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Index

A

Abstention, 44, 92-93

Academic problems, 1, 13, 14, 59, 63, 77

Access-limiting interventions.

See also Minimum drinking age laws

anti-smoking programs compared, 159, 161, 169, 170

for college students, 203-204

for commercial establishments, 6-7, 18, 102, 103, 105, 168-175

compliance checks, 6-7, 109, 169-171, 181

conditional use permits for public places, 178, 222

Cops in Shops program, 109, 180-181

design considerations, 3, 102-104

dram shop liability laws, 7, 172-174, 177

driving-related, 6, 8, 173, 178-180

effectiveness of, 66, 159, 169, 171, 173, 175-176

false identification prevention and detection, 8, 127, 166, 167-168, 171, 173, 175, 181-183

funding, 170, 246

incentives for compliance, 159, 162, 163, 166, 170

Internet sales and home delivery and, 142, 174-175

keg registration laws, 8, 176

media campaigns, 3, 6, 132, 169, 170, 175, 176, 177

for noncommercial sources, 18, 105, 166, 175-178

party detection and termination, 8, 180

penalties for possession, 9, 183-184

possession and purchase restrictions, 21, 180-184

public support for, 15, 109, 162

recommendations, 6-9, 166, 169-170, 172, 174-175, 176, 182-183

research and evaluation, 159, 160, 171, 246

responsible beverage service and sales programs, 6, 7, 171-172, 221-222

school-based programs, 197

social host liability, 177-178

success factors, 171-172

third-party transactions and, 7, 175-176

Access to alcohol

adult drinking behavior and, 98-99

false identification for purchases, 181-182

financial barriers, 100

as risk factor for drinking, 20, 81, 82-83, 86

sources for youth, 1-2, 7, 159-160, 166-168



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Reducing Underage Drinking: A Collective Responsibility Index A Abstention, 44, 92-93 Academic problems, 1, 13, 14, 59, 63, 77 Access-limiting interventions. See also Minimum drinking age laws anti-smoking programs compared, 159, 161, 169, 170 for college students, 203-204 for commercial establishments, 6-7, 18, 102, 103, 105, 168-175 compliance checks, 6-7, 109, 169-171, 181 conditional use permits for public places, 178, 222 Cops in Shops program, 109, 180-181 design considerations, 3, 102-104 dram shop liability laws, 7, 172-174, 177 driving-related, 6, 8, 173, 178-180 effectiveness of, 66, 159, 169, 171, 173, 175-176 false identification prevention and detection, 8, 127, 166, 167-168, 171, 173, 175, 181-183 funding, 170, 246 incentives for compliance, 159, 162, 163, 166, 170 Internet sales and home delivery and, 142, 174-175 keg registration laws, 8, 176 media campaigns, 3, 6, 132, 169, 170, 175, 176, 177 for noncommercial sources, 18, 105, 166, 175-178 party detection and termination, 8, 180 penalties for possession, 9, 183-184 possession and purchase restrictions, 21, 180-184 public support for, 15, 109, 162 recommendations, 6-9, 166, 169-170, 172, 174-175, 176, 182-183 research and evaluation, 159, 160, 171, 246 responsible beverage service and sales programs, 6, 7, 171-172, 221-222 school-based programs, 197 social host liability, 177-178 success factors, 171-172 third-party transactions and, 7, 175-176 Access to alcohol adult drinking behavior and, 98-99 false identification for purchases, 181-182 financial barriers, 100 as risk factor for drinking, 20, 81, 82-83, 86 sources for youth, 1-2, 7, 159-160, 166-168

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Reducing Underage Drinking: A Collective Responsibility Accountability alcohol industry, 4, 143-144 entertainment industry, 156-157 Acute impairment, consequences of, 59-63 Adolescent Alcohol Prevention Trials, 196 Adolescent development cognitive changes, 73-75 decision-making competency, 30, 73-74, 77, 84-85, 113 desire for autonomy, 72-73, 75, 85 identity construction, 72 peer influence, 9, 19, 45, 72, 73, 75, 76, 78, 83-84, 86 personality characteristics, 76, 85 and program dose and follow-up, 196 and risk perception, 74, 76, 77 self-efficacy, 9, 76, 78 self-esteem, 77 Adult-oriented interventions, 31-32, 86. See also National media campaign, adult-focused Adults. See also Parents; Public opinion/awareness attitudes about underage drinking, 3, 22-23, 31, 109-111 consequences of drinking, 58-59, 64 drinking behavior, 19-20, 24, 35, 39, 42, 43, 47, 52, 53-54, 85, 98-99, 188 influence of underage drinking on later behavior, xvi, 18, 65, 66 knowledge about underage drinking, 3, 111-114 purchase of alcohol for underage drinkers, 20, 35, 168 supervision of adolescents, 82 Advertising, 18 adult drinking levels and, 98 alcopops, 133-134, 137 audience proportion threshold, 132, 138-140, 141 codes and code enforcement, 4, 137, 138, 141, 142-143, 146 college bans on, 144 constitutional issues, 4, 135-136, 142 content, 4, 20, 79, 105, 126, 136 n.6, 137, 140-141 “drink responsibly” message, 101, 125, 129 entertainment industry and, 105, 142-143, 146-147, 148, 149, 151, 152 expenditures, 20, 132, 133, 138 FTC recommendations, 15, 135, 137, 138, 141, 142-143, 149 influence on youth, 4, 71, 79, 105, 129, 132-133, 218 Internet, 142 literacy programs, 195 measured media purchases, 132, 133 monitoring exposure to, 4, 139-140, 143-144 placement, 136 n.6, 137, 138-140, 142-143 print media, 139-140 public awareness of practices, 4, 15, 143-144 recommendations, 4, 136, 137, 143-144 research on causal links, 133-134 social norms marketing, 128, 129, 190 on television programs, 4, 129, 132, 138-139 unmeasured promotion, 132 African Americans access to alcohol, 182 driving and drinking, 60 patterns of underage drinking, 36, 40, 41, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52 risky sexual behavior, 62 violence-related deaths, 61 Age groups. See also Adults; College students; High school students; Initiation age of drinking; Junior high school students and expectancies about alcohol, 72 and location of drinking, 57 and message development, 93 n.1 patterns of drinking by, 39, 40-43, 46, 47, 50, 57, 78 segregation effects, 72, 75, 82 Alcohol 101 program, 18, 129 Alcohol dependency, 58, 59, 63, 65, 66, 69, 70, 76, 85, 212-215 Alcohol industry accountability, 4, 143-144 advertising and promotion, 4, 15, 18, 20, 79, 105, 126, 132-143 “best practices,” 15, 126, 137, 138, 141 independent nonprofit foundation, 130-131, 235 prevention programs, 3, 6, 15, 17-18, 101, 102, 105, 126, 127-132, 144, 180-181 public attitudes about controls on, 15

