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Science, Medicine, and Animals RESOURCES AND WEB LINKS Advances in Medicine through Animal Research Americans for Medical Progress Educational Foundation, http://www.ampef.org/history.htm Significant Events of the Last 125 Years American Society for Microbiology, http://www.asmusa.org/mbrsrc/archive/SIGNIFICANT.htm FDA History US Food and Drug Administration, http://www.fda.gov/oc/history/ Science and Conscience: The Animal Experimentation Controversy The Humane Society of the United States National Association for Humane and Environmental Education, www.humaneteen.org In the Name of Science: Issues in Responsible Animal Experimentation F. Barbara Orlans Oxford University Press, New York, 1993. The Scalpel and The Butterfly: The War Between the Animal Research and Animal Protection Deborah Rudacille Farrar, Straus and Giroux, New York, 2000. The Animal Research Controversy: Protest, Process and Public Policy. An Analysis of Strategic Issues Andrew N. Rowan and Franklin M. Loew with Joan Weer Tufts Center for Animals and Public Policy, N. Grafton, MA, 1995. Of Mice, Models and Men. A Critical Analysis of Animal Research Andrew N. Rowan State University of New York Press, Albany, 1984. Animal Research Is Vital to Medicine Jack H. Botting and Adrian R. Morrison Scientific American: http://www.sciam.com/0297issue/0297botting.html Issues and Answers Massachusetts Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, Center for Animal Welfare http://labanimalwelfare.org/product_testing.html#crueltyfree The Black Death American University Trade and Environment Database, http://www.american.edu/TED/BUBONIC.HTM Robert Koch, Top-Biography.com What is Biomedical Research? Michigan Society for Medical Research, http://www.mismr.org/educational/biomedres.html Laboratory Animal Law Kevin Dolan, Blackwell Science Ltd, Oxford, UK, 2000. The Use of Animals as Models of Humans in Biomedical Research Dr. Michael Festing Animals and Alternatives in Testing—History, Science and Ethics Joanne Zurlo, Deborah Rudacille and Alan M. Goldberg, Mary Ann Liebert Inc., New York, 1994
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Science, Medicine, and Animals LINKS On line Information on Animal Research Alternatives to Animal Testing http://sis.nlm.nih.gov/altread.htm Altweb: Alternatives to Animal Testing on the Web http://altweb.jhsph.edu Americans for Medical Progress Educational Foundation http://www.ampef.org Firstgov for Kids http://www.kids.gov The Beginnings: The Laboratory and Animal Studies http://www.fda.gov/fdac/special/newdrug/begin.html Cosmetic Regulations http://vm.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/cos-toc.html Animal Testing http://www.fda.gov/cvm/index/consumer/con15.htm Animal Research Facts http://www.fbresearch.org/facts.html Interactive Frog Dissection http://curry.edschool.virginia.edu/go/frog/ Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals http://www.nap.edu/readingroom/books/labrats International Development of Animal Models http://www.nih.gov/science/models Johns Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing http://caat.jhsph.edu/ Kids 4 Research http://www.kids4research.org National Agricultural Library (Audiovisuals for Animal Care, Use, and Welfare) http:/www.nalusda.gov/awic/pubs/aw200001.htm Office of Animal Care and Use (Printable Posters) http://oacu.od.nih.gov/posters/index.htm
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Science, Medicine, and Animals Public Health Service Policy on Lab Animal Care Tutorial http://grants.nih.gov/grants/olaw/tutorial/index.htm Questions People Ask about Animals in Research http://www.the-aps.org/pub_affairs/animals/index.htm United States Office of Science and Technology Policy http://www.ostp.gov USDA Animal Welfare Fact Sheet http://www.aphis.usda.gov/oa/pubs/awact.html Why Animal Models? http://www.ahc.umn.edu/rar/MNAALAS/Models/html RESOURCES FOR TEACHERS AND STUDENTS (posters, books, pamphlets, brochures, newsletters) The ABCs of Animal Research—a colorful glossary explaining the use of animals in research and testing and the benefits animal research has produced. For middle and high schools. Contact Massachusetts Society for Medical Research at 978-251-1556 or www.msmr.org. Animal Research: Fact vs. Myth—provides up-to-date answers to common misconceptions about animal research. Refutes the major claims of the antiresearch element of the animal rights movement. Contact the Foundation for Biomedical Research at 202-457-0654 or www.fbresearch.org. Animal Sheets—set of four reference sheets detailing the contributions of different species to specific research advances. Set includes sheets on rodents, cats, dogs, nonhuman primates, and other animals. Contact the Foundation for Biomedical Research at 202-457-0654 or www.fbresearch.org. Biologists Discover Amazing Things—a colorful classroom poster outlining the contributions many animal species make to biomedical advances. For middle and high schools. Contact the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology at 301-530-7000 or www.faseb.org. Caring for Laboratory Animals—discusses the humane use of animals in research and explains how animals are used as research subjects and veterinary patients. Also covers legal protection of animals in research and explains the accreditation process for facilities. Contact the Foundation for Biomedical Research at 202-457-0654 or www.fbresearch.org. Casey’s Awakening—an illustrated storybook describing the role played by animals in research and testing and the care that laboratory animals receive. Accompanied by a guide of critical and creative thinking activities for teachers. For middle schools. Contact the Massachusetts Society for Medical Research at 978-251-1556 or www.msmr.org. Exploring the Mysteries of Aging—outlines the contributions of animal research to the health of our aging population. Contact the Foundation for Biomedical Research at 202-457-0654 or www.fbresearch.org.
