2
Transportation Agency Work and the Workforce

Chapter Highlights

  • Among key factors affecting the nation’s future workforce, including the transportation workforce, are the rapid pace of technological change, globalization, aging of the population, and continuing ethnic diversification of the nation’s population.

  • About 50 percent of the state transportation agency workforce will be eligible to retire within the next 10 years; the percentage of all workers similarly eligible is much smaller.

  • Several factors, including broader agency missions, agency restructuring, and the implementation of intelligent transportation system technologies, result in the need for new skill sets for many employees in state departments of transportation and transit agencies.

  • Even though agency program budgets are growing and the range of activities agencies undertake requires additional knowledge and skills, some governors and state legislatures continue to seek to reduce the size of state agencies, including state departments of transportation.



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The Workforce Challenge: Recruiting, Training, and Retaining Qualified Workers for Transportation and Transit agencies 2 Transportation Agency Work and the Workforce Chapter Highlights Among key factors affecting the nation’s future workforce, including the transportation workforce, are the rapid pace of technological change, globalization, aging of the population, and continuing ethnic diversification of the nation’s population. About 50 percent of the state transportation agency workforce will be eligible to retire within the next 10 years; the percentage of all workers similarly eligible is much smaller. Several factors, including broader agency missions, agency restructuring, and the implementation of intelligent transportation system technologies, result in the need for new skill sets for many employees in state departments of transportation and transit agencies. Even though agency program budgets are growing and the range of activities agencies undertake requires additional knowledge and skills, some governors and state legislatures continue to seek to reduce the size of state agencies, including state departments of transportation.

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The Workforce Challenge: Recruiting, Training, and Retaining Qualified Workers for Transportation and Transit agencies Transit agency workforce needs are focused on equipment operators, agency maintenance staff, and information technology specialists. A significant portion—about 75 percent—of the transit workforce is unionized, which affects how workers are recruited, trained, and retained. Transit agencies cannot offer the majority of their employees—bus and train operators—a flexible work schedule, which is highly regarded by most of today’s job applicants. Transportation agencies at all levels of government and the private-sector organizations that support them operate in a climate of change—stemming from technical, demographic, institutional, political, cultural, economic, and environmental factors—that affects the personal and professional lives of everyone, including the transportation workforce. Comprehensive studies of current and future workforce issues identify many such factors. Box 2-1 presents the four key factors of change from one such study— Workforce 2020—together with several primary components of each (Hudson Institute 1997).1 Surface transportation agencies face these and other issues in delivering programs, facilities, and services to their customers.2 No single trend or characteristic describes how the transportation agency workplace or workforce is changing. While state departments of transportation (SDOTs) and transit agencies (TAs) share many 1 An earlier study by the Hudson Institute, Workforce 2000, predicted strong economic growth, a reduction in manufacturing jobs, major job creation in the service industry, an aging but increasingly diverse workforce, and higher skill level requirements for new jobs in service industries. Interestingly, Workforce 2000 failed to predict the breadth of the digital revolution, the disparities among geographic locations and their implications, and the growth of diversity in the workforce (Hudson Institute 1987). 2 The transportation sector continues to undergo significant technology changes related to computer-aided design and engineering, new materials, new methods of analysis, robotics, the Global Positioning System, intelligent transportation systems, and so forth.

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The Workforce Challenge: Recruiting, Training, and Retaining Qualified Workers for Transportation and Transit agencies BOX 2-1 Factors of Change from Workforce 2020 Technological change The Internet and Web-based communications Wireless communication systems Information technologies Advanced control systems The elimination of some jobs and the creation of others Costs and productivity benefits of technology Globalization Migration of some jobs to foreign locations Competition for highly skilled workers Greatly reduced transportation and communication costs The growing volatility of some market segments Aging of the population and other demographic trends The aging population and workforce The loss of experienced workers due to retirement Changes in workforce composition; increasing participation of underrepresented groups Population growth, suburban and exurban growth, and related travel impacts