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Reducing Underage Drinking: A Collective Responsibility recommendations, 3, 4, 130-132 self-regulation, 135-136, 137, 143 social responsibility, 135, 136, 142 support of enforcement, 128 tax revenues from, 23 trade associations, 4, 127, 128, 137, 141 underage market, 23, 32, 126-127, 131 Alcohol Research Group, National Alcohol Surveys, 48 Alcopops, 133-134, 137 American Legacy Foundation, 130 n.4, 186, 187, 190, 191, 247-248 American Medical Association (AMA), 15, 209, 228 American Revolution, 125 Anemia, 64 Anheuser-Busch, 127, 129 Antisocial personality disorder, 76 Asian Americans, patterns of underage drinking, 41, 48, 52 Asian Indians, 36, 52 Australia, 171 Australian National Alcohol Campaign, 115, 189 Autonomy, adolescent desires for, 72-73, 75, 85 B Beer, 27, 55, 81, 127, 128, 138, 140, 142, 149, 244 Beer Institute, 127, 141 n.10 Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance Survey, 53 Beverage preferences, 55 Binge drinking. See Consumption frequency and intensity; Heavy drinking; Patterns of underage drinking Blood alcohol limits, 59-60, 161, 178, 180 Boston University School of Public Health, 62 Brain development and damage, 1, 13, 14, 35, 59, 64-65, 69 C California, 55-56, 57, 79, 117 n.5, 121, 124, 173, 189, 191, 218, 219, 221 Alcohol Policy Reforms Initiative, 131 n.5 California State University Memorandum of Understanding Program, 228 Center for Advancement of Public Health, 200 Center for the Enforcement of Underage Drinking Laws, 234 Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth (CAMY), 129, 138, 140, 248 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 53, 188, 233, 238 Century Council, 128-129, 180-181, 235 Children of alcoholics, 65-66 Chinese Americans, 36 Chronic health problems, 64 Coalitions and coalition building, 10, 15, 216, 217-218, 219-220, 223-224, 225, 226-230 Cognitive-behavioral skills approach, 201 College students access to alcohol, 167-168, 182 consequences of drinking, 59, 61, 62, 200 dormitory effect, 47-48, 82-83, 203 fraternity members, 44, 177, 182 patterns of drinking, 14, 37, 38, 43-48, 50, 51, 52, 55-56, 70, 200 risk factors for drinking, 20, 44-45, 47-48, 203 support for policy enforcement, 224 violent crimes, 61, 62 College/university interventions access-limiting interventions, 203-204 advertising bans, 144 alcohol-free social activities, 205-206 cognitive-behavioral skills approach, 201 community collaborations in, 10, 15, 196, 197, 223-224, 225, 226-230 driving-related, 202 education-based strategies, 9, 18, 129, 199, 201-203 effectiveness of programs, 9, 201, 205 environmentally focused, 9, 203-206 evaluation of, 10 funding, 15 for high-risk heavy drinkers, 199-200, 201-202 industry-sponsored, 18, 128-129, 144 ineffective strategies, 201, 205 integrated approach, 202 motivational enhancement approach, 201, 202