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Science, Medicine, and Animals Friends and Partners: A Story about the Partnership of Man and Animals—an illustrated booklet describing the partnership between people and animals in the search for advances in biomedicine. Included are illustrations of animals, as well as some photographs of children who have been helped by animal research. For elementary schools. Contact the Southwest Association for Education in Biomedical Research at 520-621-3931 or www.swaebr.org. Human and Animal Disease Fact Sheets—a series of fact sheets on human and animal disease and conditions. Fact sheets provide statistics about the disease or condition; describe the history of research on that disease; and outline some of the treatments and advances that have resulted from that research. Explains the specific role animals have played in research on these topics. For high schools and colleges. Contact the California Biomedical Research Association at 916-558-1515 or www.ca-biomed.org. LAB Notes: Toxicology—a newsletter for teachers and students to introduce the science of toxicology and risk assessment. Includes “A Primer in Toxicology,” “Poison Control Facts,” “Risk Assessment,” “The Use of Animals in Toxicology,” “Alternatives,” and more. Accompanied by classroom activities. For middle and high schools. Contact the Massachusetts Society for Medical Research at 978-251-1556 or www.msmr.org. The Lucky Puppy—an interactive coloring storybook about animals and research. Contains coloring, drawing, and other activities. For elementary schools. Contact the North Carolina Association for Biomedical Research at 919-785-1304 or www.ncabr.org. Overview of the Issues—a comprehensive manuscript pertaining to the use of animals in laboratory research. This manuscript is ideal for anyone interested in learning the fundamental yet important facts, figures, and statistics about the use of animals in laboratory research. Contact the Humane Society of the United States at 202-452-1100 or www.hsus.org. People and Animals, Sharing the World—an interdisciplinary program designed to introduce and explain concepts in veterinary medicine and to explore value judgments as they relate to animals. A unique aspect of these materials is that they combine activities in social studies, science, citizenship, career education, and mathematics for an overall learning program. For elementary schools. Contact the American Veterinary Medical Association at 847-925-8070 or www.avma.org. People and Animals: United for Health—an interactive, poster-sized health and science calendar. Topics are—Infectious Disease, Aging, Diabetes, AIDS and Feline Leukemia, Dental Health, Heart Disease, Poison Control and Product Safety, Biodiversity and the Environment, Mental Health and Substance Abuse, Body Organs and Transplantation, The Five Senses and the Brain, and Nutrition. Accompanied by the HEADS ON! For Healthy Living teacher’s guide of critical and creative thinking activities, and teacher training workshops of the same name. For elementary schools. Contact the Massachusetts Society for Medical Research at 978-251-1556 or www.msmr.org. People and Animals: United for Health—a curriculum resource package that serves as a background supplement on the use of animals in biomedical research, education, and testing for science curricula. Includes a 13-unit reference manual, set of 169 slides, discussion guide, and teacher’s guide of critical and creative thinking activities. For middle and high schools. Contact the Massachusetts Society for Medical Research at 978-251-1556 or www.msmr.org.