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The Workforce Challenge: Recruiting, Training, and Retaining Qualified Workers for Transportation and Transit agencies Ethnic diversification in the workforce Changes in the proportions of African Americans, Hispanics, and Asians Reduction in the proportion of Caucasian workers Source: Hudson Institute 1997. trends and characteristics, there are important differences in the issues faced by each. In the first section of this chapter the issues affecting SDOTs are presented, and how these issues affect the workforce and are changing the way those agencies are organized and operated is examined. The key issues affecting the TA workforce are reviewed in the second section. This is followed by a description of the model used by the committee to characterize transportation agency job categories. The chapter is summarized in the final section. WORK AND WORKFORCE ISSUES FACING STATE TRANSPORTATION AGENCIES Today’s SDOTs are the direct descendants of state highway agencies that were organized in the early 20th century to plan, design, build, and maintain state and federal highway networks. Many of these agencies have evolved into multimodal departments with divisions responsible for statewide aviation, highways, public transportation, waterways, and intermodal programs. Some also have driver and motor vehicle registration and at least one has the state highway patrol within its purview. As an organization, an SDOT is oriented toward civil engineering because its work relates to public or civil infrastructure facilities and systems. A typical university civil engineering curriculum provides instruction on the planning, design, construction, and maintenance of

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The Workforce Challenge: Recruiting, Training, and Retaining Qualified Workers for Transportation and Transit agencies such facilities and systems. Graduate programs focus these skills more closely on transportation subjects. The Interstate highway system, the country’s last major national transportation program, set the stage for current SDOT organization and activity. The success of that system required a high degree of uniformity and consistency across all the states. This need was met through an enormous set of procedures, standards, and specifications for highway infrastructure. As a result, until recently the SDOT environment was characterized by a long period of stability and a high degree of standardization, supported by a successful national program oriented toward highway system development and preservation. State and federal policy and politics, then, together with dedicated funding and legislative oversight, define the SDOT operating environment. Information on the salient federal legislation and the roles of different levels of government in highway funding is provided in Box 2-2. Some of the key changes under way in state highway programs are described in Box 2-3. [Such changes at the federal level are illustrated in Appendix A by the Federal Highway Administration’s (FHWA’s) view of the key differences between FHWA programs and roles in the Interstate era and in the early 21st century.] Despite the changes affecting all SDOTs and FHWA, each SDOT possesses a distinctive culture and character, and each continues to adapt to its internal and external social, political, and institutional working environments, often in different ways. Within this context, key factors forcing change in the SDOTs are described in the following sections. Agency Downsizing and Reorganization The 1980s and 1990s saw a growing commitment by governors and state legislatures to reducing the size and influence of government. More recently, many states faced with revenue shortfalls have reduced state agency operating budgets and staff.3 Mandated spending limits, balanced-budget requirements, and other factors led to agency workforce reductions, hiring freezes, and early retirement incentive programs that downsized many state agencies. To deliver their programs 3 For the most part, federal and state transportation program funds (appropriated to support program activities) cannot be used for staff salaries.

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The Workforce Challenge: Recruiting, Training, and Retaining Qualified Workers for Transportation and Transit agencies BOX 2-2 Federal Legislation and Government Roles in Highway Transportation By creating a new class of highways and a new highway funding mechanism, the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956 significantly affected the governmental roles in highway transportation. The act created the Highway Trust Fund, a unique infrastructure funding mechanism based on receipts from federal user taxes on motor fuels, tires and tubes, new buses, and trucks and trailers and a use tax on heavy trucks. States have always viewed the Highway Trust Fund as state money collected by the federal government for distribution back to the states. Distribution formulas set by Congress redistribute trust fund contributions to address national highway goals. Congress occasionally changes the distribution formulas and has considered proposals to eliminate federal highway taxes, leaving the states responsible for generating needed highway funds directly. Following debate on this issue for the 1998 highway reauthorization bill, Congress decided to continue the Highway Trust Fund and added the requirement that each state must receive at least 90.5 percent of its contribution. FHWA dispersed about $29 billion in 2000 to the states, primarily from the trust fund. In the same year, states provided $62 billion for highway-related purposes through a range of means, including vehicle and driver licensing fees and fuel taxes. States also provide direct assistance to local governments by performing construction and maintenance on locally owned roads and by distributing state revenues to local governments as grants for highway purposes. Counties, municipalities, towns, and townships spent about $30 billion on highways in 1999.

