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B Total Diet Study Report: Dioxin Concentrations in Foods Data on dioxin concentrations (as toxicity equivalents [TEQs]) in foods were obtained from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Total Diet Study (TDS) program. Although polychlorinated biphenyls account for approximately 50 per- cent of the TEQs in foods, this class of compounds was not included in the analysis. This study involves periodic retail purchase, preparation, and analysis of a variety of foods representative of the U.S. food supply. The TDS was initi- ated in 1961 in response to public concerns regarding the radionuclide contami- nation of foods. The program has been expanded to include analyses of concen- trations of specific nutrients, pesticide residues, heavy metals, and other contaminants in TDS foods. Foods collected in the TDS "market baskets" re- mained fairly constant from 1992 (when the food list underwent a major revision) through 2002. The food list was significantly revised in 2002 to reflect current dietary patterns. Foods on the revised list will be collected beginning with the first market basket of 2003. Data generated on constituent concentrations in TDS foods are used in esti- mating total dietary intakes by the total U.S. population and by specific age and sex groups. Population-specific consumption factors are applied to constituent levels in specific TDS foods and the weighted intakes for each food are summed to estimate total dietary intakes for each population group. Three TEQ values were generated for each TDS sample food, reflecting the assignment of zero, half the limit of detection (LOD), or LOD values to congener nondetects. Mean TEQ values for TDS foods based on each nondetect scenario are listed in Table B-2. 281

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282 DIOXINS AND DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS IN THE FOOD SUPPLY The 1994-1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) was conducted between January 1994 and January 1997 with noninstitutionalized individuals in the United States. In each of the three survey years, 24-hour recall data were collected through two in-person interviews (conducted approximately one week apart) from a nationally representative sample of individuals of all ages. The 1998 CSFII was designed as a supplement to the 1994-1996 CSFII, using the same survey methodology to increase the sample size for children from birth through age 9 years. In the merged surveys (1994-1996 and 1998 CSFIIs), 21,662 individuals provided intake data for the first survey day; 20,607 provided intake data for a second day. The committee conducted its assessment of exposure to dioxins and dioxin- like compounds through foods using data from the TDS analysis coupled with food consumption data and the intake scenarios. The committee gratefully ac- knowledges the work of Judith Douglass and Mary Murphy for conducting the analysis. TABLE B-1 Dioxin Congeners Included in the Total Diet Study Food Analyses Congener Description 1 ,2, 3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin 1 ,2, 3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzofuran 1,2, 3,4,7, 8-hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin 1,2, 3,4,7, 8-hexachlorodibenzofuran 1,2, 3,4,7, 8,9-heptachlorodibenzofuran 1,2, 3,6,7, 8-hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin 1,2, 3,6,7, 8-hexachlorodibenzofuran 1 ,2, 3,7,8-pentachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin 1,2, 3 ,7, 8 -pentachlorodibenzofuran 1 ,2, 3,7,8,9-hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin 1,2, 3 ,7, 8, 9-hexachlorodibenzofuran 2,3,4,6,7, 8-hexachlorodibenzofuran 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran 2, 3, 7, 8 -tetrachlorodibenzo-p- dioxin 2, 3, 7, 8 -tetrachlorodibenzofuran Octachlorodibenzo-p- dioxin Octachlorodibenzofuran

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APPENDIX B 283 TABLE B-2 Mean Dioxin Toxicity Equivalents (TEQ)a for Total Diet Studyb Foods Mean TEQ (parts per trillion) Food NondetectsC Nondetects Nondetects Category Total Diet Study Food Description = 0 = 0.5 (LODE) = LOD Dairy Baby food, custard pudding, strained/junior e 0.0241 0.0481 Cheese, American 0.0276 0.0601 0.0925 Cheese, Cheddar 0.2426 0.2534 0.2643 Cheese, cottage, 4% fat 0.0021 0.0261 0.0500 Cheese, cream 0.0678 0.0835 0.0993 Cheese, Swiss 0.0833 0.1345 0.1857 Cream substitute, frozen 0.0002 0.0171 0.0341 Cream, half & half 0.0497 0.0502 0.0507 Cream, sour 0.0618 0.0622 0.0625 Ice cream, vanilla 0.0242 0.0401 0.0560 Ice cream, vanilla, light 0.0001 0.0195 0.0388 Infant formula, milk-based, high iron 0.0001 0.0105 0.0208 Infant formula, milk-based, low iron 0.0122 0.0243 Infant formula, soy-based 0.0003 0.0039 0.0075 Milk shake, chocolate, fast-food 0.0300 0.0599 Milk, chocolate, fluid 0.0006 0.0148 0.0290 Milk, whole, fluid 0.0105 0.0110 0.0115 Pudding, chocolate, instantf 0.0034 0.0071 0.0108 Yogurt, low-fat, fruit 0.0003 0.0035 0.0067 Yogurt, low-fat, plain 0.0013 0.0121 0.0230 Meat Baby food, beef, strained/junior 0.0029 0.0257 0.0484 Baby food, vegetables and beef, strained/junior 0.0004 0.0073 0.0143 Beef chuck roast, baked 0.4592 0.4595 0.4598 Beef steak, pan-cooked 0.0119 0.0347 0.0575 Beef stew 0.0423 0.0497 0.0570 Beef stroganoff 0.0076 0.0226 0.0375 Bologna, sliced 0.1558 0.1558 0.1558 Brown gravy, homemade 0.2054 0.2055 0.2056 Cheeseburger, fast-food 0.0670 0.0739 0.0808 Chili con came w/beans 0.0127 0.0196 0.0265 Frankfurter, beef, boiled 0.1983 0.1983 0.1983 Frankfurter, fast-food 0.1060 0.1065 0.1070 Green peppers, stuffed 0.0046 0.0637 0.1228 Ground beef, pan-cooked 0.1210 0.1290 0.1369 Ham luncheon meat 0.0080 0.0432 0.0785 Ham, baked 0.0435 0.0463 0.0492 Hamburger, fast-food 0.0675 0.0678 0.0680 Lamb chop, pan-cooked 0.0857 0.0888 0.0919 Liver, beef, fried 0.1099 0.1198 0.1298 Meatloaf, homemade 0.0384 0.0857 0.1330 Pork bacon, pan-cooked 0.2114 0.2116 0.2118 Pork chop, pan-cooked 0.0161 0.0198 0.0234 continued