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Science, Medicine, and Animals Principles and Guidelines for the Use of Animals in Precollege Education—a brochure offering a framework for the humane study of animals in precollege classrooms. For middle and high schools. Contact the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research at 202-334-1264 or www.national-academies.org/ilar. The Proud Achievements of Animal Research—focuses on the contributions of animal research to today’s society and warns of the problems that would be created if animal research were stopped. Also gives a short chronological list of major medical breakthroughs utilizing animal research. Contact the Foundation for Biomedical Research at 202-457-0654 or www.fbresearch.org. Respect for Life—a brochure on research animals and their care, their contribution to health, and the search for alternatives. Contact the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences at 919-541-3345 or www.niehs.nih.gov Rx for Science Literacy: The What, Where, How, and Why of Health Science Research—This 300-page K-12 teacher manual captures the complex research process and addresses the care and use of animals in the biomedical research process in an easy-to-follow, easy-to-use format. It is filled with background information, handouts, lesson plans, and activities to assist teachers of all grade levels in the classroom. This curriculum has been extensively revised and updated three times, most recently in August 2002. Additions include chapters on therapeutic cloning, bioscience careers, and transgenic animals. Endorsed by the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction. Contact the North Carolina Association for Biomedical Research at 919-785-1304 or www.ncabr.org. Science and Conscience—Written for high school students and their teachers, Science and Conscience explores the facts and issues at the heart of the animal experimentation controversy. Major topics include the history of and current trends in animal experimentation, the use of animals in education, biomedical research, and product testing, and the development of laws, alternatives, and other initiatives to improve standards for animal care and scientific research alike. This full-color, 43-page booklet contains critical-thinking questions, projects, suggestions for independent study, and meaningful activities for high school classes and student clubs. It is an excellent resource for the individual student activist as well as a valuable teaching tool for high school biology instructors. Contact the National Association for Humane and Environmental Education at 202-452-1100 or www.humaneteen.org. Science Beat—a color newsletter defining biomedical research and introducing students to the use of animals in biomedical research, including the laws and regulations that govern animal research. For middle and high schools. Contact the Massachusetts Society for Medical Research at 978-251-1556 or www.msmr.org.
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Science, Medicine, and Animals Understanding the Use of Animals in Biomedical Research—excellent primer on animal research. Major points covered include the benefits to society of animal research, the various roles animals play in research, the validity of scientific research, some basic trends about the numbers of animals used, a brief overview of their care and treatment, as well as the laws and regulations that protect them. Finally, there is a section devoted to alternatives and what that really means. Contact the Foundation for Biomedical Research at 202-457-0654 or www.fbresearch.org. The Use of Animals in Product Safety Testing—brief overview of the issue of animals in safety testing. Covers the science of toxicology and federal regulations and explains the myth of “cruelty-free” products and alternatives. Contact the Foundation for Biomedical Research at 202-457-0654 or www.fbresearch.org. Women’s Health: Developing Treatments and Cures through Animal Research—highlights the contributions of animal research to women’s health. Contact the Foundation for Biomedical Research at 202-457-0654 or www.fbresearch.org. ANIMAL RESEARCH REGULATIONS AND GUIDELINES Animal Welfare Act, http://www.nal.usda.gov/awic/legislation/awa.htm Health Research Extension Act of 1985, http://grants.nih.gov/grants/olaw/references/hrea1985.htm NetVet Veterinary Government and Law Resources, http://netvet.wustl.edu/law.htm Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals http://grants.nih.gov/grants/olaw/references/hrea1985.htm USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Animal Care Policy Manual http://www.aphis.usda.gov/ac/polman.html ORGANIZATIONS DISCUSSED Animal Welfare Information Center (AWIC), http://www.nal.usda.gov/awic Animal Welfare Institute, www.animalwelfare.com Applied Research Ethics National Association (ARENA), www.primr.org/arena.html Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International (AAALAC International), http://www.aaalac.org
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Science, Medicine, and Animals Food and Drug Administration (FDA), http://www.fda.gov Institute for Laboratory Animal Research (ILAR), http://www.national-academies.org/ilar Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM), http://iccvam.niens.nih.gov National Institutes of Health (NIH), http://www.nih.gov United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), http://www.aphis.usda.gov/ac/ OTHER ORGANIZATIONS American Association for Laboratory Animal Science, http://www.aalas.org American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine, http://www.aclam.org American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, http://www.aspca.org American Society of Laboratory Animal Practitioners, http://www.aslap.org American Veterinary Medical Association, http://www.avma.org Canadian Council on Animal Care, http://www.ccac.ca Foundation for Biomedical Research, http://www.fbresearch.org Humane Society of the United States, http://www.hsus.org Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC), www.iacuc.org National Association for Biomedical Research (NABR), http://www.nabr.org Public Responsibility in Medicine and Research (PRIM&R), http://www.aamc.org/research/primr Scientists Center for Animal Welfare (SCAW), http://www.scaw.com States United for Biomedical Research, http://statesforbiomed.org