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The Workforce Challenge: Recruiting, Training, and Retaining Qualified Workers for Transportation and Transit agencies BOX 2-3 How SDOTs Are Changing The largest element of the SDOT workforce is and will continue to be the highway component. That workforce is adjusting to a shift from an emphasis on building and maintaining highways to operating them as part of a transportation system and to protecting and enhancing the highway investment, while adding capacity as needed. This shift, combined with the introduction of many new methods, materials, and technologies, requires broader expertise than that of the highway engineer of the 1970s and 1980s. Moreover, the mission of SDOTs has changed and expanded to include other modes—rail, water, air—as well as intermodal considerations and facilities, further affecting SDOT workforce needs. Two examples illustrate some of these changes. First, past state SDOT interest in freight traffic was focused on truck axle loadings, bridge ratings, and the volume and directions of truck movements. Today, many states are addressing freight traffic in a much broader context that encompasses intermodal transportation and the facilities and equipment needed to support it. Consideration is being given to state heavy truck tax structures, the state role in supporting short line railroads, port subsidies, funding for a rail or a barge link rather than expanding a highway route, and shared funding of intermodal facilities. Consequently, SDOTs need staff capable of analyzing alternative funding mechanisms and assessing potential public–private partnerships to address projects in the public interest. Second, environmental issues also present challenges to the SDOT workforce. These issues and their regulatory requirements are increasingly complex and important to trans

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The Workforce Challenge: Recruiting, Training, and Retaining Qualified Workers for Transportation and Transit agencies portation programs; inadequate or inappropriate environmental studies can delay projects or even lead to federal funds being withheld. Many SDOTs work closely with state environmental agencies (even funding the cost to these agencies for the preparation of environmental impact assessments for SDOT projects) and are committed to public involvement. It is recognized, however, that these activities require skills and expertise not previously found in the SDOT workforce. with reduced staff, many SDOTs reorganized to eliminate several organizational levels, automated or shifted some traditional central office functions to lower levels of the organization, and decentralized other functions. Reorganization also often devolves decision making to lower levels; combined with decentralization, this trend results in more individual discretion concerning how work gets done and fosters more nontraditional employment arrangements. Thus reorganization requires a broader range of knowledge, skills, and abilities among individual workers.4 Kettl (1996, 45) points out that “careful downsizing requires planning, strategic analysis of critical skills, and the creation of incentives to acquire and retain those skills. The key is shrinking government’s size while reconfiguring it to manage changing needs.” As an example, some of the changes associated with the reorganization at the Ohio Department of Transportation are described in Box 2-4. The trend toward devolving authority from the federal to the state level, and in many cases further within the states to local governments, combined with changing institutional forms, has affected intergovernmental relationships. At the same time, federal regulations and unfunded mandates strain federal–state relations. State and local agencies are beginning to be less dependent on federal assistance and to work 4 Civil service and union considerations also play important roles in reorganization decisions.

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The Workforce Challenge: Recruiting, Training, and Retaining Qualified Workers for Transportation and Transit agencies BOX 2-4 Reorganization Changes at the Ohio Department of Transportation During the last decade, the Ohio Department of Transportation (ODOT) significantly altered its organization to improve its core service delivery function. Before ODOT’s reorganization, growing pavement and bridge deficiencies, an increasing number of high-accident locations, and limited available construction funding due to a rise in operating costs double the rate of inflation were negatively affecting the performance of the state’s highway network. During the reorganization, ODOT reduced staff by more than 1,900, from 7,800 to 5,900, without any layoffs; streamlined its functions; and reinvested more than $600 million in Ohio’s highway network. ODOT reorganized by consolidating 42 work units into 19 streamlined sections. The agency’s 2001 capital program of $1.2 billion represents a 54 percent increase over that of the mid-1990s and was accomplished with a 24 percent smaller staff. Central to the reorganization was giving the department’s 12 district offices the flexibility to identify cost-saving opportunities while maintaining established production goals. In addition, each district office was able to keep its respective savings and reinvest this money in its capital program. As a result, several high-profile projects were constructed, including a $300 million project to rebuild Interstate 71 through downtown Cincinnati, a $122 million project to reconstruct Interstate 270 north of Columbus, and a $300 million cable-stayed bridge project in Toledo that is expected to become a signature landmark for that city.

