities of age identification checking by retailers and reduced sales to minors, especially in on-sale establishments. Young people aged 18 to 20 reduced their propensity to provide alcohol to other teens and were less likely to try to buy alcohol, drink in a bar, or consume alcohol. However, there were no effects on drinking by high school seniors (Wagenaar et al., 1999, 2000a).

Additional analyses of arrest and traffic crash data indicated that DUI violations declined in the intervention communities. Again, this effect was most marked for college-age youth and only approached significance for youth aged 15 to 17. There were no differences in arrests for disorderly conduct or traffic crashes for either age group. Collectively, findings from the CMCA project indicate that a community-organization approach to limiting youth access to alcohol can be effective for college-age youth (18-to 20-year-olds) (Wagenaar et al., 1999, 2000a, 2000b).

The Massachusetts Saving Lives Program (Hingson et al., 1996) sought to reduce drunk driving and speeding through community mobilization. Communities introduced media campaigns, drunk driving checkpoints, business information programs, speeding and drunk driving awareness days, speed watch telephone hotlines, police training, high school peer-led education, Students Against Drunk Driving chapters, college prevention programs, alcohol-free prom nights, beer keg registration, and increased liquor outlet surveillance by police to reduce underage alcohol purchase. To increase pedestrian safety and safety belt use, program communities con-



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