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A Data Tables 217

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218 DIOXINS AND DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS IN THE FOOD SUPPLY TABLE A-1 Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds and the Most Common Toxicity Equivalency Factor (TEF) Systems Compound I-TEFa WHO 94b WHO 98c Dioxins 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin 1 1 1.0 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin 0.5 0.5 1.0 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1 0.1 0.1 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1 0.1 0.1 1,2,3,7,8,9-hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1 0.1 0.1 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin 0.01 0.01 0.01 Octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins 0.001 0.001 0.0001 Furans 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran 0.1 0.1 0.1 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran 0.05 0.05 0.05 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran 0.5 0.5 0.5 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorodibenzofuran 0.1 0.1 0.1 1,2,3,7,8,9-hexachlorodibenzofuran 0.1 0.1 0.1 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexachlorodibenzofuran 0.1 0.1 0.1 2,3,4,6,7,8-hexachlorodibenzofuran 0.1 0.1 0.1 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzofuran 0.01 0.01 0.01 1,2,3,4,7,8,9-heptachlorodibenzofuran 0.01 0.01 0.01 1,2,3,4,6,7,8,9-octachlorodibenzofuran 0.001 0.001 0.0001 Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) 3,3'4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB-77) 0.0005 0.0001 3,4,4',5-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB-81) 0.0001 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB- 126) 0.1 0.1 3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB-169) 0.01 0.01 2,3,3',4,4-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-105) 0.0001 0.0001 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-118) 0.0001 0.0001 2',3,4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-123) 0.0001 0.0001 2,3,3',4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB-156) 0.0005 0.0005 2,3,3',4,4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB-157) 0.0005 0.0005 2,3',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB-167) 0.00001 0.00001 2,3,4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-114) 0.0005 0.0005 2,2',3,3',4,4',5-heptachlorobiphenyl (PCB-170) 0.0001 2,2',3,4,4',5,5'-heptachlorobiphenyl (PCB - 180) 0.00001 2,3,3',4,4',5,5'-heptachlorobiphenyl (PCB-189) 0.0001 0.0001 aInternational TEF system. See EPA (1989). bAhlborg et al. (1994). Cvan den Berg et al. (1998). NOTE: Bold type indicates compounds with varying TEFs.

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APPENDIX A TABLE A-2 Toxicity Equivalency Factor (TEF) Systems Used in Governmental Reports on Dioxins and Dixon-like Compounds Reviewed by the Committee 219 Reference CDDs/CDFs PCBs AEA Technology, I-TEQ unless otherwise specified; Not evaluated 1999 WHO (1994) also used ATSDR, 1998 All are presented, but use is not Both are presented, but use is distinguished not distinguished EPA, 2000 WHO 98 is preferred, but all WHO 98 is preferred, but all systems are used and systems are used and distinguished distinguished Fiedler et al., 2000 I-TEQ and WHO 98; most data WHO 98; sometimes added given in I-TEQ into I-TEQ IARC, 1997 I-TEQ Not evaluated Scientific Committee WHO 98 is preferred WHO 98 is preferred on Food, 2000, 2001 NOTE: CDD = chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, CDF = chlorodibenzofuran, PCB = polychlorinated biphenyl, TEQ = toxicity equivalents.

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220 DIOXINS AND DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS IN THE FOOD SUPPLY TABLE A-3 Data for the Lowest Exposure Strata in Cancer Epidemiology Studies on Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds Table Number Exposure Definition Risk Measure Risk Estimate (95% confidence interval) Lowest septile of estimated cumulative exposure (0 to < 19) Lowest septile of estimated cumulative exposure (0 to < 39) 0-125.1 ng TCDD/kg blood (German chemical manufacturing workers) Subcohorts (German chemical manufacturing workers) with median blood TCDD levels of 9.5 ppt and 8.4 ppt 7-14 Low estimated potential for phenoxyacetic acid exposure Low estimated potential for chlorophenol exposure 7-17 Pulp and paper mill workers (IARC considers this to entail low exposure) 7-19 Seveso Region R SMR for total cancer SMR for total cancer RR for total cancer RR for lung cancer RR for stomach cancer RR for total cancer RR for soft-tissue sarcoma RR for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma RR for soft-tissue sarcoma RR for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma RR for death from all cancer RR and SMR for all cancer 1.14 (no lag) 0.98 (10-y lag) 1.24 (0.82-1.79) 0.5 (0.1-1.8) 0 (0-1~7) 1.1 (0.6-1.8) 0.6 (0.3-1.1) 0.9 (0.6-1.3) 0.9 (0.5-1.6) 1.0 (0.7-1.3) 0.9 (0.8-1.0) Males 0.9 (0.9-1.0) Females 0.9 (0.8-1.1) NOTE: SMR = standard mortality ratio, TCDD = tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, RR = relative risk, IARC = International Agency for Research on Cancer. SOURCE: EPA (2000).