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The Workforce Challenge: Recruiting, Training, and Retaining Qualified Workers for Transportation and Transit agencies Such a major reorganization requires continuing attention to organizational adjustments, skill needs and gaps, employee reaction, relocations, and other factors. ODOT continues to make changes as it addresses a growing program with fewer staff. more closely with each other to address some issues—environmental, transportation, and others—that require solutions tailored to local or regional circumstances. In some cases, serious consideration is being given to new forms of regional government even as agencies strive to find ways of working together more closely to achieve regional goals. Wave of Retirements The aging of the nation’s population is reflected in the aging of the transportation agency workforce. According to the Current Population Survey, there were 18.4 million workers over age 55 in the labor force in 2000; the Bureau of Labor Statistics projects 31.9 million workers over age 55 by 2015 (GAO 2001). A 1999 survey of SDOTs indicated that more than 50 percent of their workforce is eligible to retire in the next 10 years—more than double the rate for all workers (New Mexico State Highway and Transportation Department 1999).5 In December 2000, FHWA reported that 47 percent of its 2,680 employees were eligible for retirement in 2010 (13 percent at the time, 16 percent in 2005, and 18 percent in 2010). Moreover, potential re- 5 This is not an isolated phenomenon. From 2000 to 2008, the proportion of teachers older than 55 will increase from 13 to 19 percent and the proportion of nurses and related professionals older than 55 will increase from 12 to 18 percent. California alone faces a projected shortfall of 300,000 teachers over the next decade (FPE 2001).

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The Workforce Challenge: Recruiting, Training, and Retaining Qualified Workers for Transportation and Transit agencies tirements are more critical in some position specialties than others.6 For example, almost one-third of current SDOT executives were eligible to retire in 2000, and more than 90 percent can retire within 10 years (FHWA 2000a).7 This high potential rate of retirements stems in large part from the aging of the baby boom generation—those born from 1946 through 1964. The proportion of all workers aged 45 and older will increase from 33 percent of the labor force in 1998 to 40 percent in 2008, which will add nearly 17 million workers to this age group. Over the same period, those aged 25 to 44 will decline as a percentage of the labor force—from 51 to 44 percent—resulting in 3 million fewer workers in this age bracket (Dohm 2000). For some transportation agencies, the institution of hiring freezes when downsizing took place means that today many agencies do not have enough midlevel managers to replace their retiring senior-level managers. In an example that reflects the situation in many American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials member organizations, retirements are leaving the Ontario Ministry of Transportation with significant vacancies (see Table 2-1). Vacancy rates in these specialized skill areas are double those seen at the ministry just 10 years ago. Program Growth The Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century significantly increased federal-aid program funding and broadened the scope of program activities, which placed increased pressure on reduced SDOT staffs. As noted in Chapter 1, between FY 1995 and FY 2001, the apportionment of federal funds administered by FHWA increased nearly 60 percent, from $18.1 billion to $28.9 billion. 6 Information on state experiences would be helpful, especially in light of such trends as agency downsizings and early retirement offers. Unfortunately, the committee found a paucity of such information. 7 Some public and a few private employers are adopting measures to retain older workers and extend their careers. Some of these measures are discussed in more detail in Chapter 4.