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284 TABLE B-2 Continued DIOXINS AND DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS IN THE FOOD SUPPLY Mean TEQ (parts per trillion) Food NondetectsC Nondetects Nondetects Category Total Diet Study Food Description = 0 = 0.5 (LODE) = LOD Pork roast, baked 0.0888 0.0963 0.1039 Pork sausage, pan-cooked 0.1959 0.1962 0.1965 Salami, sliced" 0.0200 0.1476 0.2751 Salisbury steak, frozen meal 0.0052 0.0136 0.0219 Veal cutlet, pan-cooked 0.0181 0.0255 0.0330 Poultry Baby food, chicken noodle dinner, strained/junior 0.0005 0.0068 0.0131 Baby food, chicken, strained/junior 0.0008 0.0094 0.0180 Baby food, turkey and rice, strained/junior 0.0005 0.0062 0.0119 Chicken breast, roasted 0.0083 0.0166 0.0248 Chicken nuggets, fast-food 0.0041 0.0118 0.0196 Chicken potpie, frozen 0.0100 0.0196 0.0292 Chicken, fried, fast-food 0.0392 0.0580 0.0768 Chicken, fried, homemade 0.0556 0.0559 0.0562 Turkey breast, roasted 0.0481 0.0538 0.0595 Turkey, frozen meal 0.0050 0.0112 0.0174 Fish Fish sandwich, fast-food 0.0124 0.0138 0.0152 Fish sticks, frozen, heated 0.0246 0.0335 0.0424 Salmon 0.3254 0.3257 0.3260 Shrimp, boiled 0.0597 0.0597 0.0597 Soup, clam chowder, canned 0.0026 0.0054 0.0082 Tuna noodle casserole 0.0257 0.0334 0.0412 Tuna, canned in oily 0.0838 0.1675 White sauce, homemade 0.0204 0.0408 Eggs Egg/cheese/ham/muffin, fast-food 0.0215 0.0373 0.0530 Eggs, boiled 0.0107 0.0313 0.0519 Eggs, scrambled 0.0498 0.0498 0.0498 Fruits/ vegetables Apple juice, bottled 0.0002 0.0029 0.0055 Apple, red, raw 0.0003 0.0065 0.0128 Applesauce, bottled 0.0055 0.0110 Apricot, raw 0.0022 0.0044 Asparagus, boiled 0.0003 0.0032 0.0060 Avocado, raw 0.0034 0.0073 0.0113 Baby food, apple juice, strained 0.0008 0.0171 0.0333 Baby food, apples/applesauce "/apricots, strained/junior 0.0033 0.0119 0.0206 Baby food, applesauce, strained/junior 0.0022 0.0043 Baby food, apricots "/tapioca, strained/junior 0.0161 0.0339 0.0517 Baby food, banana/pineapple, strained/junior 0.0010 0.0108 0.0205 Baby food, bananas "/tapioca, strained/junior 0.0006 0.0075 0.0145 Baby food, carrots, strained/junior 0.0160 0.0320

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APPENDIX B TABLE B-2 Continued 285 Mean TEQ (parts per trillion) Food NondetectsC Nondetects Nondetects Category Total Diet Study Food Description = 0 = 0.5 (LODE) = LOD Baby food, creamed corn, strained/junior 0.0033 0.0066 Baby food, creamed spinach, strained/junior 0.0147 0.0294 Baby food, dessert, banana, apple, strained/junior 0.0044 0.0180 0.0316 Baby food, dessert, peach cobbler, strained/junior 0.0066 0.0281 0.0496 Baby food, dessert, yogurt w/fruit, strained/junior 0.0003 0.0061 0.0120 Baby food, Dutch apple/apple Betty, strained/junior 0.0021 0.0168 0.0315 Baby food, fruit dessert or pudding, strained/junior 0.0079 0.0157 Baby food, green beans, strained/junior 0.0134 0.0267 Baby food, juice, apple-banana, strained 0.0053 0.0107 Baby food, juice, apple-cherry, strained Baby food, juice, apple-grape, strained 0.0001 Baby food, juice, grape, strained 0.0004 Baby food, juice, mixed fruit, strained Baby food, juice, pear, strained Baby food, mixed vegetables, strained/junior Baby food, orange juice, strained 0.0004 Baby food, peaches, strained/junior 0.0004 Baby food, pears & pineapple, strained/junior Baby food, pears, strained/junior Baby food, peas, strained/junior Baby food, plums/tapioca, strained/junior 0.0003 Baby food, squash, strained/junior 0.0002 Baby food, sweet potatoes, strained/junior Baby food, vegetables and beef, strained/junior 0.0017 0.0005 0.0025 0.0006 0.0007 0.0101 0.0020 0.0073 0.0296 0.0325 0.0416 0.0184 0.0055 0.0094 0.0076 0.0004 0.0073 0.0033 0.0010 0.0047 0.0011 0.0014 0.0202 0.0036 0.0142 0.0355 0.0833 0.0368 0.0107 0.0186 0.0153 0.0143 Baby food, vegetables and chicken, strained/junior 0.0053 0.0107 Baby food, vegetables and ham, strained/junior 0.0012 0.0249 0.0487 Banana, raw 0.0494 0.0517 0.0539 continued

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286 TABLE B-2 Continued DIOXINS AND DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS IN THE FOOD SUPPLY Mean TEQ (parts per trillion) Food NondetectsC Nondetects Nondetects Category Total Diet Study Food Description = 0 = 0.5 (LODE) = LOD Beans, green, boiled 0.0098 0.0216 0.0333 Beets, boiled 0.0001 0.0017 0.0034 Broccoli, boiled 0.0035 0.0071 Brussels sprouts, boiled 0.0018 0.0038 0.0058 Cabbage, fresh, boiled 0.0005 0.0036 0.0067 Cantaloupe, raw 0.0072 0.0145 Carrot, fresh, boiled 0.0001 0.0035 0.0069 Cauliflower, boiled 0.0005 0.0019 0.0034 Celery, raw 0.0002 0.0023 0.0045 Cherries, sweet raw 0.0051 0.0089 0.0127 Coleslaw "/dressing 0.0103 0.0206 Collards, boiled 0.0004 0.0061 0.0118 Corn, boiled 0.0038 0.0051 0.0065 Corn, cream style, canned 0.0010 0.0182 0.0353 Cucumber, rawg 0.1173 0.2345 Eggplant, fresh, boiled 0.0012 0.0031 0.0050 Fruit cocktail, canned 0.0005 0.0078 0.0150 Grape juice, from concentrate 0.0017 0.0034 Grapefruit juice, from concentrate 0.0043 0.0086 Grapefruit, raw 0.0006 0.0073 0.0141 Grapes, seedless, raw 0.0017 0.0154 0.0291 Lettuce, iceberg, raw 0.0043 0.0086 Lima beans, boiled 0.0002 0.0027 0.0053 Mixed vegetables, boiled 0.0061 0.0122 Mushrooms, raw 0.0028 0.0056 Mustard, yellow 0.0079 0.0157 Okra, boiled 0.0014 0.0028 0.0042 Olives, black 0.0154 0.0308 Onion, mature, raw 0.0045 0.0090 Orange juice, from concentrate 0.0302 0.0604 Orange, raw 0.0073 0.0146 Peach, canned 0.0085 0.0169 Peach, raw 0.0021 0.0096 0.0172 Pear, canned in light syrup 0.0055 0.0109 Pear, raw 0.0006 0.0043 0.0080 Peas, green, boiled 0.0004 0.0020 0.0035 Pepper, green, raw 0.0027 0.0039 0.0051 Pickles, cucumber, dill 0.0001 0.0018 0.0034 Pickles, cucumber, sweet 0.0044 0.0088 Pineapple juice, from concentrate 0.0023 0.0047 Pineapple, canned in juice 0.0209 0.0419 Plums, raw 0.0042 0.0066 0.0091 Potato chips 0.0017 0.0263 0.0510 Potato, white, baked, skin 0.0282 0.0301 0.0321 Potato, white, boiled, no skin 0.0001 0.0184 0.0368 Potatoes, French fries, fast-food 0.0038 0.0147 0.0256