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Reducing Underage Drinking: A Collective Responsibility parental notification, 204-205, 207 policy enforcement and sanctions, 9, 200-201, 203, 204, 206 recommendations, 9-10, 207 research and evaluation, 207 screening for high-risk and heavy drinkers, 9, 18, 199, 200, 202, 206-207 social norms approach, 201-202, 203, 207 sourcebook, 200 Commercial establishments access to alcohol through, 168-175 community-based interventions, 168, 169 compliance checks, 6-7, 169-171, 181, 220 density of outlets, 81, 218, 219-220 and design of interventions, 23-24 dram shop liability laws, 7, 125, 172-174, 177 entertainment product access restrictions, 152-153 and false identification, 8, 127, 166, 167-168, 171, 173, 175, 181-183 Internet sales and home delivery and, 142, 174-175 keg registration laws, 8, 176 off-license vs. on-license establishments, 168 public support for restrictions on, 110 recommendations, 169-170, 174 responsible beverage service and sales programs, 6, 7, 125, 171-172, 221-222 sales to underage buyers, 20 seller/server training, 6, 7, 171-172 social responsibility, 172 Communities Mobilizing for Change, 197, 222-223 Community-based interventions, 18, 102 coalition building, 10, 15, 216, 217-218, 219-220, 223-224, 225, 226-230 college/university collaborations in, 10, 15, 196, 197, 223-224, 225, 226-230 cultural considerations, 52, 218 driving-related, 6, 8, 161-162, 178-180, 221-222, 223-224 effective programs, 218, 221-224 evidence of effectiveness, 176, 216, 220-230 funding, 10, 15, 230-231, 248 keg registration laws, 8, 176 loitering and nuisance ordinances, 7, 176 media use, 10, 122-124, 219, 221, 222 party detection and termination, 8, 180 recommendations, 6, 7, 8, 10, 176, 180, 219, 231 with school-based interventions, 196, 197 social mobilization, 10, 31, 106, 122-124, 197, 216-219, 221, 226-227 social norms approach, 128, 129, 161, 175, 176, 177, 180 statewide initiatives, 218-219, 228-229 success factors, 224-226, 235-236 and treatment programs, 215 Community Coalition for Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment, 220 Community environment coalition-instigated changes in, 218, 219-220, 223 enabling, 79-83, 98 and enforcement, 227 Community Trials Intervention to Reduce High-Risk Drinking, 197 Community Trials Program, 221 Compliance checks, 6-7, 109, 169-171, 181, 220 Conditional use permits, 178 Conduct disorder, 76 Consequences of underage drinking acute impairment, 1, 58, 59-63 adults compared, 58-59 brain damage, 1, 13, 14, 35, 59, 64-65, 69 causation question, 65-66 chronic health problems, 64 college students, 59, 61, 62, 200 decision-making capacity, 59, 60, 62 dependency, 63, 65 driving and drinking, 1, 13, 58, 59-60, 65, 113 gender and, 61, 64 initiation age and, 59, 62, 63, 65-66 knowledge and attitudes of youth, 62 long-term effects, 14, 58, 63-65 measures of, 93-94 parental knowledge and attitudes, 113-114 race/ethnicity and, 60, 61, 62, 64

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Reducing Underage Drinking: A Collective Responsibility risky sexual activity, 13, 59, 61-62, 65 social costs, 1, 13, 59, 61, 67-69, 212, 242, 243-244, 249 school failures, 13, 59, 63 suicide, 1, 59, 61, 63 unintentional injuries, 13, 60-61 vandalism and property damage, 59, 63 violence, 1, 13, 59, 61, 62, 65 Consumption frequency and intensity. See also Patterns of underage drinking advertising exposure and, 4, 71, 79, 105, 129, 132-133 community environment and, 81 in European countries, 163, 164-165 as indicator of program effectiveness, 92-93, 94 initiation age and, 1, 14, 35, 38, 40, 49, 52 minimum drinking age laws and, 163-165 overall levels, 52-55 patterns and trends, 2, 14, 35, 36-37, 38-39, 40-44, 46-47, 48, 49, 51, 56, 78, 81 price and, 11, 127, 240, 241, 243 and revenues, 23, 126-127, 131 risk perception and, 77, 187, 188 terminology, 36-37 Context of underage drinking, 40, 44, 55-57, 78-85 Coors, 129, 143 Cops in Shops program, 109, 180-181 Corporation for National Service, 233 Cost assessment, 94-95, 241-242, 247-249 Costs. See also Social costs of underage drinking of enforcement, 248 Council of Better Business Bureaus, National Advertising Bureau, 143 Crowd membership, 75 D Day One Community Partnership, 197 Denmark, 117, 163, 164, 165 Design of prevention strategy access-limiting, 3, 102-104 adolescent decision-making perspective, 30 assessing costs, 94-95, 247-249 assessing effectiveness, 91-94, 245-247 challenges in, 19-24, 89-91 commercial factors, 23-24 comparing outcomes, 93-94 connecting evidence and strategy, 96-98 consensus considerations, 20-21, 91 cost-effectiveness considerations, 91-95, 97-98, 99, 212, 249 diminishing-returns problem, 90 goals and means, 21-23 heterogeneity of the problem, 89-91 implementation considerations, 21-23, 97, 199 interaction among policy instruments, 90 multidisciplinary perspective, 30 national media campaigns, 9, 18, 21, 86, 90, 99, 105, 120-124, 189, 191-192 opportunities for, 12, 102-105 pervasiveness of drinking and, 19-20 portfolio approach, 89-91, 97, 106, 189, 195-196 relevant outcomes, 92-93 risk-benefit balancing, 97 separability of legal drinking and underage drinking, 98-99, 101-102 standards of evidence, 95-98 uncertainty problem, 90 Designated driver, 100, 116, 117, 189 Developmental factors, 40, 72-73 cognitive changes, 73-75 social situations, 75-76 Distilled spirits, 141 n.10, 142, 149 Distilled Spirits Council of the United States (DISCUS), 128, 141, 144, 235 Dram shop liability laws, 7, 125, 172-174, 177 Drinking refusal self-efficacy, 9, 76, 78 Driving and drinking blood alcohol limits, 59-60, 161, 178, 180 college/university interventions, 202, 223 community interventions, 6, 8, 161-162, 178-180, 222, 223-224 costs of, 67, 68-69, 242, 243-244 crashes and fatalities, 1, 13, 25, 27, 58, 59, 60, 61, 66, 67, 68-69, 99-100, 161, 163, 173, 177, 179, 188, 243-244 “designated driver,” 100, 116, 117, 189 DUI arrests, 161, 163, 222, 223 enforcement of laws, 17, 18, 173, 178-179