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The Workforce Challenge: Recruiting, Training, and Retaining Qualified Workers for Transportation and Transit agencies improving.19 Research is currently under way to determine how existing negative attitudes about TA culture and practices can be addressed to improve the agencies’ image as an employer of choice (Transit Cooperative Research Program Project F-11). Influence of Legislative Bodies and Agency Boards Transit agencies are usually governed by a board of directors or trustees comprising public citizens appointed by a governor, mayor, or other elected official. Sometimes approval of appointments is also required by a legislative body (the state legislature or the city council). Members typically represent specific political jurisdictions. Transit boards range in size from 5 to 23 members and average 9 members (Simon & Simon 2002). The vast majority of transit boards avoid day-to-day operations and focus on policy issues. TA workforce planning is often constrained by a transit board decision to cap the number of full-time equivalents (FTEs). When a board mandates restricting FTEs to control costs, it often overlooks actual operating conditions and the potential consequences of FTE limits, such as increased scheduled and unscheduled overtime, operator dependence on overtime, reduced morale and performance, and increased turnover (Moffat et al. 2001). CHARACTERIZING KEY TRANSPORTATION AGENCY JOB CATEGORIES Past studies of SDOT workforce needs have focused principally on either the civil engineering or the professional workforce—including, for example, civil and other engineers, planners, lawyers—those requiring a baccalaureate or professional degree. Studies of TA workforce needs have concentrated on several benchmark categories—bus 19 TAs are local organizations, and many of their employees come from the area served by the system. Thus, the agency’s history is part of the local community and often well known to its residents.

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The Workforce Challenge: Recruiting, Training, and Retaining Qualified Workers for Transportation and Transit agencies and train operators, equipment maintenance staff, engineers, planners, and information technology specialists. To both focus and simplify its discussions, the committee adopted a model of transportation agency job categories based on education and training qualifications while recognizing that any such model can oversimplify the situation and obscure variations within and among categories.20 The committee’s model is based on four primary job categories—executive/managerial, professional /technical, operator/technician, and administrative/ clerical. The minimum requirement for professional staff is a baccalaureate or professional degree or equivalent qualifications. The minimum requirement for technical staff is a post–secondary school credential (an associate’s degree, a certificate from a recognized training program, or some combination of training and experience) that qualifies them. The minimum requirement for administrative and clerical staff is a high school diploma or equivalent. More information on these categories as discussed by the committee is presented in Table 2-2. SUMMARY Many factors—including technology changes, demographic factors, increasing ethnic diversification of the population, funds availability, and so forth—will continue to have an impact on the transportation agency workforce and the agencies’ ability to recruit and retain qualified staff. Each agency must decide how it will undertake its mission and the workforce it needs to accomplish that mission. While many factors affect this decision, several are critical: anticipated program 20 The committee considered classifications such as white collar/blue collar and professional/ nonprofessional but found them limiting. It also considered classifications with more categories, such as the ASCE Compensation Survey that includes eight engineer categories and three surveyor levels. An unpublished workforce benchmarking study prepared for Indiana Department of Transportation revealed that in 22 responding states, on average, 44 percent of SDOT employees are administrators, managers, or professionals, 32 percent are technical or craft certified, and 27 percent are clerical or unskilled. In addition to engineers, engineering technicians, and information technology professionals, SDOTs have a cadre of “other professionals,” including accountants, attorneys, environmental scientists, planners, and right-of-way and human resource specialists (Warne 2003).

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The Workforce Challenge: Recruiting, Training, and Retaining Qualified Workers for Transportation and Transit agencies TABLE 2-2 Selected Characteristics for Primary Transportation Agency Job Categories   Typical Job Titles Minimum Job Qualifications Change Considerations Recruiting Range Executive/managerial General managers, executive officers, agency heads, department heads Experience with agency operations plus some management experience or equivalent Open to change; knowledge of changing conditions within and outside the agency National, regional, or departmental Professional/technical Managers; engineers; planners; environmental, financial, and legal specialists Baccalaureate or professional degree or equivalent qualifications An expanding range of technical skills—planning, operation, environmental, etc.—are needed in all agencies. The changing SDOT business model and core competency requirements are affecting the range of professional requirements; more contracting out increases the need for contract managers; innovative financial arrangements increase the need for financial experts SDOTs and TAs generally recruit within the state or region; some recruit across the country; some agencies cannot pay moving expenses for out-of-state candidates Operator/technician Transit equipment operators, maintenance staff, engineering technicians, information technology specialists Some combination of postsecondary training and experience New computer, information, and transportation technologies result in higher qualifications Often within a state or region Administrative/clerical Secretaries, administrative assistants, clerks Secondary school education; possibly some additional training. Computer-based office technologies and information technologies are raising entry-level qualifications and requiring employers to provide remedial training Usually local