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APPENDIX B TABLE B-2 Continued 287 Mean TEQ (parts per trillion) Food NondetectsC Nondetects Nondetects Category Total Diet Study Food Description = 0 = 0.5 (LODE) = LOD Potatoes, French fries, frozen, heated 0.0492 0.0614 0.0736 Potatoes, mashed, from flakes 0.0073 0.0105 0.0138 Potatoes, scalloped 0.0904 0.1188 0.1471 Prune juice, bottled 0.0001 0.0018 0.0035 Prunes, dried 0.0135 0.0165 0.0194 Radish, raw 0.0043 0.0085 Raisins, dried 0.0136 0.0271 Sauerkraut, canned 0.0005 0.0044 0.0082 Sherbet, fruit flavor 0.0034 0.0067 Soup, mushroom, canned 0.0010 0.0034 0.0057 Soup, tomato, canned 0.0042 0.0085 Soup, vegetable beef, canned 0.0012 0.0024 0.0035 Spinach, boiled 0.0081 0.0163 Squash, summer, boiled 0.0174 0.0228 0.0282 Squash, winter, baked 0.0003 0.0019 0.0035 Strawberries, raw 0.0236 0.0472 Sweet potato, fresh, baked 0.0127 0.0340 0.0553 Tomato catsup 0.0001 0.0019 0.0037 Tomato juice, bottled 0.0001 0.0017 0.0034 Tomato sauce, bottled 0.0017 0.0034 Tomato, red, raw 0.0407 0.0815 Tomato, stewed, canned 0.0101 0.0202 Turnip, boiled 0.0104 0.0208 Watermelon, raw 0.0032 0.0046 0.0059 Fats/oils Butter, regular (salted) 0.2200 0.2202 0.2205 Margarine, stick (salted) 0.0044 0.0270 0.0496 Mayonnaise 0.0096 0.0136 0.0177 Oil, olive or safflower 0.0565 0.0641 0.0716 Salad dressing, French 0.0065 0.0101 0.0136 Salad dressing, Italian, low-calorie 0.0019 0.0095 0.0170 Other foods Baby food, arrowroot cookies 0.0168 0.0220 0.0272 Baby food, cereal, prepared from dry, barley 0.0006 0.0046 0.0086 Baby food, macaroni, tomatoes, beef, strained/junior 0.0106 0.0211 Baby food, rice infant cereal, instant, w/whole milk 0.0010 0.0097 0.0183 Baby food, rice/apple cereal, strained/junior 0.0102 0.0441 0.0780 Baby food, teething biscuits 0.0040 0.0175 0.0310 Baby food, zwieback toast 0.0159 0.0205 0.0251 Bagel, plain 0.0191 0.0383 Beef chow mein, carry-out 0.0021 0.0068 0.0115 Biscuit, baked 0.0094 0.0147 0.0200 continued

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288 TABLE B-2 Continued DIOXINS AND DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS IN THE FOOD SUPPLY Mean TEQ (parts per trillion) Food Category Total Diet Study Food Description NondetectsC Nondetects Nondetects = 0 = 0.5 (LODd) = LOD Bread, cracked wheat Bread, rye Bread, white Bread, white roll Bread, whole wheat Brownies, commercial Cake, chocolate snack Cake, chocolate with icing Cake, yellow, w/white icing Candy, bar, milk chocolate Candy, caramel Candy, suckers, any flavor Cereal, corn flakes Cereal, corn grits, regular, cooked Cereal, crisped rice Cereal, fruit flavored Cereal, granola 0.0011 Cereal, oat ring 0.0029 Cereal, oatmeal, quick, cooked 0.0013 Cereal, raisin bran 0.0007 Cereal, shredded wheat 0.0053 Cereal, wheat farina, quick, cooked Coffee, decaffeinated, instant Coffee, from ground Cola, carbonated Cola, carbonated, low-calorie Cookies, chocolate chip Cookies, sandwich, creme-filled Cookies, sugar, commercial Corn chips Cornbread, homemade Crackers, butter-type Crackers, graham Crackers, saltine Doughnuts, cake type, w/icing Egg noodles, boiled English muffin, toasted Fruit drink, canned Fruit drink, from powder Fruit drink, lemonade, from concentrate Fruit flavor sherbet Fruit-flavored drink, carbonated Gelatin dessert, any flavor Honey Jelly, any flavor Kidney beans, dry, boiled 0.0013 0.0017 0.0029 0.0048 0.0082 0.0109 0.0188 0.0344 0.0219 0.0030 0.0020 0.0100 0.0001 0.0018 0.0014 0.0013 0.0106 0.0076 0.0460 0.0010 0.0020 0.0161 0.0059 0.0020 0.0029 0.0036 0.0013 0.0047 0.0058 0.0071 0.0113 0.0068 0.0151 0.0176 0.0244 0.0379 0.0222 0.0071 0.0049 0.0106 0.0185 0.0157 0.0150 0.0042 0.0224 0.0063 0.0067 0.0114 0.0169 0.0031 0.0042 0.0183 0.0020 0.0206 0.0125 0.0166 0.0110 0.0504 0.0082 0.0118 0.0267 0.0124 0.0271 0.0100 0.0019 0.0033 0.0043 0.0034 0.0043 0.0087 0.0249 0.0074 0.0029 0.0081 0.0099 0.0112 0.0225 0.0088 0.0220 0.0242 0.0299 0.0414 0.0225 0.0113 0.0079 0.0211 0.0270 0.0314 0.0300 0.0072 0.0420 0.0114 0.0126 0.0175 0.0337 0.0062 0.0067 0.0365 0.0041 0.0399 0.0236 0.0227 0.0144 0.0548 0.0154 0.0216 0.0374 0.0188 0.0542 0.0179 0.0038 0.0066 0.0086 0.0067 0.0057 0.0173 0.0498 0.0112 0.0046