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Science, Medicine, and Animals THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. The development of this report was supported by Grant No. RR11611 from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and its publication and dissemination were supported by the Presidents’ Circle Communications Initiative of the National Academies, Contract No. N01-OD-4-2139, Task Order 135 from the NIH, American Association for Laboratory Animal Science, American Psychological Association, Association of American Medical Colleges, Society of Toxicology, Merck Research Laboratories, and Wyeth Pharmaceuticals. International Standard Book Number 0-309-08894-1 (Book) International Standard Book Number 0-309-51166-6 (PDF) Library of Congress Control Number 2004113046 Design by Landam Design Works, Rockville, Maryland Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2004 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America
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Science, Medicine, and Animals THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org
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Science, Medicine, and Animals COMMITTEE TO UPDATE SCIENCE, MEDICINE, AND ANIMALS Peter A. Ward (Chair), University of Michigan Medical School, Department of Pathology, Ann Arbor, Michigan G. F. Gebhart, University of Iowa, College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa Lilly-Marlene Russow, Purdue University, Department of Philosophy, West Lafayette, Indiana William S. Stokes, National Institute of Environmental Health Science, Animal and Alternative Resources, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina Michael F. Festing, University of Leicester, MRC Toxicology Unit, Leicester, United Kingdom CONSULTANTS Leslie Nader, Massachusetts Society for Medical Research, Inc., North Chelmsford, Massachusetts Susan Offner, Lexington High School, Science Department, Lexington, Massachusetts INSTITUTE FOR LABORATORY ANIMAL RESEARCH COUNCIL Peter A. Ward (Chair), University of Michigan Medical School, Department of Pathology, Ann Arbor, Michigan Stephen W. Barthold, University of California- Davis, Center for Comparative Medicine, Davis, California Rosemary W. Elliott, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Buffalo, New York Michael F. Festing, University of Leicester, MRC Toxicology Unit, Leicester, United Kingdom Janet C. Gonder, Pinehurst, North Carolina Coenraad F.M. Hendriksen, National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Central Animal Laboratories, Bilthoven, The Netherlands Jay R. Kaplan, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Department of Comparative Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina Hilton J. Klein, Merck Research Laboratories, Department of Laboratory Animal Resources, West Point, Pennsylvania William Morton, University of Washington, National Primate Research Center, Seattle, Washington Randall J. Nelson, University of Tennessee, Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Memphis, Tennessee Emilie F. Rissman, University of Virginia, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, Charlottesville, Virginia Lilly-Marlene Russow, Purdue University, Department of Philosophy, West Lafayette, Indiana William S. Stokes, National Institute of Environmental Health Science, Animal and Alternative Resources, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina Michael K. Stoskopf, North Carolina State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Raleigh, North Carolina Thomas Wolfle, Cambridge, Maryland
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Science, Medicine, and Animals STAFF Joanne Zurlo, Director Jennifer Obernier, Program Officer Kathleen Beil, Administrative Assistant Marsha Barrett, Project Assistant Susan Vaupel, Editor INSTITUTE FOR LABORATORY ANIMAL RESEARCH Since 1952, the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research (ILAR) has developed guidelines and disseminated information on the scientific, technological and ethical use of animals and related biological resources in research, testing and education. ILAR promotes high quality, humane care of animals and the appropriate use of animals and alternatives. ILAR functions within the mission of the National Academies as an adviser to the federal government, the biomedical research community and the public. www.national-academies.org/ilar THE COMMITTEE TO UPDATE SCIENCE, MEDICINE, AND ANIMALS WISHES TO ACKNOWLEDGE THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE FOLLOWING INDIVIDUALS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THIS PUBLICATION: Thaddeus Graczyk, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Baltimore, Maryland Victoria Hampshire, US Food and Drug Administration, Division of Surveillance, Office of Surveillance/Compliance, Center for Veterinary Medicine, Rockville, Maryland Nirbhay Kumar, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Baltimore, Maryland Chris McNickle, Pathology Associates, International, Frederick, Maryland Stephen Rockwood, The Jackson Laboratory, Induced Mutant Resource, Bar Harbor, Maine Michael Rogawski, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, Maryland Deborah Rudacille, Johns Hopkins University, Center for Talented Youth, Center for Distance Education The Committee would like to credit the following organizations and individuals for the photographs
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Science, Medicine, and Animals used in this publication: The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the World Health Organization, the US Food and Drug Administration, the National Institute for Mental Health, the New England Journal of Medicine, Jim Gathany (mosquito photograph), and Jennifer Merriam (green mouse photograph). This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Bruce Fuchs, National Institutes of Health, Office of Science Education, Bethesda, Maryland Karen Hoffman, North Carolina Association for Biomedical Research, Raleigh, North Carolina Judy Jones, East Chapel Hill High School, Science Department, Chapel Hill, North Carolina Lorne Mendell, SUNY at Stony Brook, Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, Stony Brook, New York Janice M. Miller, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, Ames, Iowa James W. Patrick, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas Andrew N. Rowan, Humane Society of the United States, Washington, DC Bernard A. Schwetz, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Office of the Commissioner, Rockville, Maryland Eve Lloyd Thompson, The Bernice Barbour Foundation, Wellington, Florida Stephen Zawistowski, American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, New York, New York Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by David R. Challoner, University of Florida, Gainesville, and John G. Vandenbergh, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC. Appointed by the National Research Council, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.
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Representative terms from entire chapter: