APPENDIX B
SECURITY INITIATIVES AND PROGRAMS WITH CYBERSECURITY RELEVANCE

The following programs and initiatives are connected with improving freight security and use or affect a range of technologies, systems, and technology protocols.

Note: Customs = Bureau of Customs and Border Protection (formerly U.S. Customs Service); DHS = U.S. Department of Homeland Security; DOT = U.S. Department of Transportation; FAA =Federal Aviation Administration; FHWA = Federal Highway Administration; GIS = geographic information system; NHS = National Highway System; TSA = Transportation Security Administration; WMD = weapons of mass destruction.

Project:

Electronic Supply Chain Manifest (ESCM) Operational Test

Description:

Intermodal research project that uses biometric fingerprint readers, smart cards, and encrypted Internet transactions to enhance the security and efficiency of freight supply chain activities. The project, which initially focused on air cargo transactions, is being incorporated into other freight modal tests

Stakeholders:

Trucking, manufacturing, air cargo industries, DOT, TSA/DHS

Technology implications:

Full integration of personnel, cargo, and tracking data using a range of cutting-edge technology systems



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APPENDIX B SECURITY INITIATIVES AND PROGRAMS WITH CYBERSECURITY RELEVANCE The following programs and initiatives are connected with improving freight security and use or affect a range of technologies, systems, and technology protocols. Note: Customs = Bureau of Customs and Border Protection (formerly U.S. Customs Service); DHS = U.S. Department of Homeland Security; DOT = U.S. Department of Transportation; FAA = Federal Aviation Administration; FHWA = Federal Highway Administration; GIS = geographic information system; NHS = National Highway System; TSA = Transportation Security Administration; WMD = weapons of mass destruction. Project: Electronic Supply Chain Manifest (ESCM) Operational Test Description: Intermodal research project that uses biometric fingerprint readers, smart cards, and encrypted Internet transactions to enhance the security and efficiency of freight supply chain activities. The project, which initially focused on air cargo trans- actions, is being incorporated into other freight modal tests Stakeholders: Trucking, manufacturing, air cargo industries, DOT, TSA/DHS Technology implications: Full integration of personnel, cargo, and tracking data using a range of cutting-edge technology systems 55

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56 CYBERSECURITY OF FREIGHT INFORMATION SYSTEMS: A SCOPING STUDY Project: Transportation Worker Identification Card Description: Proposed government initiative to develop and test a technology-based secure identification sys- tem for transportation workers Stakeholders: TSA/DHS Technology implications: May use two or more biometrics on a smart-card platform Project: Surface Transportation Information Sharing and Analysis Center (Rail/Waterways ST-ISAC) Commercial Vehicle Operations ISAC Description: Public–private system for sharing/transferring security-sensitive information between safety and security agencies and modal interests Stakeholders: Railroads, trucking companies, domestic water- way carriers, U.S. intelligence agencies, public safety agencies, law enforcement agencies Technology implications: Multijurisdictional data-transfer systems. Data formatting and encryption issues Project: TSA Airport Biometric Research Solicitation Description: TSA and FAA are developing and releasing a solicitation to develop and install aviation per- sonnel identification systems throughout the United States (20+ airports). The focus is on access and perimeter control using existing and emerging technologies Stakeholders: Aviation personnel (possibly including air cargo personnel), TSA/FAA, law enforcement agencies Technology implications: Large-scale systems integration using personnel data and government information. Biometric data and readers integrated with personnel manage- ment applications

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SECURITY INITIATIVES AND PROGRAMS WITH CYBERSECURITY RELEVANCE 57 Project: Cargo Handling Cooperative Program Description: Public–private consortium to pursue industry- driven enhancements to cargo handling that support a sustainable and seamless transporta- tion system Stakeholders: Ocean carriers, railroads, port authorities, termi- nal operators/stevedores, trucking companies, government organizations Technology implications: Currently performing assessments of electronic seal technologies in support of the Operation Safe Commerce initiative Project: Freight Performance Measures (Satellite-Based Vehicle Tracking) Description: Research project that uses satellite tracking systems to develop real-time freight performance measures for the NHS (e.g., travel speeds, travel times) Stakeholders: FHWA, state departments of transportation, metropolitan planning agencies, NHS users Technology implications: New applications for vehicle tracking and analysis Project: American Transportation Research Institute Data Privacy Study (Data Sharing Protocols and Strategies) Description: ATRI will begin a study to analyze data privacy issues, data-sharing opportunities, and tools for protecting data Stakeholders: DOT, freight industries/business communities, Department of Justice Technology implications: The study will likely identify industry data that exist in electronic form and offer data protection strategies

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58 CYBERSECURITY OF FREIGHT INFORMATION SYSTEMS: A SCOPING STUDY Project: Port Security Grants Program Description: Congressionally mandated and funded port secu- rity program that provides funding for proposals that test technologies and programs for improving port security. The program is focused on the largest U.S. ocean ports and strategic ports Stakeholders: Ocean carriers, trucking companies, port authori- ties, railroads, shippers, Customs, DOT, TSA Technology implications: Enhanced security infrastructures. Major systems integration between port systems, carrier systems, and public agencies. Likely to use new and emerg- ing technologies and integration software appli- cations. May require the development and collection of new data sets Project: Trucking Industry Anti-Terrorism Operations Center Description: The expanded Highway Watch Program has four elements: (a) a nationwide antiterrorism training program to maintain a 3 million–person cadre as “America’s Trucking Army”; (b) a Call Center to take, route, and record security and safety reports from the industry; (c) an Operations Center to perform analysis, planning, and com- munications functions for the industry on a comprehensive, integrated platform; and (d) an Information Sharing and Analysis Center to serve as the intelligence bridge between industry and government. Scope is directly linked to the level of federal financial support for this effort Stakeholders: The program is open to the entire trucking indus- try and is coordinated by the Trucking Security and Anti-Terrorism Working Group, which consists of 19 national trade and professional organizations