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APPENDIX B TABLE B-2 Continued 289 Mean TEQ (parts per trillion) Food NondetectsC Nondetects Nondetects Category Total Diet Study Food Description = 0 = 0.5 (LOD4) = LOD Lasagna w/meat 0.0377 0.0408 0.0439 Macaroni and cheese, box 0.0172 0.0242 0.0312 Macaroni, boiled 0.0001 0.0056 0.0110 Muffin, blueberry 0.0005 0.0142 0.0279 Nuts, mixed, no peanuts 0.0032 0.0155 0.0277 Pancake from mix 0.0102 0.0124 0.0145 Pancake syrup 0.0005 0.0043 0.0080 Peanut butter, smooth 0.0039 0.0068 0.0098 Peanuts, dry roasted 0.0056 0.0098 0.0140 Peas, mature, dry, boiled 0.0381 0.0762 Pie, apple 0.0201 0.0327 0.0453 Pie, pumpkin 0.0023 0.0391 0.0760 Pinto beans, dry, boiled 0.0046 0.0092 Pizza, cheese, carry-out 0.0108 0.0185 0.0262 Pizza, pepperoni, carry-out 0.0071 0.0205 0.0339 Popcorn, popped in oil 0.0337 0.0411 0.0486 Popsicle, any flavor 0.0053 0.0106 Pork and beans, canned 0.0024 0.0053 0.0082 Pretzels, hard, salted 0.0076 0.0131 0.0186 Rice, white, cooked 0.0009 0.0041 0.0072 Soup, chicken noodle, canned 0.0001 0.0054 0.0108 Soup, bean, canned 0.0015 0.0032 0.0049 Spaghetti and meatballs 0.0024 0.0109 0.0193 Spaghetti, canned 0.0062 0.0124 Sweet roll or Danish 0.0139 0.0184 0.0230 Syrup, chocolate 0.0006 0.0033 0.0060 Taco or tostada, carry-out 0.0472 0.0619 0.0765 Tea, from tea bag 0.0171 0.0342 Tortilla, flour 0.0023 0.0051 0.0078 White sugar, granulated 0.0003 0.0050 0.0098 aSum of TEQs for dioxin congeners. bTotal Diet Study, administered by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Data are for samples collected in 2001, Market Basket 2, and analyzed for dioxin congener concentrations by gas chro- matograph/high-resolution mass spectrometer (HRMS), except as noted otherwise. CSamples with no amount of a dioxin congener detected. dLimit of detection (LOD) for relevant congener. eTEQ < 0.00005 ppt. fSample collected in 2000, Market Basket 2, analyzed using HRMS. "Sample collected in 2000, Market Basket 2, analyzed using gas chromatograph-ion trap instrumen- tation.

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290 DIOXINS AND DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS IN THE FOOD SUPPLY TABLE B-3 Estimated Intake of Dioxins from Food by Boys and Girls, 1-5 Years Old (n = 6,409) Consumer Nondetect P' Food Categories Percent Consuming Food Intake (g/kg body weight/d) Mean 1( All foods 100.0 90.5 1.09 0. If skim milk consumedC 100.0 90.5 0.85 0. Dairy foods and mixtures 98.3 29.5 0.34 0. If skim milk consumedC 98.3 29.5 0.10 0. Meat and mixtures 80.3 4.7 0.46 0. Poultry and mixtures 61.1 3.6 0.11 0. Fish and mixtures 17.0 2.8 0.28 Eggs and mixtures 33.2 2.7 0.12 0. Fruits, vegetables, and mixtures 98.9 21.9 0.11 Fats, oils, and mixtures 59.8 0.4 0.02 Other foods and mixturese 99.9 32.3 0.11 0. aReflects treatment of samples for which no dioxin congener was detected. bLOD = limit of detection. CDioxin TEQ intake from milk assuming that all plain milk consumed is skim milk rather than whole milk, as was otherwise assumed due to lack of analytical data on milks other than whole milk. Dioxin TEQ for skim milk was estimated assuming that all dioxin congeners concentrate in milk fat, that whole milk contains 3.34% fat, and that skim milk contains 0.18% fat. (Nutrient Data Laboratory. 2002. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 15. Online. ARS, USDA. Available at http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/ foodcomp. Accessed December 9, 2002.) d< 0.0005 pa/kg body weight/d. eGrains and mixtures, legumes and mixtures, beverages (other than milk and juice), candy. NOTE: Data represent 2-day averages. Breastfeeding children are excluded. DATA SOURCE: Dioxin concentrations: U.S. Food and Drug Administration Total Diet Study (1999-2001); food consumption: 1994-1996, 1998 U.S. Department of Agriculture Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals.