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Reducing Underage Drinking: A Collective Responsibility funding for interventions, 234 graduated driver licensing laws, 6, 8, 26, 179 industry prevention programs, 127, 128, 129 media campaigns, 100, 116, 117, 122, 129, 180, 188 minimum drinking age and, 25-26, 66 parental knowledge and discussion, 112, 113 passengers of intoxicated drivers, 60 prevalence, 55, 56, 57 race/ethnicity and, 60 recommendations, 6, 179 risk perception, 74 risks of adverse consequences, 58-59 and safety belt use, 60, 118 sobriety check points and random breath testing, 8, 179-180 social host liability laws and, 177 zero tolerance laws, 6, 8, 27, 90, 100, 161, 178-179, 180 Drug abuse alcohol use and, 66, 100 comparison to underage drinking, 21-22, 35, 38, 96, 101, 112 costs of prevention, 247-248 dependency, 63 federal funding of prevention, 1, 10, 14 media campaigns, 15, 22, 186-187, 189-190 parental concerns, 112 prevalence, 14, 40, 100 screening and prevention programs, 209, 211 school programs, 193 social costs, 40 Drug Free Communities Act, 10 Drug Free Communities Support Program, 230-231, 248 E Education interventions, 9, 18, 128. See also School-based interventions college/university interventions, 9, 18, 129, 199, 201-203 ineffective tactics, 193 Enforcement of laws, 17, 18 alcohol industry support of, 128 college consistency in, 9, 200-201, 203, 204, 206 community support for, 227 costs, 248 and deterrence, 159, 169, 176, 179, 183-184 driving-related, 17, 18, 173, 178-179 for false identification, 167-168, 182, 184 and individual liberty, 95 media campaigns linked to, 6-7, 117, 118, 170, 175, 176, 177-178 minimum drinking age, 162, 167-168 penalties and sanctions, 9, 90, 167-168, 170, 177-178, 179, 182, 183-184, 204 public attitudes and awareness and, 168, 175, 178-179 recommendations, 179, 184 school-based interventions linked to, 21, 197 Enforcing the Underage Drinking Laws (EUDL) Program, 17, 160-161 n.1, 234, 237 Entertainment industry accountability, 156-157, 239 causal effect of youth exposure, 145-146 FTC recommendations, 146, 149, 150, 151, 152-153 incentives for change, 32 monitoring product content, 156-157, 239-240 movies, 5, 147-148, 152-153 music recordings, 5, 148-153 product placement, 105, 142-143, 146-147, 148, 149, 151, 152 public awareness of practices, 156-157, 239 rating systems and marketing codes, 5, 146, 147, 150-152, 153-156 recommendations, 5-6, 146, 148, 150, 156-157 retail access to products, 152-153 self-regulation, 146, 149-150 social responsibility, 5, 32, 102, 105, 146, 239 television, 5, 153-156 video games, 150-152 violent programming, 146, 152-153 Entertainment Software Rating Board (ESRB), 150-152

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Reducing Underage Drinking: A Collective Responsibility European countries, minimum drinking age, 163, 164-165 Excise taxes, 11-12, 15, 18, 23, 66, 81, 99, 106, 240-244, 247 Executive Office of the White House, 233 Expectancy theory, 20, 70-72, 77-78, 83, 201 Expenditures for alcohol, 54-55 F Faith-based programs, 207, 208 False identification, 167-168, 182, 184 Fatalities, alcohol-related, 1, 13, 14 Federal government, 102. See also individual departments and agencies alcohol-related programs, 17, 233-236 antidrug programs, 1, 10, 14 excise taxes, 11-12, 15, 18, 23, 66, 81, 99, 106, 232, 240-244, 247 funding for alcohol prevention, 1, 3, 5-6, 11, 14, 16, 17, 106, 108, 233 interagency coordinating committee, 11, 232, 235 recommended role, 10-11, 108, 232, 235-236 revenues from taxes, 244 state block grants tied to retailer compliance rates, 7, 26, 162, 170 technical assistance, 233-234 Federal Trade Commission (FTC), 4, 15, 135, 137, 138, 141, 142-143, 146, 149, 150, 151, 152-153 Fetal alcohol syndrome, 13 Filipinos, 36, 52 First Amendment issues, 4, 135-136, 142 Florida, 79, 124, 191 Florida State University, 230 Food and Drug Administration, 139 n.8 Frequent heavy drinking. See also Consumption frequency and intensity; Patterns of underage drinking defined, 37 psychological problems associated with, 63 Funding for prevention, 1, 3, 5-6, 10 from alcohol industry, 130-131 college/university interventions, 15 community-based activities, 10, 15, 230-231, 248 consensus considerations, 21 driving-related, 234 excise taxes and, 11-12, 244, 247 federal, 1, 3, 5-6, 11, 14, 16, 17, 106, 108, 233 media campaigns, 121, 124 research and evaluation, 12 state enforcement activities, 170 G Gender differences in alcohol metabolism, 49, 52 in consequences of drinking, 61, 64 in expectancies about alcohol, 72 in patterns of underage drinking, 38, 44, 49-52, 56 in risk factors, 72, 76 in suicides, 61 and treatment programs, 214 George Mason University, College Alcohol Survey, 200 Georgetown University, 138 Georgia Institute of Technology, 229 Guidelines for Adolescent Preventive Services, 206 H Harvard School of Public Health National College Alcohol Survey, 44, 63, 228-229 Health care settings, interventions in, 207, 208-209 Heavy drinking, defined, 37. See also Consumption frequency and intensity; Patterns of underage drinking Hepatitis, 64 High school students access to alcohol, 55, 167, 180 marijuana use, 38, 101 patterns of drinking, 14, 20, 37-38, 41, 42, 43, 44-45, 49, 50, 51, 55-56, 70, 99-100, 101 smoking, 38, 101, 169 sources of alcohol, 20 surveys of, 238 Higher Education Amendments of 1998, 204