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APPENDIX A TABLE A-4 Body Burdens of Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in Potentially Highly Exposed Populations 221 Value (Tissue) in the Value (Tissue) in the Reference Exposed Populationa Referents Comments Breastfed infants EPA, Mean at 11 mo: 34.7 pg Mean at 11 mo: 2.7 pg 1994-1995 2000 TEQDF-WHO98/g TEQDF-WHO98/g lipid (blood) lipid (blood) EPA, Mean at 25 mo: 43.9 pg Mean at 25 mo: 3.3 pg 1994-1995 2000 TEQDF-WHO98/g TEQDF-WHO98/g lipid (blood) lipid (blood) EPA, Mean at 11 mo: 31.4 pg Mean at 11 mo: 2.5 pg 1994-1995 2000 TEQp wHo98/g TEQp wHo98/g lipid (blood) lipid (blood) Heavy consumers of fish (other than Northern Dwellers) EPA, Mean in high-fish Mean in non-fish 2000 consumers: 60 pg consumers: 20 pg I-TEQDF/g lipid (blood) I-TEQDF/g lipid (blood) EPA, Mean in fish eaters: 292.6 Mean in controls: 2000 Pg TEQp WHO94/g lipid (blood) EPA, 2000 10.9 pg TEQp-wHo94/g lipid (blood) People living near local sources of contamination EPA, Consumers of local beef Comparison group: 17.0 2000 and eggs for up to 15 y: pg I-TEQDF/g (blood) 63.7 pg I-TEQDF/g (blood) EPA, Near industrial emissions: Control samples: 16 and 2000 49-291 pg I-TEQDF/g 26 pg I-TEQDF/g lipid (blood) lipid (blood) Near a solid waste Expected mean: 55 pg TEQDFp-wHo94Ig lipid (blood) incinerator: 22-463 pg TEQDFp WHO94/g lipid (blood) EPA, Near a PCB manufacturing 2000 plant: 16-39 pg I-TEQD/g lipid (blood) 7-131 pg I-TEQF/g lipid (blood) Baltic Sea fish in Sweden Fishermen in the Gulf of the St. Lawrence; congener analysis done only in the 10/185 samples with the highest total PCB concentrations Unclear if this is lipid basis England Japan Alabama 19 pg I-TEQD/g lipid (blood) 8 pg I-TEQF/g lipid (blood) continued

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222 TABLE A-4 Continued DIOXINS AND DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS IN THE FOOD SUPPLY Value (Tissue) in the Value (Tissue) in the Reference Exposed Population Referents Comments 34-360 pg TEQp-wHo94/g lipid (blood) 32 pg TEQp-wHo94/g lipid (blood) Northern Dwellers ATSDR, 8.4 pg TCDD/g (plasma) 1998 ATSDR, 39.6 pg TEQ/g (plasma) 14.6 pg TEQ/g (plasma) 1998 ATSDR, 184.2 pg TEQ/g (plasma) 1998 < 2 pg TCDD/g Inuits vs Quebecois Inuits vs Quebecois Inuits vs Quebecois 26.1 pg TEQ/g (plasma) NOTE: TEQ = toxicity equivalents, PCB = polychlorinated biphenyl, TCDD = tetrachlorodibenzo-p- . . dioxin. TABLE A-5 Intakes of Dioxins by Highly Exposed Populations Reference Population Value Compounds Comments Breastfed infants ATSDR, 1998 At 4 weeks 132.1 pg TEQ/kg CDD Cumulative intake 257 pg TEQ/kg CDD/CDF ATSDR, 1998 83.1 pg TEQ/kg/d CDD/CDF Older data ATSDR, 1998 During first year 35-53 pg TEQ/kg/d CDD/CDF Older data People living near local sources of contamination EPA, 2000 Near a waste Background intake incineration site, from same food estimated daily types, 43.2 pg intake of 165 pg I-TEQDF/d I-TEQDF/d CDD/CDF Wales NOTE: TEQ = toxicity equivalents, CDD = chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, CDF = chlorodibenzofuran.

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APPENDIX A TABLE A-6 Existing Total Human Exposure Limits 223 Legislation/Guidelines Country/Organization pg TEQ/kg/d Tolerable daily intake WHO 1-4 JECFA 2.3 EC 2 The Netherlands 1 Japan 4 Tolerable weekly intake JECFA 16.1 EC 14 Proposed tolerable monthly intake Australia 70 Provisional tolerable monthly intake JECFA 70 NOTE: TEQ = toxicity equivalents, WHO = World Health Organization, JECFA = Joint Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives, EC = European Commission.

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224 DIOXINS AND DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS IN THE FOOD SUPPLY TABLE A-7 Summary of Existing U.S. Federal Environmental Regulations and Guidelines Regulation/Guideline Description Limits Human Exposure ATSDR Guidelines/CERCLA In compliance with CERCLA, ATSDR has set up Acute ME MRLs, which are estimates of daily human exposure Intermedi, to a substance that is likely to be without appreciable Chronic risk of adverse health effects Air 40 C.F.R. 60 Subpart AAAA New Source Performance Standards for New Small 13 ng/dsc Municipal Waste Combustion Units mass be m~n~mu 40 C.F.R. 60 Subpart BBBB Emission Guidelines for Existing Small Municipal 125 ng/ds Waste Combustion Units 40 C.F.R. 60 Subpart EB New Source Performance Standards for Large 13 ng/dsc Municipal Waste Combustors mass be mass (c testing) 40 C.F.R. 60 Subpart EC New Source Performance Standards HMIWI Small HE (55 g/1~ (1.0 g/l Medium a CDD/C. TEQ (O 40 C.F.R. 60 Subpart CE Applies to HMIWI constructed on or before 6/20/96 Small, me 125 ng/ dscf) c Small furl CDD/C TEQ (6 40 C.F.R. 63, 261, and 430 New Source Performance Standards: Pulp, Paper, and Paperboard Category 40 C.F.R. 63, 261, and 430 National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category: Pulp and Paper Production, Effluent Limitations Guidelines, Pretreatment Standards 40 C.F.R. 60 Hazardous Waste Incinerators, Cement Kilns, and New Sour Lightweight Aggregate Kilns New Sources Existing ' 0.40 ng to the i: device 40 C.F.R. 60 Subpart CCCC New Source Performance Standards for CIWI 0.41 ng/d. constructed after 9/30/99 40 C.F.R. 60 Subpart DDDD Emission Guidelines for Existing CIWI 0.41 ng/d.

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APPENDIX A Nations 225 Limits Date Implementation Date Compliance Required Required lp exposure ~reciable nail pal 0/96 r, and er Acute MRL = 0.0002 ,ug/kg/d Intermediate MRL = 0.00002 ,ug/kg/d Chronic MRL = 0.000001 ,ug/kg/d 13 ng/dscm for dioxins/furans on a total mass basis, using a 3-run average with a minimum of 4-h run duration 125 ng/dscm (total mass basis) 13 ng/dscm for dioxins/furans on a total mass basis (mandatory), or 7 ng/dscm total mass (optional to qualify for less frequent testing) Small HMIWI: 125 ng/dscm total CDD/CDF (55 g/109 dscf) or 2.3 ng/dscm TEQ (1.0 g/109 dscf) Medium and Large HMIWI: 25 ng/dscm total CDD/CDF (11 g/109 dscf) or.6 ng/dscm TEQ (0.26 g/109 dscf) Small, medium, and large HMIWI: 125 ng/dscm total CDD/CDF (55 g/109 dscf) or 2.3 ng/dscm TEQ (1.0 g/109 dscf) Small rural HMIWI: 800 ng/dscm total CDD/CDF (350 g/109 dscf) or 15 ng/dscm TEQ (6.6 g/109 dscf) Not applicable Not applicable 6/6/01 6/6/01 Implementation by 12/6/05 state plan 6/19/96 6/19/96 Effective 3/15/98 3/15/98 or within 180 days of initial start up Effective 9/14/00 8/15/01 or incrementally by 9/15/02 ad New Sources: 0.20 ng TEQ/dscm 9/30/99 9/30/02 Existing Sources: 0.20 ng TEQ/dscm or 0.40 ng TEQ/dscm and temperature at inlet to the initial particulate matter control device < 400F 0.41 ng/dscm (TEQ basis) 1/30/01 Within 60 days, no later than 180 days after initial startup 0.41 ng/dscm (TEQ basis) 12/1/01 12/6/05 continued

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226 TABLE A-7 Continued DIOXINS AND DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS IN THE FOOD SUPPLY Regulation/Guideline Description Limits Water National Primary Drinking Maximum contaminant level 2,3,7,8-T( Water Regulations Safe Drinking Water Act Maximum contaminant level goal in public drinking water 2,3,7,8-T( Sludge/biosolids 40 C.F.R. 503 (proposed) Proposed Standards for the Use or Disposal of Sewage 0.0003 me Sludge for apply NOTE: ATSDR = Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, CERCLA = Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, MRL = minimum risk level, dscm = dry standard cubic meter, HMIWI = hazardous material/industrial waste incinerator, CDD = chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, CDF = chlorodibenzofuran, TEQ = toxicity equivalents, dscf = dry standard cubic feet, CIWI = commercial/industrial waste incinerator, TCDD = tetrachlorodibenzo- . . . p-aloxln.

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APPENDIX A 227 Date Implementation Date Compliance Limits Required Required 2,3,7,8-TCDD: 3 x 10-8 mg/L 1994 1994 king water 2,3,7,8-TCDD: O Nonenforceable, Nonenforceable, voluntary health voluntary health goal goal Sewage 0.0003 mg TEQ/kg dry sewage sludge for application to land Proposed 12/23/99 Not applicable prehensive dscm = A= ,cf = dry ~dibenzo-

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270 DIOXINS AND DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS IN THE FOOD SUPPLY TABLE A-25 Concentrations of DLCs in Foods Fiedler et al. Scientific Food ATSDR (1998)a (2000)b AEA Technology (1999)C on Food (I Beef National average: Europe: all meats: Denmark: meat, 2.6 pg I-TEQ/g lipid Beef and 0.89 pg 0.09-20 pg Finland: < 0.2 pg N-TEQ/g lipid PCDD/: I-TEQ/g lipid I-TEQ/g lipid Germany: 1.44-3.5 pg I-TEQ/g lipid 0.681 (l New York: Netherlands: 1.25-1.8 pg TEQ/g lipid pg I-TE 0.04-1.5 pg Spain: 1.76 pg I-TEQ/g lipid PCB, 0 I-TEQ/g ww Sweden: range 0.4-1.5 pg N-TEQ/g (0.86-1 lipid TEQW~ Pork National average: See beef Finland: < 0.1 pg N-TEQ/g lipid PCDD/PC 1.30 pg Germany: 0.13-0.5 pg I-TEQ/g lipid (0.13-3 I-TEQ/g lipid Netherlands: 0.25-0.43 pg TEQ/g lipid I-TEQ/, New York: Spain: 0.90 pg I-TEQ/g lipid 0.3 pg I-TEQ/g Sweden: range 0.06-1.2 pg N-TEQ/g ww lipid Chicken National average: See milk Denmark: 2.2 pg I-TEQ/g lipid PCDD/PC 0.40-0.98 pg Germany: 0.70-2.3 pg I-TEQ/g lipid (0.37-1 I-TEQ/g lipid Netherlands: 0.66-1.6 pg TEQ/g lipid I-TEQ/, New York: Spain: 1.15 pg I-TEQ/g lipid 0.03 pg Sweden, range: 0.42-1.1 pg N-TEQ/g I-TEQ/g ww lipid United Kingdom: 0.13 pg I-TEQ/g fw Other meat New York: See beef Germany: veal, 0.70-7.4 pg I-TEQ/g Game: PC 0.12-0.4 pg lipid 1.81 (0 I-TEQ/g ww Germany: lamb, 2.0 pg I-TEQ/g lipid pg I-TE Netherlands: liver, 5.7-42 pg TEQ/g PCB, 3 lipid TEQ Spain: lamb, 1.76 pg I-TEQ g/lipid Sweden: mutton, range 0.55-1.3 pg N-TEQ/g lipid United Kingdom: duck, 0.4 pg I-TEQ/g fw United Kingdom: carcass, 0.13 pg I-TEQ/g fw

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APPENDIX A 271 Scientific Committee on Food (2000, 2001)4 IARC (1997)e EPA (2000}f 2/g lipid rpld i/g lipid Q/g lipid TEQ/g ., rpla i/g lipid _Q/g lipid [-TEQ/g id i/g lipid Q/g lipid 9-TEQ/g 'EQ/g fw -TEQ/g ;2/g lipid TEQ/g '/lipid 1.3 pg L3 pg Beef and veal: PCDD/PCDF, 0.681 (0.38-1.1) pg I-TEQ/g lipid; PCB, 0.914 (0.86-1.08) pg TEQWHO94/g lipid PCDD/PCDF, 0.258 (0.13-3.8) pg I-TEQ/g lipid PCDD/PCDF, 0.524 Europe: (0.37-1.4) pg I-TEQ/g lipid Game: PCDD/PCDF, Europe: 1.81 (0.97-1.97) pg I-TEQ/g lipid; PCB, 3.15 pg TEQWHO94/g lipid Mean of all data for all meats: 6.5 pg I-TEQ/g lipid Europe: 1.77 pg I-TEQ/g lipid United States: 0.89 pg I-TEQ/g lipid Europe: 0.42 pg I-TEQ/g lipid 1.62-1.68 pg I-TEQ/g lipid 0.4-61.2 pg I-TEQ/g lipid Preferred value: 1.06 pg TEQDF WHO98/g lipid 0.49 pg TEQp-wHo98Ig lipid Other: 0.152-0.254 pg I-TEQDF/g ww 0.04-1.5 pg I-TEQDF/g ww 0.29 pg I-TEQDF/g ww Canada: 0.10-0~39 pg TEQDFP-WHO94/g Germany: 0.71-0.95 pg I-TEQDF/g lipid Netherlands: 1.75 pg I-TEQDF/g lipid Spain: 1.76 pg I-TEQDF/g lipid Preferred value: 1.48 pg TEQDF WHO98/g lipid 0.06 pg TEQp-wHo98Ig lipid Other: 0.029-0.26 pg I-TEQDF/g ww Canada: 0.049-0~053 pg TEQDFP-WHO94/g Germany: 0.39 pg I-TEQDF/g lipid Netherlands: 0.43 pg I-TEQDF/g lipid Spain: 0.90 pg I-TEQDF/g lipid Preferred value: 0~77 pg TEQDF-WHO98/g lipid 0.29 pg TEQp-wHo98Ig lipid Other: 0.043-0.085 pg I-TEQDF/g ww 0.03 pg I-TEQDF/g ww Canada: 0.062-0~076 pg TEQDFP-WHO94/g Germany: 0.62 pg I-TEQDF/g lipid Netherlands: 1.65 pg I-TEQDF/g lipid Spain: 1.15 g I-TEQDF/g lipid No preferred value continued

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272 TABLE A-25 Continued DIOXINS AND DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS IN THE FOOD SUPPLY Fiedler et al. Scientific Food ATSDR (1998)a (2000)b AEA Technology (1999)C on Food (I Cow milk National average: Europe: 0.2-3 pg Denmark: 2.6 pg I-TEQ/g lipid PCDD/PC 0.82 pg I-TEQ/g lipid Finland: 0.83-1.17 pg N-TEQ/g lipid (0.26-3 I-TEQ/g lipid Europe: milk, France: 1.81 pg I-TEQ/g lipid I-TEQ/, milk products, Germany: 0.71-0.87 pg I-TEQ/g lipid PCB, 1.2' poultry, eggs, Ireland: 0.08-0.51 pg I-TEQ/g lipid pg TEE midpoints in Netherlands: 0.38-1.6 pg TEQ/g lipid lipid range of Spain: 1.2-2.0 pg I-TEQ/g lipid 0.75-1.7 pg Sweden: 0.93-2 pg N-TEQ/g lipid I-TEQ/g lipid United Kingdom: 1.01 pg I-TEQ/g lipid Other New York: See milk Denmark: cheese, 2.2 pg I-TEQ/g lipid PCDD/PC dairy 0.04-0.7 pg Europe: 0.5-4 pg Finland: 0.83 pg N-TEQ/g lipid (0.30-1 I-TEQ/g ww I-TEQ/g lipid France: butter, cheese, cream, I-TEQ/, 1.01-1.34 pg I-TEQ/g lipid PCB, 0.5( Germany: milk/dairy products, (0.38-0 0.75-1.02 pg I-TEQ/g lipid TEQ Italy: butter, 8.4 pg I-TEQ/g fw Netherlands: butter, cheese, 1.4-1.8 pg TEQ/g lipid Spain: 1.25 pg I-TEQ/g lipid Sweden: butter, range 0.35-0.5 pg N-TEQ/g lipid