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APPENDIX B LS, 291 Consumers' Dioxin Toxic Equivalents (TEQ) Intake (pa/kg body weight/d) Nondetectsa = 0 Nondetects = 0.5 (LOD)b Nondetects = LOD Percentile Percentile Percentile r weight/d) Mean 10 50 90 Mean 10 50 90 Mean 10 50 90 1.09 0.43 0.93 1.89 1.67 0.85 1.50 2.63 2.24 1.18 2.04 3.51 0.85 0.25 0.69 1.61 1.42 0.64 1.24 2.34 1.98 0.93 1.78 3.21 0.34 0.08 0.27 0.67 0.42 0.12 0.34 0.81 0.50 0.14 0.41 0.94 0.10 0.01 0.04 0.24 0.16 0.01 0.09 0.40 0.23 0.01 0.13 0.56 0.46 0.03 0.30 1.02 0.51 0.06 0.35 1.09 0.56 0.08 0.39 1.19 0.11 0.01 0.05 0.31 0.13 0.02 0.08 0.33 0.16 0.03 0.10 0.36 0.28 d 0.05 0.89 0.33 0.03 0.12 0.90 0.38 0.04 0.18 0.93 0.12 0.02 0.10 0.24 0.13 0.04 0.10 0.24 0.13 0.05 0.11 0.25 0.11 0.05 0.31 0.33 0.05 0.25 0.70 0.54 0.09 0.40 1.16 0.02 0.06 0.02 0.01 0.06 0.03 0.01 0.07 0.11 0.02 0.08 0.25 0.33 0.11 0.27 0.62 0.55 0.18 0.45 1.05 rather other than openers tains Standard Fnic/ ages Diet ulture

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298 DIOXINS AND DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS IN THE FOOD SUPPLY TABLE B-7 Estimated Intake of Dioxins from Food by Adolescent Females, 12-19 Years Old, not Pregnant or Lactating (n = 692) Consumer Nondetect P' Food Categories Percent Consuming Food Intake (g/kg body weight/d) Mean 1( All foods 100.0 30.6 0.37 0. If skim milk consumedC 100.0 30.6 0.33 0. Dairy foods and mixtures 88.7 5.3 0.07 0. If skim milk consumedC 88.7 5.3 0.03 0. Meat and mixtures 78.6 2.2 0.21 0. Poultry and mixtures 53.1 1.7 0.05 Fish and mixtures 17.4 1.4 0.10 Eggs and mixtures 23.4 0.9 0.04 Fruits, vegetables, and mixtures 96.8 5.4 0.03 Fats, oils, and mixtures 60.1 0.3 0.01 Other foods and mixturese 100.0 17.4 0.06 0. aReflects treatment of samples for which no dioxin congener was detected. bLOD = limit of detection. CDioxin TEQ intake from milk assuming that all plain milk consumed is skim milk rather than whole milk, as was otherwise assumed due to lack of analytical data on milks other than whole milk. Dioxin TEQ for skim milk was estimated assuming that all dioxin congeners concentrate in milk fat, that whole milk contains 3.34% fat, and that skim milk contains 0.18% fat. (Nutrient Data Laboratory. 2002. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 15. Online. ARS, USDA. Available at http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp. Accessed December 9, 2002.) d< 0.0005 pa/kg body weight/d. eGrains and mixtures, legumes and mixtures, beverages (other than milk and juice), candy. NOTE: Data represent 2-day averages generated using U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) sample weights. DATA SOURCE: Dioxin concentrations: U.S. Food and Drug Administration Total Diet Study (1999-2001); food consumption: 1994-1996, 1998 USDA Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals.

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APPENDIX B males, 299 Consumers' Dioxin Toxic Equivalents (TEQ) Intake (pa/kg body weight/d) Nondetectsa = 0 Nondetects = 0.5 (LOD)b Nondetects = LOD Percentile Percentile Percentile r weight/d) Mean 10 50 90 Mean 10 50 90 Mean 10 50 90 0.37 0.11 0.29 0.66 0.66 0.28 0.58 1.08 0.96 0.40 0.85 1.67 0.33 0.09 0.26 0.66 0.63 0.25 0.54 1.07 0.92 0.92 0.81 1.63 0.07 0.01 0.05 0.15 0.10 0.02 0.07 0.20 0.13 0.02 0.09 0.27 0.03 0.00 0.01 0.08 0.06 0.00 0.03 0.14 0.09 0.09 0.05 0.21 0.21 0.01 0.13 0.46 0.24 0.03 0.15 0.52 0.26 0.04 0.17 0.61 0.05 d 0.03 0.12 0.06 0.01 0.04 0.13 0.07 0.01 0.05 0.15 0.10 0.01 0.31 0.14 0.01 0.06 0.31 0.17 0.02 0.10 0.34 0.04 0.03 0.07 0.04 0.01 0.04 0.07 0.04 0.02 0.04 0.07 0.03 0.01 0.10 0.11 0.01 0.07 0.25 0.18 0.02 0.11 0.45 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.06 0.01 0.04 0.13 0.22 0.07 0.18 0.43 0.38 0.11 0.31 0.74 r than whole ntrate in trient Data 5. Online. 9, 2002.) USDA) Study Takes by