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Reducing Underage Drinking: A Collective Responsibility Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention, 228 Hispanics coalition, 222 driving and drinking, 60 health consequences of drinking, 64 patterns of underage drinking, 36, 40, 41, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52 risky sexual behavior, 62 violence-related deaths, 61 Homicide, 27, 61, 173 Hypertension, 64 I Illinois, 80, 221 Implementation of interventions cooperation and coordination required for, 18-19, 20-21 design considerations, 21-23, 97 lack of fidelity in, 199 Information-focused programs for high-risk youth, 9, 132, 193, 194, 198 Initiation age of drinking and consequences of drinking, 59, 62, 63, 65-66 delay as outcome goal, 92, 94, 193 entertainment media exposure and, 146 gender differences, 49 and patterns of drinking, 1, 14, 35, 38, 40, 49, 52 and risky sexual behavior, 62 Injury. See Unintentional injuries Interactive Digital Software Association (IDSA), 152 Interactive programs, 197 Internet alcohol sales and home delivery and, 142, 174-175 false identification, 182 Ireland, 163, 164, 165 J Junior high school students access to alcohol, 55, 167, 180 patterns of drinking, 39, 40, 42, 43, 44-45, 49, 50, 51, 52, 55 K Kaiser Family Foundation, 62 Keg registration laws, 8, 176 Kentucky, 80, 190 King, Rodney, 220 Knowledge and attitudes of youth and behavior change, 193 about consequences of drinking, 62 drinking refusal self-efficacy, 9, 76, 78 about normative practices, 77, 91-92, 98-99 about prevalence of drinking, 74-75, 77 Korean Americans, 36, 52 L Latinos. See Hispanics Leadership to Keep Children Alcohol Free, 15, 234 Lehigh University, 229 Liability laws, 7, 172-174, 177-178 Liver cirrhosis, 64 Loitering and nuisance ordinances, 7, 176 Louisiana State University, 230 LSU Campus-Community Coalition for Change, 230 M Maine, 80, 112-113, 173 Massachusetts, 80, 124 Saving Lives Program, 223-224 Matter of Degree Program, 228 Media campaigns. See National media campaign drunk driving prevention, 100, 116, 117, 122, 129, 180, 188 Media influence, 20, 71, 79, 81, 86, 98, 100, 102, 122-124, 179, 219, 221, 222 Mexican Americans, 36 Michigan State University Multiple Risk Outreach Program, 195 Midwestern Prevention Project, 189 Military-based interventions, 211-212 Minimum drinking age laws. See also National Minimum Drinking Age Act and consequences of underage drinking, 25-26, 66, 163

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Reducing Underage Drinking: A Collective Responsibility cultural contexts, 22-23 effectiveness, 6, 25, 27, 81, 96, 100, 158, 161-162, 163, 232 enforcement, 17, 159, 162, 167-168 in European countries, 159, 163, 164-165 evolution of current policy, 25-26, 100 federal highway funds tied to, 26, 162 goal of delay, 26-27, 161 incentives for compliance, 159, 162, 163, 166 industry support of, 127 instrumental role of law, 27-29, 158 “learner’s permit” for drinking, 26-27 public support for, 21, 22-23, 25, 162, 224-225 rationale for lowering, 25, 163 recommendations, 166 scope, 162-166 underlying assumptions, 25-29, 31 Minnesota, 55, 80, 166, 167, 221, 223 Missouri, 80, 219 Model Alcoholic Beverage Retail Licensee Liability Act of 1985, 7, 173-174 Monitoring. See Surveillance and monitoring Monitoring the Future (MTF) Survey, 11, 35, 36, 37, 41, 81, 163, 187, 238, 239 Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD), 15, 122, 235 Motion Picture Association of America, film ratings, 5, 148, 152, 154-155 Motivational enhancement approach, 201, 202 Movies exposure time, 147 marketing to underage youth, 146-147, 153 positive depictions of drinking, 20, 71, 79, 147-148 product placements, 149 rating for alcohol content, 5, 146-147, 148 Music recordings exposure time, 148 positive references to drinking, 20, 79, 148-149 rating for content, 5, 146-147, 149-150, 152, 153 N National Advertising Review Board, 143 National Alcohol Beverage Control Association, 235 National Beer Wholesalers Association, 235 National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse (CASA), 61, 109, 110, 113 National High Blood Pressure Campaign, 117, 121 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 218, 234 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA), 35-36, 37, 38, 40, 44, 53, 54, 126, 212, 238, 239, 242 National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), 10, 15-16, 43, 117, 173, 192, 200, 207, 227, 233-234 National Institute on Drug Abuse, 192, 238 National Institutes of Health, 15 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 47, 81 National media campaign, adult-focused access-limiting strategies tied to, 3, 6, 132, 169, 170, 175, 176, 177 approach of the committee, 18, 123-124, 159-160 attitudes of adults about underage drinking and, 3, 22-23, 31, 109-111 and behavior change, 116-119 challenges, 122-123 designing, 90, 99, 120-124 developmental approach, 122 disseminating facts, 111-112 evidence for action, 117, 119-120 funding, 121, 124 goals and logic, 114-115, 119-120 industry-sponsored messages, 101, 125, 129, 132 knowledge of adults about underage drinking and, 3, 111-114 law enforcement combined with, 6-7, 117, 118, 132, 169, 170, 175, 176, 177-178 message development, 3, 22, 86, 120 models, 115, 116, 117, 121-122 paid advertising, 121 parenting norms and behaviors, 116, 118-119

