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relation to their curriculum knowledge and rates of alcohol use and misuse over time.

A total of 1,725 students from 35 elementary and middle schools in southeastern Michigan participated in the study. Schools were randomly assigned to treatment and control conditions. The treatment condition received the AMPS curriculum and the controls did not. The AMPS curriculum was administered to the treatment students in sixth, seventh, and eighth grades. Questionnaires were administered to both treatment and control students at the beginning of the study in the sixth-grade fall semester and again during the spring semesters of sixth, seventh, and eighth grades. The students were surveyed about their alcohol use and misuse, curriculum knowledge (alcohol facts, knowledge of pressures to use alcohol, norms regarding use, decision-making skills, and resistance skills), and prior drinking history. Based on students’ prior alcohol use, they were assigned to one of three groups: (1) abstainer; (2) supervised drinker, and (3) unsupervised drinker.

Treatment group students had significantly higher levels of curriculum knowledge compared to control students. Across all three posttests from grades six through eight, the treatment group’s mean knowledge scores increased significantly from pretest. Control students’ mean knowledge scores did not increase significantly over time from pretest to grades seven and eight posttests.

Increases in the rates of alcohol use were similar for treatment and control group abstainers and supervised drinkers. Unsupervised drinkers in the control group increased their alcohol use more than did similar students in the treatment group. However, this difference was not statistically significant.

The rate of alcohol misuse over time for prior abstainers and supervised drinkers appeared to be about the same for both treatment and control conditions. For abstainers, both the treatment and control groups significantly increased their alcohol misuse from pretest to all posttests. Control supervised drinkers significantly increased their alcohol misuse from pretest to posttests at grades seven and eight. Treatment group supervised drinkers significantly increased their alcohol misuse from pretest to grade eight posttest. However, the rates of misuse over time for prior unsupervised drinkers were different compared to the supervised drinkers and abstainers. The control unsupervised subgroup significantly increased their misuse rates from pretest to grade eight posttest; the treatment unsupervised group did not significantly increase their misuse rates over the same time period.

The results of this evaluation imply that programs like AMPS may be most effective among students with prior histories of unsupervised drinking. Students who had a history of unsupervised drinking and received the



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