FIGURE 2.1 Distribution of childhood cancers (age 0-19), by ICCC category, 1975-1995.

SOURCES: ACS, 2000; Ries et al., 1999. Data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER), Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute.

egory, rise throughout childhood. Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma includes T-cell lymphoma, usually found in preadolescent or adolescent males, large cell lymphoma, usually found in children over 5, and small cell lymphoma (Burkitt’s or non-Burkitts’s). The five-year relative survival rate has risen to 92 percent for Hodgkin’s disease, and 73 percent for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.

4. Carcinomas and other malignant epithelial neoplasms. Two malignancies in this category—thyroid cancer and melanoma—account for 9 percent of childhood cancers. Five-year survival rate is 99 percent for thyroid cancer and 92 percent for melanoma.

5. Germ cell, trophoblastic, and other gonadal neoplasms. This category accounts for 7 percent of childhood cancers. Germ cell tumors develop from testicular or ovarian cells. Sometimes these cells travel to the chest or abdomen where they may turn into a rare type of cancer called extragonadal germ cell tumor. Incidence rates and survival duration for these cancers has increased between 1975 and 1997; the 5-year survival rate now ranges between 75 and 94 percent for germ cell tumors.

6. Soft tissue sarcomas. Soft tissue sarcomas account for about 7 percent of childhood cancers. Rhabdomyosarcoma, a disease in which malignant cells arise from muscle tissue, is the most common soft tissue tumor among children under age 15. Other sarcomas are more common among those ages 15 to 19. The 5-year survival rate for soft tissue sarcomas is 71 percent, a rate that has not changed much since the 1975-1984 decade.

7. Malignant bone tumors. Malignant bone tumors account for 6

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