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Reducing Underage Drinking: A Collective Responsibility potential effectiveness, 115-119 recommendations, 3, 12, 108, 132 research and evaluation, 12, 120, 122, 123-124 and social mobilization for cultural change, 122-124 underlying assumptions, 114 National media campaign, youth-focused anti-tobacco and anti-drug campaigns compared, 15, 22, 186-187, 189-190 boomerang effect, 189-190, 192 costs, 190 design and development of, 9, 18, 86, 105, 189-190, 191-192 environmental considerations, 190-191 evidence of effectiveness, 108, 187-189 goals, 109 industry-sponsored, 15 message development, 93 n.1, 189-190, 191-192 recommendations, 9, 192 research and evaluation, 191-192, 245 National Minimum Drinking Age Act, 26, 27-29, 161-166 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 11, 36, 238 National Training and Research Center on Underage Drinking (proposed), 11, 235-236 National Youth Anti-drug Media Campaign, 189 Native Americans health consequences of drinking, 64 patterns of underage drinking, 36, 48 New Hampshire, 80, 173 New York, 80, 167, 168, 181-182 Noncommercial distribution of alcohol, 18, 29, 175-178. See also Adults; Parents O Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 17, 161 n.1, 231, 234 Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP), 15, 118, 186, 189, 190, 231, 236, 247 Ohio College Initiative to Reduce High-Risk Drinking, 225, 228 Osteoporosis, 64 P Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation (PIRE), 67-69, 242 Pancreatitis, 64 Parents alcohol use by, 85 college notification program, 204-205, 207 discussion of alcohol issues with children, 113-114, 118 facilitation of underage alcohol use, 21, 29, 71, 82, 85, 104, 108, 115, 118, 119, 166 influence on adolescent drinking, 20, 82, 83, 84-85, 110, 118-119 involvement in youth programs, 208, 213 knowledge of underage drinking, 3, 35, 71, 85, 86, 111-114 liability issues, 21, 29, 118, 132, 177-178 as media campaign target, 116, 118-119, 132 monitoring and supervision of adolescents, 84-85, 104, 110-111, 118-119, 156, 196, 197 risk perception, 113-114, 115 role in prevention, 19, 21, 24, 82, 90, 102, 104 Parties detection and termination, 8, 180 liability considerations, 21, 177-178 parents as sponsors, 85, 104, 166 as source of alcohol, 20, 56, 71, 85, 166 Partnership for a Drug-Free America, 190 Partnership in prevention alcohol industry, 3 Patterns of underage drinking abstainers, 44 adult drinking compared, 35, 39, 42, 43, 47, 52, 53-54 beverage preferences, 55 college students, 14, 37, 38, 43-48, 50, 51, 52, 55-56, 70 community environment and, 81 expenditures, 54-55 frequency and intensity of drinking, 2, 14, 35, 36-37, 38-39, 40-44, 46-47, 48, 49, 51, 56

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Reducing Underage Drinking: A Collective Responsibility gender, 38, 44, 49-52, 56 high school students, 14, 20, 37-38, 41, 42, 43, 44-45, 49, 50, 51, 55-56, 70, 99-100, 101 initiation age, 1, 14, 35, 38, 40, 49, 52 junior high school students, 39, 40, 42, 43, 44-45, 49, 50, 51, 52, 55 knowledge of adolescents about, 74-75 locations and situations, 55-57 long-term trends, 14, 37-38, 81 overall patterns, 38-40, 43, 101 participation rates, 53-54, 99-100, 101 race and ethnicity, 36, 38, 39, 40, 41, 44, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52 terminology, 36-37 trajectories, 39-40 Peer influence, 9, 19, 45, 72, 73, 75, 76, 78, 83-84, 86, 113, 194 Pennsylvania, 80, 167, 168, 181-182, 218 Poland, 163, 164, 165 Possession and purchase restrictions, 21, 180-184 Pregnancy, unwanted, 13 President’s Commission on Model State Drug Laws, 166 PREVENT (Personal Responsibility and Values: Education and Training), 211-212 Prevention strategy. See also Adult-oriented interventions; Design of prevention strategy; Youth-oriented interventions; individual components availability of alcohol and, 102-104, 159-160; see also Access-limiting interventions blueprint, 12, 102-105 boomerang effects, 97, 189-190, 192, 198 costs and cost effectiveness, 247-249 demand reduction, 104-105; see also Alcohol industry; Entertainment industry implementation fidelity, 21-23, 97, 107, 197 injunctive norms as focus of, 75, 83-84 instrumental role of law, 27-29 key components, 105-107 need for, 99-101 occasions for drinking and, 104 overview, 2-3, 12 population perspective, 29-30, 186-187 premises, 101-102 responsible parties, 106 social norms approach, 128, 129, 161, 175, 176, 177, 180, 183, 194, 196, 197, 198, 201-202, 203, 207, 209 success factors, 171-172 Print media, 139-140 Prohibition, 25 Project Northland, 116-117, 189, 195-196, 197, 221 Public opinion/awareness of advertising practices, 4, 15, 143-144 about alcohol industry controls, 15 and attitudes about underage drinking, 3, 5-6, 14-15, 24, 31, 35, 79, 81, 109-111 coalition initiatives, 221-222 and enforcement of laws, 168, 175, 178-179 of entertainment industry practices, 156-157 support for policy actions, 15, 21, 22-23, 25, 109, 162, 224-225 R Race and ethnicity. See also individual racial or ethnic groups acculturation experiences, 52, 218 community coalitions based on, 219-220 and consequences of drinking, 60, 61, 62, 64 and false identification, 182 and industry targeting, 218 and patterns of underage drinking, 36, 38, 39, 40, 41, 44, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52 and program design, 194-195 and risk factors, 76 Rape. See Sexual assault Recommendations access-limiting interventions, 6-9, 166, 169-170, 171, 172, 174-175, 176, 182-183, 246 advertising restrictions, 4, 136, 137, 143-144 alcohol industry role, 3, 4, 130-132 community-based activities, 6, 7, 8, 10, 176, 180, 219, 231 driving-related, 6, 179 enforcement and sanctions, 179, 184