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The Workforce Challenge: Recruiting, Training, and Retaining Qualified Workers for Transportation and Transit agencies growth, an expanding agency mission, constraints on program funding, and pressure to maintain or reduce agency staff. In combination they require agencies to contract out more work. Many agencies are already selectively increasing their use of contractors and consultants for work traditionally undertaken by agency staff. As they contract out more work, agencies still need some in-house expertise to ensure quality control, a basic fiduciary responsibility of the agency, as well as more contract management and administration skills (Camm and Moore 1997). Nevertheless, overall program management and fiscal stewardship must remain in-house. Each transportation agency is independent, and few have attempted to predict their workforce needs in the next 5 or 10 years. However, in light of the changes taking place in the workforce, there are some identifiable trends. The impending wave of retirements of senior management staff is important to agencies that do not have sufficient numbers of midlevel replacements in the pipeline. Technology changes are taking place at a quickening pace, increasing the need for training in new methods, technology applications, and management techniques. Contracting out demands more of an agency’s technical staff than just a caretaker role; it requires technical competence combined with contract management and administration skills. The experience gained from the few states moving quickly toward an operating model in which a high percentage of work is contracted out should prove valuable to other agencies if the lessons learned can be captured and disseminated. The issue of the future TA workforce is somewhat different at this time. While external changes will continue to affect TAs, how they will deliver service in the next 5 to 10 years is not likely to change, nor is the basic mix of personnel required. Thus the need for transit operators and equipment maintenance staff, engineers, planners, and information technology personnel will continue. REFERENCES Abbreviations FPE Federation of Public Employees FHWA Federal Highway Administration

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The Workforce Challenge: Recruiting, Training, and Retaining Qualified Workers for Transportation and Transit agencies GAO General Accounting Office NRC National Research Council TRB Transportation Research Council Camm, F. S., and N. Y. Moore. 1997. Strategic Sourcing: A Key to the Revolution in Business Affairs. Report DB-208-AF. Rand Corporation, Santa Monica, Calif. Cappelli, P. 2000. A Market-Driven Approach to Retaining Talent. Harvard Business Review, Jan.–Feb. CE News. 2002. Salary Survey 2002. May. www.cenews.com/edsalsurmain.html. Dohm, A. 2000. Gauging the Labor Force Effects of Retiring Baby-Boomers. Monthly Labor Review, July, pp. 17–25. FHWA. 2000a. Positioning FHWA for the Future. Report of Task Force on Workforce Planning and Professional Development. Washington, D.C., Dec. FHWA. 2000b. Federal Lands Highway, Phase II Benchmarking Study. Washington, D.C., Sept. FPE. 2001. The Quiet Crisis: Recruitment and Retention in the Public Sector. Recruitment and Retention Task Force. Washington, D.C., June. GAO. 2001. Older Workers: Demographic Trends Pose Challenges for Employers and Workers. GAO-02-85. Washington, D.C., Nov. GAO. 2002. A Model of Strategic Human Capital Management. GAO-02-373SP. Washington, D.C. Hudson Institute. 1987. Workforce 2000—Work and Workers for the 21st Century. Indianapolis, Ind. Hudson Institute. 1997. Workforce 2020—Work and Workers in the 21st Century. Indianapolis, Ind. Kaye, B., and S. Jordan-Evans. 1999. Love ‘Em or Lose ‘Em. Berrett-Koehler Publishers, San Francisco, Calif. Kettl, D. 1996. Civil Service Reform: Building a Government That Works. The Brookings Institution, Washington, D.C. McGlothin Davis, Inc. 2002. TCRP Report 77: Managing Transit’s Workforce in the New Millennium. TRB, National Research Council, Washington, D.C. Moffat, G. K., A. H. Ashton, and D. R. Blackburn. 2001. TCRP Synthesis 40: A Challenged Employment System: Hiring, Training, Performance Evaluation, and Retention of Bus Operators. TRB, National Research Council, Washington, D.C. New Mexico State Highway and Transportation Department. 1999. Staffing Plan Survey of State Transportation Agencies. Research Report NM99, ADM-01. Sept. NRC. 2001. Building a Workforce for the Information Economy. Washington, D.C. Passenger Transport. 2002. Illinois DOT Connects Small Transit Agencies to Regional Repair Centers. Dec. 27.