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SECURITY INITIATIVES AND PROGRAMS WITH CYBERSECURITY RELEVANCE 59 Technology implications: The Call Center will utilize a national-capability contractor to conduct this activity. The Operations Center will use a technology platform to integrate industry data, GIS simulation, and open source data Project: National Hazmat Tracking and Security Test Description: DOT-sponsored research program to install and test a suite of existing and emerging technologies that may improve the security and efficiency of hazmat shipments in the United States Stakeholders: Hazmat carriers, DOT safety and highway agen- cies, law enforcement, safety regulatory agencies Technology implications: Uses existing and emerging wireless technologies including satellite tracking and communications, new biometric authentication systems, and elec- tronic cargo data systems Project: Operation Safe Commerce Description: Coordinated research and testing of supply chain security systems using existing and emerging tech- nologies, systems, and processes through the ports of Seattle/Tacoma, Los Angeles/Long Beach, and New York/New Jersey Stakeholders: Coordinated by Customs, DOT, and TSA; all research and testing via partnerships among the ports and the supply chains that use those points of entry Technology implications: Existing and new technologies and systems in tracking, management, information interchange, physical security, and risk assessment Project: Washington E-Seal Program Description: Track commercial inbound containers to deter- mine whether container integrity has been com- promised and facilitate border-clearance activities

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60 CYBERSECURITY OF FREIGHT INFORMATION SYSTEMS: A SCOPING STUDY Stakeholders: Customs, Washington State Department of Transportation, Washington State Trucking Association, ports of Seattle and Tacoma Technology implications: Test technology to enhance security while improving efficiency of inspection and clearances Project: Safe and Secure Trade Lanes Description: Industry-funded initiative to demonstrate and deploy automated tracking and security technol- ogy for containers entering U.S. ports Stakeholders: Hutchison Whampoa, Ltd., PSA Corporation, P&O Ports, Port of Seattle, Port of Tacoma, Port of Los Angeles/Long Beach, Qualcomm, Savi Technology, SAIC, PB Ports & Marine, many others Technology implications: Testing technology and concepts developed for the U.S. Department of Defense in monitoring and tracking containers Project: West Coast Tracking Initiative Description: Industry-funded expansion of the ESCM project that will install and test biometric smart cards for container access and tracking purposes. Will likely tie into Port of Los Angeles/Long Beach for expanded functionality Stakeholders: Trucking industry, shippers/manufacturers, port authorities, container stakeholders Technology implications: Driver authentication through biometrics; facility access control and event notification via smart card (and prox card) systems Project: Customs Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT) Description: Customs initiative to certify companies who agree to conduct a comprehensive self-assessment

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SECURITY INITIATIVES AND PROGRAMS WITH CYBERSECURITY RELEVANCE 61 of supply chain security on the basis of guidelines developed by Customs and the trade community Stakeholders: Shippers, port authorities, importers/exporters Technology implications: Will vary depending on specific C-TPAT agreement Project: Container Security Initiative Description: Customs initiative to prescreen cargo at desig- nated foreign “megaports” before export to the United States Stakeholders: Foreign ports, shippers, importers, and ocean carriers Technology implications: Use of the information provided on the Automated Manifest System to target “high-risk” shipments for further screening via X-ray, gamma ray, WMD detection technologies Project: Chicago Intermodal Data Transfer Initiative Description: FHWA-sponsored research to identify data- sharing opportunities among maritime shipping, rail, and trucking—with an emphasis on con- tainer movements to and from ports. The study will propose a technology system for expediting the flow of data between the modes Stakeholders: Freight industries, shippers/manufacturers, DOT Project: Port Authority of New York and New Jersey’s FIRST System Description: Internet-based port community system that consolidates cargo data and integrates vessel, highway, and rail data Stakeholders: Port community participants (terminals, truckers, freight forwarders, brokers, ocean carriers, etc.)

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62 CYBERSECURITY OF FREIGHT INFORMATION SYSTEMS: A SCOPING STUDY Technology implications: Potential use as a nationwide platform for consol- idated cargo data Project: Cargo*Mate Project Description: Multitechnology, multiphased system for tracking container chassis across the United States. Recently expanded to connect system to tractor/container tracking Stakeholders: PAR Logistics Management Systems, maritime shipping industry, trucking industry, Customs, DOT Technology implications: Real-time satellite/cellular tracking of chassis to provide end-to-end cargo visibility Project: Free and Secure Trade (FAST) Initiative Description: A joint program between the United States and Canada, the FAST initiative is now operational at Detroit, Michigan/Windsor, Ontario; Port Huron, Michigan/Sarnia, Ontario; and Buffalo, New York/Fort Erie, Ontario. In early 2003, the FAST lane program will be extended farther west along the border to Blaine, Washington/Douglas, British Columbia, and to the east, at Champlain, New York/Lacolle, Quebec Stakeholders: Customs, trucking companies, DOT Technology implications: Electronic data sharing/transfer between public- and private-sector entities using several technologies