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APPENDIX A 273 Scientific Committee on Food (2000, 2001)d IARC (1997)e EPA (2000}f id 2/g lipid Q/g lipid 'g lipid Q/g lipid pid lipid 'EQ/g lipid EQ/g lipid lid fw L.4-1.8 pg 1.5 pg PCDD/PCDF, 0.972 Mean of all data: Preferred value: 0.98 pg TEQDF wHo98lg lipid (0.26-3.57) pg 2.3 pg 0.49 pg TEQp-wHo98Ig lipid I-TEQ/g lipid I-TEQ/g lipid Other: 0.061 pg TEQDF/g PCB, 1.25 (0.23-1.8) Median: 1.7 pg pg TEQwHog4/g lipid PCDD/PCDF, 0.612 (0~30-1.5) pg I-TEQ/g lipid PCB, 0.564 (0.38-0.78) pg TEQwHo94lg lipid I-TEQ/g lipid 95th percentile: 4.5 pg I-TEQ/g lipid Europe: 1.31-3.94 pg I-TEQ/g lipid United States: 0.99 pg I-TEQ/g lipid Mean of all data: 2.4 pg I-TEQ/g lipid Europe: 0.75-2.3 pg I-TEQ/g lipid 0.012-0.026 pg I-TEQDF/g ww 0.1-1.2 pg I-TEQDF/g lipid Canada: 0.025-0~072 pg TEQDFP-WHO94/g France: 1.91 pg I-TEQDF/g lipid Germany: 0.71 pg I-TEQDF/g lipid Spain: 1.02-1.20 pg I-TEQDF/g lipid United Kingdom: 0.06-0.08 pg I-TEQDF/g Preferred value: assumed to be the same, on a lipid basis, as for milk Other: 0.082-0.38 pg I-TEQDF/g 0.254-0.770 pg I-TEQDF/g ww 0.04-0.73 pg I-TEQDF/g ww Canada: 0.138-0~93 pg TEQDFP-WHO94/g France: 1.01-1.34 pg I-TEQDF/g lipid Germany: 0.64-0.66 pg I-TEQDF/g lipid Netherlands: 1.4-1.8 pg I-TEQDF/g lipid Spain: 1.25 pg I-TEQDF/g lipid continued

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274 TABLE A-25 Continued DIOXINS AND DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS IN THE FOOD SUPPLY Food Fiedler et al. ATSDR (1998)a (2000)b AEA Technology (1999)C Scientific on Food (I Fish Eggs No data New York: 0.02-0.13 pg I-TEQ/g ww New York/ New Jersey: wild crab: 78.2 pg TEQ/g ww Europe: 2-300 pg I-TEQ/g lipid See milk Europe: 1-4 pg I-TEQ/g lipid Sweden: 0.35-6.3 pg N-TEQ/g fw Sweden: herring, 9.1-420 pg N-TEQ/g lipid United Kingdom: 16-700 pg I-TEQ/g lipid Denmark: 50 pg I-TEQ/g lipid Finland: herring, 30.2 pg N-TEQ/g lipid Finland: farmed trout, 4.2-33.4 pg N-TEQ/g lipid Germany: 3.3-22.3 pg I-TEQ/g lipid Italy: 8.7-14.6 pg TEQ/g lipid Italy: other, 5.9-57.5 pg TEQ/g lipid Netherlands: 2.4-121.5 pg TEQ/g lipid Netherlands: other, 66.8-76.5 pg TEQ/g lipid Spain: 2.57-7.90 pg I-TEQ/g lipid Spain: seafood, 10.59 pg I-TEQ/g lipid Sweden: 0.35-42.8 pg N-TEQ/g fw United Kingdom: farmed, 5.1 pg I-TEQ/g lipid United Kingdom: farmed, including PCBs, 24 pg I-TEQ/g lipid United Kingdom: wild, 1.9-34 pg I-TEQ/g lipid Sweden: 0.08 pg N-TEQ/g fw Denmark: 1.5 pg I-TEQ/g lipid Finland: 1.2 pg N-TEQ/g lipid Germany: 1.36-4.58 pg I-TEQ/g lipid Netherlands: 2 pg TEQ/g lipid Spain: 1.22 pg I-TEQ/g lipid Sweden: range 0.89-1.3 pg N-TEQ/g lipid United Kingdom: 0.6-1.2 pg I-TEQ/g fw Wild: PC] 9.92 (0 pg I-TE PCB, 3 (1.61-1 TEQW} Cultured: PCDD/ (2.33-2 I-TEQ/, PCB: 1 (9~92-3 TEQW1' PCDD/PC (0.46-7 I-TEQ/,