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The Workforce Challenge: Recruiting, Training, and Retaining Qualified Workers for Transportation and Transit agencies Polzin, S. E., and B. G. Ward. 2002. Designing an Interdisciplinary Educational Program to Support Transportation Workforce Development. In Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 1812, TRB, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., pp. 143–150. Reese, C. 2003. Employment History Survey of ASCE’s Younger Members. Leadership and Management in Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 33–53. Simon & Simon Research and Associates, Inc. 2002. TCRP Web Document 21: Public Transit System Policy Boards: Organization and Characteristics. TCRP Project H-24, Contractor Final Report. TRB, National Research Council, Washington, D.C. gulliver.trb.org/publications/tcrp/tcrp_webdoc_21.pdf. TRB. 1997. Special Report 251: Toward a Sustainable Future: Addressing the Long-Term Effects of Motor Vehicle Transportation on Climate and Ecology. National Research Council, Washington, D.C. Tulgan, B. 2001. Winning the Talent Wars. W.W. Norton & Company. Warne, T. 2003. NCHRP Synthesis of Highway Practice: Current Practice for Recruiting and Retaining Individuals in State Transportation Agencies. TRB, National Research Council, Washington, D.C. (in progress). Wulf, W. A., and G. M. C. Fisher. 2002. A Makeover for Engineering Education. Issues in Science and Technology, Spring, pp. 35–39.

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The Workforce Challenge: Recruiting, Training, and Retaining Qualified Workers for Transportation and Transit agencies ANNEX 2-1 Extent of and Variations in Contracting Out at SDOTs State Notes Percent Contracted Alabama Design and environmental services (most design and construction inspection is contracted out as well) 80* Alaska Construction contract administration 10   Design 31 Arizona Design 90   Construction management 30   Surveys Almost all   Mapping 100   Geotechnical 67   Hydraulics Almost all   Bridge design 50   Environmental 100 California Design and environmental services (The State Supreme Court has limited contracting out to environmental activities and specialty work on bridge design and experimentation/re-search of seismic retrofit.) 15* Colorado Design and environmental services (DOT has been contracting out significant amounts of project development activities in recent years, including environmental studies and documents as well as plans development. It is contracting out a growing amount of construction contract administration. For the fiscal year ending July 30, 1999, 51 percent of design and construction oversight was contracted out.) 40* Connecticut Design 72   Construction inspection (Surveys, geographic information system, and property activities are done in-house as mandated by the state legislature. State core competencies are identified as maintenance, contract administration, engineering, surveying, and construction inspection.) 61 Delaware Design 60   Construction management 60 Florida Project engineering 70   Construction 100   Design and environmental services (Workforce size is determined by the state legislature.) 66*