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300 DIOXINS AND DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS IN THE FOOD SUPPLY TABLE B-8 Estimated Intake of Dioxins from Food by Women, 20+ Years Old, not Pregnant or Lactating (n = 4,470) Consumer Nondetect P' Food Categories Percent Consuming Food Intake (g/kg body weight/d) Mean 1( All foods 100.0 29.3 0.33 0. Dairy foods and mixtures 90.9 3.2 0.04 Meat and mixtures 78.5 1.7 0.16 0. Poultry and mixtures 58.3 1.5 0.04 Fish and mixtures 25.6 1.3 0.15 Eggs and mixtures 30.5 0.7 0.03 Fruits, vegetables, and mixtures 98.0 5.4 0.04 Fats, oils, and mixtures 73.9 0.3 0.01 Other foods and mixturesd 99.9 18.1 0.04 0. aReflects treatment of samples for which no dioxin congener was detected. bLOD = limit of detection. c< 0.0005 pa/kg body weight/d. dGrains and mixtures, legumes and mixtures, beverages (other than milk and juice), candy. NOTE: Data represent 2-day averages generated using U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) sample weights. DATA SOURCE: Dioxin concentrations: U.S. Food and Drug Administration Total Diet Study (1999-2001); food consumption: 1994-1996, 1998 USDA Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals.

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APPENDIX B Years 301 Consumers' Dioxin Toxic Equivalents (TEQ) Intake (pa/kg body weight/d) Nondetectsa = 0 Nondetects = 0.5 (LOD)b Nondetects = LOD Percentile Percentile Percentile r weight/d) Mean 10 50 90 Mean 10 50 90 Mean 10 50 90 0.33 0.10 0.25 0.04 c 0.03 0.16 0.01 0.09 0.04 0.02 0.15 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.04 0.02 0.01 0.04 0.01 0.60 0.10 0.38 0.10 0.42 0.06 0.10 0.02 0.03 0.10 0.25 0.06 0.01 0.18 0.02 0.05 0.01 0.17 0.01 0.03 0.01 0.11 0.01 0.01 0.18 0.50 0.96 0.05 0.14 0.11 0.42 0.03 0.11 0.07 0.44 0.03 0.06 0.08 0.23 0.02 0.05 0.15 0.34 0.82 0.37 0.08 0.01 0.21 0.03 0.06 0.01 0.19 0.02 0.04 0.01 0.17 0.02 0.01 0.31 0.74 0.06 0.13 0.04 0.12 0.03 0.13 0.01 0.09 0.25 1.36 0.18 0.45 0.13 0.46 0.07 0.38 0.03 0.60 USDA) Study Takes by

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302 DIOXINS AND DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS IN THE FOOD SUPPLY TABLE B-9 Estimated Intake of Dioxins from Food by Females, 12+ Years Old, Pregnant and/or Lactating (n = 112) Consumer Nondetect P' Food Categories Percent Consuming Food Intake (g/kg body weight/d) Mean 1( All foods 100.0 33.3 0.38 0. Dairy foods and mixtures 97.9 6.1 0.08 0. Meat and mixtures 82.8 2.1 0.17 0. Poultry and mixtures 56.1 1.5 0.04 Fish and mixtures 25.0 1.0 0.05 Eggs and mixtures 36.1 1.0 0.04 0. Fruits, vegetables, and mixtures 99.1 6.7 0.04 Fats, oils, and mixtures 71.7 0.3 0.01 Other foods and mixturesd 100.0 17.4 0.06 0. aReflects treatment of samples for which no dioxin congener was detected. bLOD = limit of detection. c< 0.0005 pa/kg body weight/d. dGrains and mixtures, legumes and mixtures, beverages (other than milk and juice), candy. NOTE: Data represent 2-day averages generated using U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) sample weights. DATA SOURCE: Dioxin concentrations: U.S. Food and Drug Administration Total Diet Study (1999-2001); food consumption: 1994-1996, 1998 USDA Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals.

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APPENDIX B Years 303 Consumers' Dioxin Toxic Equivalents (TEQ) Intake (pa/kg body weight/d) Nondetectsa = 0 Nondetects = 0.5 (LOD)b Nondetects = LOD Percentile Percentile Percentile r weight/d) Mean 10 50 90 Mean 10 50 90 Mean 10 50 90 0.38 0.15 0.31 0.64 0.65 0.32 0.57 1.06 0.91 0.47 0.82 1.51 0.08 0.01 0.06 0.16 0.11 0.02 0.09 0.22 0.13 0.02 0.10 0.30 0.17 0.02 0.09 0.39 0.19 0.03 0.11 0.41 0.22 0.04 0.13 0.41 0.04 c 0.02 0.11 0.05 0.01 0.03 0.12 0.06 0.01 0.04 0.15 0.05 0.02 0.14 0.08 0.01 0.06 0.15 0.10 0.02 0.08 0.16 0.04 0.01 0.04 0.07 0.04 0.01 0.04 0.09 0.05 0.01 0.04 0.09 0.04 0.01 0.11 0.12 0.02 0.09 0.28 0.20 0.03 0.14 0.46 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.03 0.06 0.01 0.04 0.13 0.19 0.04 0.17 0.36 0.31 0.07 0.28 0.59 USDA) Study Takes by