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APPENDIX A 275 Scientific Committee on Food (2000, 2001)d IARC (1997)e EPA (2000}f /g fw N-TEQ/g I-TEQ/g rEQ/g ,.4 pg i/g lipid d )/g lipid _Q/g lipid Pg lipid EQ/g lipid 2lg fw - Pg luding 4 pg id d Q/g lipid I-TEQ/g I-TEQ/g Wild: PCDD/PCDF, 9.92 (0.125-2.25) pg I-TEQ/g lipid; PCB, 35.3 (1.61-168) pg TEQWHo94/g lipid 95th percentile: Cultured: 54 pg I-TEQ/g PCDD/PCDF, 8.84 lipid (2.33-27.9) pg Europe: I-TEQ/g lipid; PCB: 19.6 (9.92-39.7) pg TEQwHo94lg lipid PCDD/PCDF, 1.19 (0~46-7.32) pg I-TEQ/g lipid Mean of all data: Freshwater fish, shellfish, and estuarine fish: 25 pg I-TEQ/g WM 1.0 pg TEQDF-WHO98/g fw lipid; median: WM 1.2 pg TEQp-wHo98Ig fw 31 pg I-TEQ/g Marine fish and shellfish: lipid WM 0.26 pg TEQDF-wHo98Ig fw WM 0.25 n~ TEO~ ``TT T~^O/~ fw 2.72-48.6 pg I-TEQ/g lipid United States: farmed, 5.0-42.9 pg I-TEQ/g lipid Europe: 1.26-2.02 pg I-TEQ/g lipid -- `0 -~r-Wn~~ 0 - Farmed: 1.19-2.64 pg I-TEQDF/g fw Wild: 0.027-0.72 pg I-TEQDF/g fw 11.13 - 25.33 pg TEQDFp-wHo98Ig lipid 0.22 - 2.0 pg TEQDF-WHO98/g 1.57-2.12 pg TEQp-wHo94Ig fw 0.25-0.69 pg I-TEQDF/g fw 0.1-6.9 pg TEQp-wHo94Ig mt Shellfish: 0.033-2.34 pg I-TEQDF/g fw 0.23 - 0.26 pg TEQDF-wHo98/g 0.03-1.99 pg TEQp-wHo94Ig fw 0.1-5.4 pg TEQp-wHo94Ig mt Hepatopancreas, 5.2-1,820 pg TEQp WH094/g Canada: 0.12-0.62 pg TEQDFP-WHO94/g France: fish, 104-523 pg TEQ p wHO94lg lipid Germany: 7.44-104.1 pg I-TEQDF/g lipid Netherlands: 2.4-48.65 pg I-TEQDF/g lipid Spain: 2.57-10.59 pg I-TEQDF/g lipid United Kingdom: farmed fish, 5.1 pg I-TEQDFlg lipid 19.0 pg TEQp-wHo94Ig lipid; wild: 0.7-25 pg TEQDF-wHo98Ig lipid 5.4-59 pg TEQp-wHo98Ig lipid United Kingdom/Norway: wild, 5-18 pg TEQDF wHO98/g lipid 9-25 pg TEQp-wHo98Ig lipid Preferred value: 0~081 pg TEQDF-WHO98/g ww 0.1 pg TEQp-wHo98Ig ww Other: 0.032 pg TEQDF-WHO98/g ww 0.17 pg TEQDF/g 0.019-0.038 pg I-TEQDF/g ww Germany: 2.10 pg I-TEQDF/g lipid Netherlands: 2.0 pg I-TEQDF/g lipid Spain: 1.22 pg I-TEQDF/g lipid continued

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276 TABLE A-25 Continued DIOXINS AND DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS IN THE FOOD SUPPLY Food ATSDR (1998)a Fiedler et al. (2000)b AEA Technology (1999)C Scientific on Food (I Lipids and No data oils Vegetables No data Europe: 0.2-2 pg I-TEQ/g lipid Europe: midpoint, 1.2 pg I-TEQ/g lipid Europe: Denmark: 0.5 pg I-TEQ/g lipid Germany: lard, 0.8 pg I-TEQ/g lipid Netherlands: 0.03-0.17 pg TEQ/g lipid Netherlands: fish oil, 0.99 pg TEQ/g lipid Spain: 0.49-0.64 pg I-TEQ/g lipid United Kingdom: fish oils, 0.25-9.2 pg TEQ/g oil United Kingdom: 0.2 pg I-TEQ/g fw Denmark: 0.015 pg I-TEQ/g lipid 0.002-0.3 pg Finland: < 0.00005-0.04 pg I-TEQ/g fw I-TEQ/g fw Germany: 0.0064-0.017 pg I-TEQ/g fw Europe: fruits and Netherlands: 0.13 pg TEQ/g dw vegetables, Spain: 0.14-0.19 pg I-TEQ/g fw midpoint, 0.1 United Kingdom: 0.3-0.4 pg I-TEQ/g fw pg I-TEQ/g fw Fruits No data See vegetables Bread and grains No data No data Fruit and PCDD/] 0.029 (0.004- I-TEQ/` See veget. Europe: 0.1-2 pg I-TEQ/g fw Denmark: 0.015 pg I-TEQ/g lipid Finland: < 0.00005 pg I-TEQ/g fw Germany: < 0.01-0.015 pg I-TEQ/g dm Spain: 0.09 pg I-TEQ/g fw United Kingdom: 0.3 pg I-TEQ/g fw Denmark: 0.1 pg I-TEQ/g lipid Finland: 0.00048-0.0014 pg I-TEQ/g ww Europe: midpoint, Netherlands: 0.4-0.85 pg TEQ/g lipid 1.2 pg I-TEQ/g Spain: 0.25 pg I-TEQ/g fw fw United Kingdom: 0.03-0.17 pg I-TEQ/g fw PCDD/PC (0.01-0 I-TEQ/` PCB, 0.11 TEQWl aPCDD/PCDF. Nondetected congeners were assumed present at i/2 the detection limit. bRanges are estimated from a log-scale graphic. CFrom Task 4 Annex 1. PCDD/PCDF unless otherwise indicated. Most data are mean values. dEstimated mean (range) from Table 2. eFrom Appendix 1. PCDD/PCDF only. Nondetected congeners were assumed present at detection limits. All data: irrespective of country or sampling year. fFrom part I, volume 3, chapter 3. In most cases, nondetected congeners were assumed present at i/2 the detection limit. For preferred values on a whole-food basis, see chapter 3, tables 3-59 and 3-60. NOTE: TEQ = toxicity equivalents, fw = fresh weight, ww = wet weight, dw = dry weight, dm = dry matter, mt = muscle tissue, WM = weighted mean (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] averaged dioxin and dioxin-like compound concentrations for each fish/shellfish species by the average consumption rate and summed for a category mean; WM values are EPA's preferred values).

