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REFERENCES

American Psychiatric Association. (1987). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, third edition. Washington, DC: Author.

American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition. Washington, DC: Author.


Bachman, J.G., Johnston, L.D., and O’Malley, P.M. (2001). Monitoring the Future: Questionnaire responses from the nation’s high school seniors, 2000. Ann Arbor, MI: Institute for Social Research.

Bachman, J.G., O’Malley, P.M., Schulenberg, J.E., Johnston, L.D., Bryant, A.L., and Merline, A.C. (2002). The decline of substance use in young adulthood: Changes in social activities, roles, and beliefs. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.


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Greenfield, T.K. (2000). Ways of measuring drinking patterns and the difference they make: Experience with graduated frequencies. Journal of Substance Abuse, 12, 33-49.


Harrison, L.D. (2001). Understanding the differences in youth drug prevalence rates produced by the MTF, NHSDA, and YRBS studies. Journal of Drug Issues, 31, 665-694.

Hingson, R., Heeren, T., Levenson, A.J., and Voas, R. (2002). Age of drinking onset, driving after drinking, and involvement in alcohol-related motor vehicle crashes. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 34, 85-92.


Johnston, L.D. (1991). Contributions of drug epidemiology to the field of drug abuse prevention. In W. Bukoski (Ed.), Drug abuse prevention research: Methodological issues (pp. 57-80), NIDA Research Monograph No. 107. Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse.

Johnston, L.D., O’Malley, P.M., and Bachman, J.G. (2002a). Demographic subgroup trends for various licit and illicit drugs, 1975-2001. Monitoring the Future Occasional Paper No. 57. Ann Arbor, MI: Institute for Social Research.

Johnston, L.D., O’Malley, P.M., and Bachman, J.G. (2002b). Monitoring the Future national survey results on drug use, 1975-2001. Vol. I: Secondary school students. NIH Publication No. 02-5106. Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse.


Martin, C.S., and Winters, K.C. (1998). Diagnosis and assessment of alcohol use disorders among adolescents. Alcohol Health and Research World, 22, 95-105.


O’Malley, P.M., and Johnston, L.D. (1999). Drinking and driving among U.S. high school seniors, 1984-1997. American Journal of Public Health, 89, 678-684.

O’Malley, P.M., Johnston, L.D., and Bachman, J.G. (1998). Alcohol use among adolescents. Alcohol Health & Research World, 22, 85-93.


Parents’ Resource Institute for Drug Education (PRIDE). (2002). PRIDE questionnaire report: 2001-2002 national summary, grades 6 through 12. Bowling Green, KY: Pride Surveys.

Paschall, M.J., and Flewelling, R.L. (2002). Post-secondary education and heavy drinking by young adults: The moderating effect of race. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 63, 447-455.

Paschall, M.J., Ringwalt, C.L., and Flewelling, R.L. (2002). Explaining higher levels of alcohol use among working adolescents: An analysis of potential explanatory variables. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 63, 169-178.



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