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The Workforce Challenge: Recruiting, Training, and Retaining Qualified Workers for Transportation and Transit agencies State Notes Percent Contracted Georgia Design 25 Hawaii Design and environmental services >50* Idaho Design 67   Construction management 10 Illinois Design and environmental services (Illinois DOT expected to triple its consultant budget in 1999 from $55 million per year to $160 million per year. Most of this is for environmental and design purposes. There will likely be an increase in construction engineering contracts this year as well.) 65–80* Indiana Environment studies 90   Design 90   Construction oversight 10   Maintenance 0   ITS area 0   Construction 100   Construction inspection 25   Right-of-way Little Iowa Highway design 62   Bridge design 41   Project planning (location and environment) 18   Construction inspection 25 Kansas Plans and design for the major highway and bridge jobs (from 1990 to 1997) 71   Plans and design for the major highway and bridge jobs (from 1998 to 1999) 58   Plans and design for the major highway and bridge jobs (for the 2000 to 2009 program) 70   Environmental (approximate) 10   Construction and reconstruction activities 100 Kentucky Preliminary engineering items, such as design, environmental studies, planning, underwater bridge inspection, photogrammetry 80 Louisiana Design 30*   Environmental 60* Maine Highway design 30   Bridge design 20   Construction engineering 13

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The Workforce Challenge: Recruiting, Training, and Retaining Qualified Workers for Transportation and Transit agencies State Notes Percent Contracted Maryland Plats 90   Field surveys 33   Mapping 100   Design (on a dollar basis) 60   Design (on a project basis) 50   Construction inspection 50   Construction 100 Massachusetts Design and environmental services 50* Michigan Design and environmental services 55* Minnesota Design and environmental services 25–30* Mississippi Design and environmental services 30* Missouri Highway design 82   Bridge design 16   Construction inspection 0   Miscellaneous 3 Montana Design and environmental services 30–50* Nebraska Highway design 35   Construction engineering 0 Nevada Construction engineering 55   Preliminary engineering 78.6   Right-of-way plans and appraisals (State legislature fixes staff limits by approving all state agency budgets. Technicians are certified through the Transportation Technician Training Program, a joint program of Nevada DOT and the Association of Contractors in the state.) Some New Hampshire Design projects (by number) 33   Design projects (by dollar amount) 63 New Jersey Design on a project basis 95   Construction 30 New York Design and environmental services 50* New Mexico Signs and pavement markings 100   Logo program 100   Construction management on certain projects 100   Services such as environmental, design, and traffic studies 40 North Carolina Design and environmental services 50*

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The Workforce Challenge: Recruiting, Training, and Retaining Qualified Workers for Transportation and Transit agencies State Notes Percent Contracted North Dakota Construction engineering services for the state portion of the total construction program 20   Design services 50   Design and construction engineering for county program 100 Oklahoma Design work 70   Construction inspection 10   Bridge inspections 75 Oregon Preliminary engineering 45 (1998)     39 (1999)   Construction engineering 9.6 (1998)     4.3 (1999)   (State legislature has capped hiring.)   Puerto Rico Engineering services (The Puerto Rico Highway and Transportation Authority contracts out the majority of its preliminary engineering work including some construction management and design/build management contracts for large transportation projects.) 90 Rhode Island Design and environmental services 95* South Dakota Design 25   Construction 20   Environmental <5 Tennessee Design projects 50   Construction inspection (except for specialized work) 100   Right-of-way appraisal work 60   Environment studies 60 Texas Preliminary engineering, including design 51   Construction engineering 2 Utah Design 45   Preconstruction (Utah DOT does not contract out for construction inspection. Most local governments use consultant construction inspection services.) 80 Vermont Design and environmental services 60–70* Virginia Design and environmental services 60–70* Washington Design and environmental services 20*

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The Workforce Challenge: Recruiting, Training, and Retaining Qualified Workers for Transportation and Transit agencies State Notes Percent Contracted West Virginia Preliminary engineering design services (WVDOH does contract out for engineering services in many areas including preliminary engineering for environmental document preparation and contract plans, construction inspection, bridge inspections, materials inspection, and even some right-of-way services.) 70* Wisconsin Design and construction engineering services 50   Design engineering Wyoming 15   Planning 20   Environmental 80* SOURCES: Based on information from FHWA’s Federal Lands Highway core business unit and an independent survey by Zweig-White. Numbers with an asterisk are from a Zweig-White survey of SDOTs. Zweig-White data are for design and environmental services only.