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APPENDIX A 277 Scientific Committee on Food (2000, 2001)d IARC (1997)e EPA (2000}f id No data Europe: Preferred value: 0~056 pg TEQ DF-WHO98/g /g lipid 0.03-2.24 pg 0.037 TEQwHo98/g _Q/g lipid I-TEQ/g lipid Canada: 0.31-0.44 pg TEQDFp WHO94lg TEQ/g Netherlands: 0.006-2.2 pg I-TEQDF/g lipid Spain: 0.49-0.64 pg I-TEQDF/g ww Pg ,Q/g fw ipid Fruit and vegetables, No data No preferred value -TEQ/g fw PCDD/PCDF, Germany: 4.3-16.9 pg I-TEQDF/g lipid TEQ/g fw 0.029 Spain: 0.09-0.25 pg I-TEQDF/g ww lw (0.004-0.090) pg fw I-TEQ/g fw I-TEQ/g fw lipid /g fw TEQ/g dm ,Q/g fw See vegetables No data No data See vegetables id PCDD/PCDF, 0.019 Europe: No data [-TEQ/g ww (0.01-0.02) pg 1.34-2.66 pg See vegetables 2/g lipid I-TEQ/g fw I-TEQ/g lipid PCB, 0.11 pg )g TEQwHOg4/g fw rues. detection resent at 59 and 3-60. kit, dm= gency pecies by referred

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278 DIOXINS AND DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS IN THE FOOD SUPPLY TABLE A-26 U.S. Mean Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins (PCDDs), Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) Toxicity Equivalents (TEQ) Concentrations in Beef, Pork, Young Chickens, and Milk Young Description Beef Pork Chickens Milk 1993-Present PCDD/PCDF, pg TEQ/g lipid 0.89 (0.35) 1.30 (0.46) 0.64 (0.41) 0.84 (0.84) 1993-Present PCB, pg TEQ/g lipid 0.51 (0.51) 0.06 (0.06) 0.28 (0.28) 0.43 (0.43) NOTE: Results assume nondetects = I/2 limit of detection; results calculated at nondetects = 0 shown in parentheses. TABLE A-27 Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins (PCDDs), Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) Toxicity Equivalents (TEQ) Concentrations and Percent Differences from Current Levels Percent Difference Percent from Current Difference PCDD/PCDF PCB TEQ PCDD/PCDF from Current Description TEQ pg/g Lipid pg/g Lipid Levels PCB Levels 1908 Beef ration 0.34 (0.15) 0.07 (0.07) 38 (42) 15 (15) 1945 Beef and pork 0.98 (0.75) 0.36 (0.36) 89 (197) 140 (146) 1957 Dried cream 2.05 (0.81) 3.56 (3-54) 244 (96) 827 (824) 1968 Bacon bar 3.01 (2-94) 1.05 (1.05) 231 (638) 1,747 (2,620) 1968 Deviled ham 3.73 (3-71) 0.61 (0.61) 287 (805) 1,019 (1,529) 1971 Beef 1.36 (0.02) 2.48 (1.98) 153 (7) 540 (540) 1971 Bacon wafer 1.75 (1.62) 1.98 (1-98) 135 (352) 3,301 (4,952) 1977 Raw chicken 1.29 (1.18) 2.72 (2.72) 202 (287) 970 (970) 1977 Cooked chicken 1.33 (1.20) 2.83 (2.83) 209 (292) 1,009 (1,009) 1979 Pork slices 1.46 (1.20) 0.04 (0.04) 112 (262) 72 (105) 1980 Beef steak 0.94 (0.73) 0.93 (0.93) 106 (207) 203 (203) 1982 Ham slice 1.36 (1.04) 0.07 (0.07) 105 (227) 119 (178) 1983 Beef in barbeque 0.50 (0.03) 0.79 (0.79) 56 (8) 171 (171) 1983 Turkey with gravy 0.55 (0-23) 0.32 (0.31) 85 (57) 113 (113) NOTE: Results assume nondetects = I/2 limit of detection; results calculated at nondetects = 0 shown in parentheses.

