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Opie, I. and Opie, P. (2001). The lore and language of schoolchildren. New York: New York Review of Books (first published 1959).

Paglia, A., and Room, R. (1998). How unthinkable and at what age? Adult opinions about the “social clock” for contested behaviour by teenagers. Journal of Youth Studies, 1, 295-314.

Paglia, A., and Room, R. (1999). Preventing substance use problems among youth: A literature review and recommendations. Journal of Primary Prevention, 20, 3-50.

Partanen, J. (1991). Sociability and intoxication: Alcohol and drinking in Kenya, Africa, and the modern world (Vol. 39). Helsinki: Finnish Foundation for Alcohol Studies.

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Pyorälä, E. (1995). Comparing drinking cultures: Finnish and Spanish drinking stories in interviews with young adults. Acta Sociologica, 38, 217-229.

Rehm, G., Room, R., Monteiro, M., Gmel, G., Graham, K., Rehn, N., Sempos, C.T., Frick, U., and Jernigan, D. (in press). Alcohol. In Comparative quantification of health risks: global and regional burden of disease due to selected major risk factors. Geneva: World Health Organization.

Rehm, J., Monteiro, M.G., Room, R., Gmel, G., Jernigan, D., Frick, U., and Graham, K. (2001). Steps towards constructing a global comparative risk analysis for alcohol consumption: Determining indicators and empirical weights for patterns of drinking, deciding about theoretical minimum, and dealing with different consequences. European Addiction Research, 7, 138-147.

Room, R. (1982). Region and urbanization as factors in drinking practices and problems. In B. Kissin and H. Begleiter (Eds.). The pathogenesis of alcoholism: Psychosocial factors; The biology of alcoholism (Vol. 6) (pp. 555-604). New York and London: Plenum Press.

Room, R. (1984). A “reverence for strong drink”: The Lost Generation and the elevation of alcohol in American culture. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 45, 540-546.

Room, R. (1992). The impossible dream? Routes to reducing alcohol problems in a temperance culture. Journal of Substance Abuse, 4, 91-106.

Room, R. (2001). Intoxication and bad behaviour: Understanding cultural differences in the link. Social Science and Medicine, 53, 189-198.

Room, R., and Bullock, S. (2002). Can alcohol expectancies and attributions explain Western Europe’s north-south gradient in alcohol’s role in violence? Contemporary Drug Problems, 29, 619-648.

Room, R., and Paglia, A. (2001). “At what age do you think it’s OK?”: The social clock for drinking and drug use among Ontario teenagers. Presented at an international research conference, Youth Cultures and Subcultures: Functions and Patterns of Drinking and Drug Use, Skarpö, Sweden, April 23-26.

Rossow, I. (2001). Alcohol and homicide: a cross-cultural comparison of the relationship in 14 European countries. Addiction, 96(Suppl. 1), S77-S92.

Sande, A. (2002). Intoxication and rite of passage to adulthood in Norway. Contemporary Drug Problems, 29, 277-303.

Sarmela, M. (1969). Reciprocity systems of the rural society in the Finnish-Karelian culture area: With special reference to social intercourse of the youth. Helsinki: Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia.

Senate Special Committee on Illegal Drugs, Canadian Senate. (2002). Cannabis: Our position for a Canadian public policy . Available: (accessed 20 May 2003).

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