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304 DIOXINS AND DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS IN THE FOOD SUPPLY TABLE B-10 Estimated Intake of Dioxins from Food by Males and Females, 1+ Years Old (n = 19,043) Consumer Nondetect P' Food Categories Percent Consuming Food Intake (g/kg body weight/d) Mean 1( All foods 100.0 38.0 Dairy foods and mixtures 91.5 7.0 Meat and mixtures 83.0 2.5 Poultry and mixtures 57.7 1.8 Fish and mixtures 23.4 1.5 Eggs and mixtures 30.8 1.0 Fruits, vegetables, and mixtures 98.0 7.1 Fats, oils, and mixtures 70.4 0.3 Other foods and mixturesd 100.0 20.7 aReflects treatment of samples for which no dioxin congener was detected. bLOD = limit of detection. c< 0.0005 pa/kg body weight/d. dGrains and mixtures, legumes and mixtures, beverages (other than milk and juice), candy. NOTE: Data represent 2-day averages generated using U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) sample weights. Breastfeeding children are excluded. Pregnant and/or lactating females are included. DATA SOURCE: Dioxin concentrations: U.S. Food and Drug Administration Total Diet Study (1999-2001); food consumption: 1994-1996, 1998 USDA Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals.

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APPENDIX B emales, 305 Consumers' Dioxin Toxic Equivalents (TEQ) Intake (pa/kg body weight/d) Nondetectsa = 0 Nondetects = 0.5 (LOD)b Nondetects = LOD Percentile Percentile Percentile r weight/d) Mean 10 50 90 Mean 10 50 90 Mean 10 50 90 0.46 0.12 0.33 0.96 0.77 0.30 0.62 1.41 1.07 0.43 0.88 1.91 0.09 0.01 0.04 0.21 0.12 0.01 0.07 0.28 0.15 0.02 0.09 0.35 0.23 0.01 0.13 0.53 0.26 0.03 0.16 0.58 0.29 0.04 0.18 0.64 0.06 c 0.03 0.13 0.07 0.01 0.04 0.15 0.08 0.01 0.05 0.17 0.16 0.04 0.45 0.18 0.01 0.08 0.46 0.21 0.02 0.11 0.49 0.04 0.01 0.03 0.09 0.05 0.01 0.03 0.09 0.05 0.01 0.04 0.10 0.05 0.02 0.12 0.13 0.01 0.08 0.29 0.22 0.03 0.14 0.48 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.03 0.01 0.01 0.03 0.06 0.01 0.04 0.13 0.21 0.06 0.17 0.41 0.36 0.10 0.29 0.72 candy. ure sting Diet of Food

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306 DIOXINS AND DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS IN THE FOOD SUPPLY TABLE Bell Estimated Intake of Dioxin-like Compounds from Food by Consumers of High versus Low Combined Amounts of Meat, Poultry, and Fish Dioxin To Population Consumption of Meat, Nondetect Poultry, and Fish n = 0 Males and females, 1-5 y, not breastfeeding High 5,306 1.17 Low 1,035 0.76 Males and females, 6-11 y High 1,735 0.72 Low 166 0.39 Males, 12-19 y High 675 0.53 Low 18 0.18 Males, 20+ y High 4,608 0.42 Low 110 0.19 Females, 12-19 y, not pregnant or lactating High 615 0.39 Low 71 0.17 Females, 20+ y, not pregnant or lactating High 4,128 0.34 Low 281 0.16 Females, pregnant or lactating High 108 0.38 Low 3 0.29 Males and females, 1+ y, includes pregnant and/or lactating women High 17,175 0.47 Low 1,684 0.33 aReflects treatment of samples for which no dioxin congener was detected. bLOD = limit of detection. NOTE: Data represent 2-day averages generated using U.S. Department of Agriculture sample weights. Low combined meat, poultry, and fish consumption defined as 2-day average intakes less than 1 oz (29 g).

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APPENDIX B by and Fish 307 Dioxin Toxic Equivalents Intake (pa/kg body weight/d) Dietary Comparison Measures Nondetectsa Nondetects Nondetects Energy Protein Total Fat n = 0 = 0.5 (LODb) = LOD (kcal/d) (g/d) (g/d) 5,306 1.17 1.76 2.35 1,554 56.6 57.1 1,035 0.76 1.26 1.77 1,241 39.7 42.3 1,735 0.72 1.14 1.55 1,906 67.3 69.6 166 0.39 0.77 1.15 1,576 45.9 51.2 675 0.53 0.89 1.25 2,737 99.4 101.9 18 0.18 0.47 0.77 2,119 63.2 69.3 4,608 0.42 0.69 0.96 2,422 95.5 92.1 110 0.19 0.40 0.61 1,772 51.4 56.0 615 0.39 0.69 1.00 1,884 66.7 68.9 71 0.17 0.41 0.66 1,435 40.2 45.6 4,128 0.34 0.59 0.83 1,620 63.8 60.0 281 0.16 0.38 0.60 1,303 37.7 40.2 108 0.38 0.65 0.91 2,092 78.7 76.7 3 0.29 0.54 0.79 2,014 62.5 69.7 17,175 0.47 0.78 1.08 2,015 77.5 75.4 1,684 0.33 0.64 0.95 1,420 42.0 45.5 ample takes less

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