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APPENDIX A TABLE A-28 Sources of Dioxins in the United States, May 2000 279 Source 1987 1995 Emissions Emissions (g TEQDF wHOg8/Y) (g TEQDF wHOg8/Y) 2002/2004 Emissions (g TEQDF wHOg8/Y) Municipal solid waste incineration, air 8,877.0 Backyard barrel burning, air 604.0 Medical waste incineration, air 2,590.0 Secondary copper smelting, air 983.0 Cement kilns (hazardous waste), air 117.8 Sewage sludge/land applied, land Residential wood burning, air Coal-fired utilities, air Diesel trucks, air Secondary aluminum smelting, air 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, land Iron ore sintering, air Industrial wood burning, air Bleached pulp and paper mills, water Cement kilns (nonhazardous waste), air Sewage sludge incineration, air Endocrine disrupting chemicals/ vinyl chloride, air Oil-fired utilities, air Crematoria, air Unleaded gasoline, air Hazardous waste incineration, air Lightweight ag kilns, hazardous waste, air Kraft black liquor boilers, air Petrol refine catalyst reg., air Leaded gasoline, air Secondary lead smelting, air Paper mill sludge, land Cigarette smoke, air Endocrine disrupting chemicals/ vinyl chloride, land Endocrine disrupting chemicals/ vinyl chloride, water Boilers/industrial furnaces, air Tire combustion, air Drum reclamation, air Totals Reduction from 1987 76.6 89.6 50.8 27.8 16.3 33.4 32.7 26.4 356.0 13.7 6.1 NA 17.8 5.5 3.6 5.0 2.4 2.0 2.2 37.5 1.2 14.1 1.0 NA NA 0.8 0.1 0.1 1,250.0 628.0 488.0 271.0 156.1 76.6 62.8 60.1 35.5 29.1 28.9 28.0 27.6 19.5 17.8 14.8 11.2 10.7 9.1 5.9 5.8 3.3 2.3 2.2 2.0 1.7 1.4 0.8 0.7 0.4 0.4 0.1 0.1 13,995 3,252 77% 12.0 628.0 7.0 5.0 7.7 76.6 62.8 60.1 35.5 29.1 28.9 28.0 27.6 12.0 17.8 14.8 11.2 10.7 9.1 5.9 3.5 0.4 2.3 2.2 2.0 1.7 1.4 0.8 0.7 0.4 0.4 0.1 0.1 1,106 92% NOTE: TEQ = toxicity equivalents.

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280 DIOXINS AND DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS IN THE FOOD SUPPLY REFERENCES AEA Technology. 1999. Compilation of EU Dioxin Exposure and Health Data. Prepared for the European Commission DO Environment. Oxfordshire, England: AEA Technology. Ahlborg V, Becking G. Birnbaum L, Brower A, Derks HJGM, Feeley M, Golor G. Hanberg A, Larsen JC, Liem AKD, Safe SH, Schlatter C, Waern F. Younes M, Yrjanheikki E. 1994. Toxic equivalency factors for dioxin-like PCBs. Chemosphere 28:1049-1067. ATSDR. 1998. Toxicological Profile for Chlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins. Atlanta, GA: ATSDR. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1989. Interim Procedures for Estimating Risks Asso- ciated with Exposures to Mixtures of Chlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibenzo-furans (CDDs and CDFs) and 1989 Update. EPA/625/3-89.016. Washington, DC: EPA. EPA. 2000. Exposure and Human Health Reassessment of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin (TCDD) and Related Compounds. Draft Final Report. Washington, DC: EPA. Fiedler H. Hutzinger O. Welsch-Pausch K, Schmiedinger A. 2000. Evaluation of the Occurrence of PCDD/PCDF and POPs in Wastes and Their Potential to Enter the Foodchain. Prepared for the European Commission DG Environment. Bayreuth, Germany: University of Bayreuth. IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 1997. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Volume 69: Polychlorinated Dibenzo-para-Dioxins and Poly- chlorinated Dibenzofurans. Lyon, France: World Health Organization. Scientific Committee on Food. 2000. Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Food on the Risk Assessment of Dioxins and Dioxin-like PCBs in Food. European Commission, Health and Consumer Protection Directorate-General. SCF/CS/CNTM/DIOXIN/8 Final. Brussels: Euro- pean Commission. Scientific Committee on Food. 2001. Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Food on the Risk Assessment of Dioxins and Dioxin-like PCBs in Food. Update. European Commission, Health and Consumer Protection Directorate-General. CS/CNTM/DIOXIN/20 Final. Brussels: Euro- pean Commission. van den Berg M, Birnbaum L, Bosveld AT, Brunstrom B. Cook P. Feeley M, Giesy JP, Hanberg A, Hasegawa R. Kennedy SW, Kubiak T. Larsen JC, van Leeuwen FX, Liem AK, Nolt C, Peterson RE, Poellinger L, Safe S. Schrenk D, Tillitt D, Tysklind M, Younes M, Waern F. Zacharewski T. 1998. Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs for humans and wildlife. Environ Health Perspect 106:775-792.