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Reducing Underage Drinking: A Collective Responsibility entertainment industry role, 5-6, 146, 148, 150, 156-157 excise taxes, 11-12, 244 federal government role, 10-11, 108, 232, 235-236 by FTC on advertising, 15, 135, 137, 138, 141, 142-143 media campaigns, 3, 9, 12, 108, 132, 192 minimum drinking age, 166 national strategy, 3, 108-109 non-profit foundation, 3, 130-132 research and evaluation, 12, 236, 245 standard of evidence for, 96, 160 state role, 6-7, 8, 11, 237 youth-oriented interventions, 9-10, 192, 198-199, 207, 215 Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA), 152 Religious beliefs, 44 Research and evaluation, 106 access-limiting interventions, 159, 160, 171, 246 of adult media campaign, 12, 120, 122, 123-124 of alcohol industry programs, 129-130 of causal links to advertising practices, 133-134 cost-effectiveness assessments, 91-95, 245-247 entertainment media controls, 5-6, 146, 148, 150, 156-157 of EUDL program, 17 funding of, 17, 245 outcome measures, 92-94, 160, 193, 214-215 recommendations, 12, 236, 245 youth media messages, 191-192, 245 youth-oriented interventions, 10, 198-199, 207, 214-215, 246-247 Responsible beverage service and sales programs, 6, 7, 125, 171-172, 221-222 Rhode Island, 80, 173 Risk factors for underage drinking access to alcohol, 20, 81, 82-83, 86 adult drinking as, 85 age factors, 72, 75, 82 cognitive changes, 73-75 community environment, 79-83 confluence of factors, 86 contextual factors, 40, 44, 55-57, 78-85 decision-making competency, 73-74, 77, 84-85 developmental factors, 40, 72-76, 86 expectancy theory, 20, 70-72, 77-78, 83, 201 gender differences, 72, 76 individual differences, 76-78 media influence, 71, 79, 81, 86 minimum drinking age and, 81 parental influence, 20, 82, 83, 84-85 peer influence, 9, 19, 45, 72, 73, 75, 76, 78, 83-84, 86 personality characteristics, 76, 85 prior experience with alcohol, 77-78 race/ethnicity and, 76 risk perception, 74, 76, 77, 187 self-efficacy and, 9, 76, 78 self-esteem, 77 sibling alcohol use, 85 social situations, 20, 44, 55-57, 70, 75-76, 81, 83-85 Risk perception, 74, 76, 77, 187, 188 Robberies, 61, 244 Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF), 15, 224, 228, 234 S Sanctions. See Enforcement of laws School-based interventions, 102 access limitations, 197 antidrug programs compared, 193 community components, 196, 197 cultural considerations, 194-195 disciplinary, 21, 197 effective strategies, 195-199 enforcement and sanctions linked to, 21, 197 evaluation research, 198-199 exposure and follow-up, 196 fidelity in implementation, 197 ineffective strategies, 193-194, 198 information-focused for high-risk youth, 9, 132, 193, 194, 198 institutionalization of, 197 interactive programs, 197 multicomponent and integrated programs, 90, 106, 195-196, 222 norms that support nonuse, 194, 196, 197, 198

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Reducing Underage Drinking: A Collective Responsibility overall results, 101, 193-195 parental monitoring and supervision, 196, 197 recommendations, 9, 198-199 social and emotional skill development, 2, 198-199 Screening for high-risk and heavy drinkers, 9, 18, 199, 200, 202, 206-207, 209, 215 Self-efficacy, 9, 76, 78 Self-esteem, 77, 194 Sensation-seeking behavior, 76 Sexual assault, 62, 244 Sexual behavior, risky, 13, 40, 59, 61-62, 65 Sexually transmitted diseases, 66, 244 “Shoulder-tap” enforcement sting, 7, 109, 132, 175-176 Sobriety check points and random breath testing, 8, 179-180 Social and emotional skill development, 2, 198-199 Social cognitive theory, 71 Social costs of underage drinking, 1, 13, 59, 61 accounting framework, 68-69, 241-242 driving-related costs, 67, 68-69, 242, 243-244 drug abuse compared, 14 policy relevance, 67-68 Social host liability laws, 177-178 Social mobilization, 10, 31, 106, 122-124, 197, 216-219, 221, 226-227 Social norms marketing, 128, 129 Social responsibility of alcohol industry, 135, 136, 142 of entertainment industry, 5, 32, 102, 105, 146 Social situations, high-risk, 20, 44, 55-57, 70, 75-76, 81, 83-85 alcohol-free activities, 205-206 Sports participation, 75 State University of New York at Albany, Committee of Community and University Relations, 228 States agencies involved in programs, 16, 218, 236-237 alcohol beverage control, 6-7, 8, 9, 16, 169-171, 176, 181-184, 218 commercial source control, 168 federal grants to, 7, 26, 162, 170, 234, 248 minimum drinking age enforcement, 162, 167-168 per capita consumption of alcohol by, 79-80 recommended role, 6-7, 8, 11, 237 revenues from alcohol sales, 23 tobacco prevention expenditures, 14 Strategy. See Design of prevention strategy; Prevention strategy Stress management programs, 201, 209 Students Against Destructive Decisions, 235 Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), 10, 11-12, 37, 197, 198, 207, 233, 234, 238, 245 Sudden infant death syndrome, 116 Suicide, 1, 27, 59, 61, 63 Surveillance and monitoring. See also individual surveys of advertising and entertainment media exposure, 4, 139-140, 143-144, 156-157, 239-240, 248 costs and cost effectiveness, 247, 248 information to be included in, 237 national indicators, 11, 238 quantity consumed and brand preferences, 238-239 recommendations, 238, 239 T Taxes. See Excise taxes Television advertising, 4, 129, 132, 138-139 exposure of youth to, 153 positive depictions of drinking, 20, 79, 153 ratings for programs, 5, 153-156 sports program advertising, 138, 139 v-chip, 156 Texas, 80, 173 Theory of planned behavior, 71 Third-party transactions, 7, 20, 175-176 “TIPS” program, 128 Tobacco sales and use advertising restrictions, 139 alcohol use and, 63, 66 comparison to underage drinking, 21-22, 23-24, 35, 38, 101

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Reducing Underage Drinking: A Collective Responsibility costs of prevention, 247-248 entertainment industry and, 145-146 federal funding of prevention, 1, 14 Master Settlement Agreement, 24, 130 n.4, 190 media campaigns, 15, 22, 117, 121, 124, 186-187, 189-190 monitoring, 239 parental concerns, 112 prevention approach, 90, 96, 159, 161, 169, 170 Synar Amendment, 7, 170 underage prevalence, 14, 35, 38 Trade associations, 4, 127, 128, 137, 141. See also individual associations Treatment programs, 10, 13, 18, 30, 106, 212-215 TruthTM Campaign, 186 U Unintentional injuries, 13, 14, 27, 60-61, 173 United Kingdom, 163, 164, 165 U.S. Department of Agriculture, 233 U.S. Department of Defense, 233 U.S. Department of Education, 9, 10, 12, 198, 204, 215, 228, 245, 246 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1, 16, 144, 208, 233 alcohol treatment programs, 10 annual report on underage drinking, 11, 157, 236, 238 Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, 231 funding interventions, 9, 10, 17, 198, 246, 248 monitoring exposure to alcohol advertising, 4, 143-144, 156-157 Office of Smoking and Health, 1, 14 National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), 10, 15-16, 43, 117, 173, 192, 200, 207, 227, 233-234 recommendations for, 5-6, 9, 10, 11, 12, 198, 215, 235-236, 246 review of entertainment offerings, 5-6 Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), 10, 11-12, 37, 197, 198, 207, 233, 234, 238, 245 U.S. Department of Interior, 233 U.S. Department of Justice, 1, 10, 16, 215, 233 Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 17, 161 n.1, 231, 234 U.S. Department of Labor, 233 U.S. Department of the Treasury, 233 U.S. Department of Transportation, 1, 16, 17, 237 Utah, 79, 80 V Vandalism and property damage, 59, 63, 204 Video games, 150-152 Video Gaming Industry, 150 Vietnamese Americans, 36 Violence, 13, 66. See also Homicide; Sexual assault; Suicide costs of, 67 in entertainment media, 146, 152-153 Virginia, 80, 167, 181-182 W “We I.D.” program, 128 Whites (non-Hispanic) driving and drinking, 60 patterns of underage drinking, 36, 40, 41, 44, 48, 49, 50, 51 risky sexual behavior, 62 violence-related deaths, 61 Wine, 140, 149 Wine Institute, 141 n.10, 144 Winners Campaign, 117 n.5, 189 Wisconsin, 79, 80, 223 Women, chronic health effects of drinking, 64 Workplace programs, 209-211 Y Youth-oriented interventions. See also College/university interventions; National media campaign, youth-focused; School-based interventions faith-based programs, 207, 208

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Reducing Underage Drinking: A Collective Responsibility family involvement, 208, 213 framework, 185-186 health care settings, 207, 208-209 military-based, 211-212 recommendations, 9-10, 215, 246 research and evaluation, 214-215, 246-247 treatment programs, 10, 13, 18, 30, 106, 212-215 workplace programs, 209-211 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), 36, 40, 53, 54, 62, 238 Z Zero tolerance laws, 6, 8, 27, 90, 100, 161, 178-179, 180

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