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Information Technology (IT)-Based Educational Materials Workshop Report with Recommendations ... ..... ...... ... .... , _ . _ . _ ................... _ .. . ~ ............................................ ~ .. ......................................... _ ......................................... ...... .. ~ ..................... ~ . L, W ~ ~_ ~ ~ ~ _ . ~ ,, _ ~ ~ ... _ , ............................................ , . _ ~ # ~ ~ :::,. ~ ~ j .~ . ~~. ~ a- .~ . ~ ~ as .~ . .~ ~~ ~~ ~~. .:::::::::::::::::::::: - :::::::::::~::::::::::::: - :::::::::: - ::: - : e a~~ :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::~::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::~:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::~:::::::::::: ........ . """"""""""""""""""""""'~'A""""""""""""' . ~ ~ ~ ~ E ~ . . ~.,. ''' ..................... ........................ _ ,... .... ,, , ~ .. ...... .... ~ ..~. ,...s .~ ~.,. ~............................................................. ...... .. ',,, _ ~ - .......................... it.. ~ 1 1 2222222s , . . ~ _, y . ~ , - . ~ #.~ ~, ma. """""""""""a a_ """""""""""""""""""_ " """""""_ _ I 1 _ .1 .,,.,.,.,.,. '1 Washington, D.C. November 8, 2002 ~ . . l: ~ : :::::::: r. :. ~ :: r.222"22222: I::::::::::::. r. 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 i::::::::::::::::. , _,.,:,:,:,::::::::::::::: - . 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2: r ......................................................... ................................................................. ................................................................... ................................................................... ................................................................... ................................................................... .................................................... Committee on Achieving Compatibility in ~T-Based Educational Materials THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS ~shina~n. D.C. ~ nan e~u e.

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Street NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by a National Academy of Engineering report review process. Publication of signed work signifies that it is judged a competent and useful contribution worthy of public consideration, but it does not imply endorsement of conclusions or recommendations by the NAE. The interpretations and conclusions in such publications are those of the authors and do not purport to represent the views of the council, officers, or staff of the National Academy of Engineering. This study was supported by Contract OPVr-4g68 between the National Academy of Engineering and the KavIi Institute. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authorts) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number: o-30g-o~g74-3 (book) International Standard Book Number: 0-30g-s260s-~ (PDF) Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, Boo Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (8oo) 624-6242 or (202) 334-33~3 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Tnternet, http://www.nap.edu Copyright (D 2003 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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TI Ir ~ I ATI~K I A I A ~ A pro Ally _ _ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ L] L] I\JI _ ~` _ ~ ~ hi_ ~ A _ A HA _, _l ~ ~ _V A ~ ' I ll ' ~ r ~ t~ l' ' AavJse~ lo Brie Ahoy on 'agent E~gir~eern~g, aria Memane The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in ~863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in ~964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in ~970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in ~9~6 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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The KavIi Institute The Kavii Tnstitute, a funding organization for this project, was founded in coo by Fred KavIi. The KavIi Tnstitute is a private operating foundation dedicated to the goals of advancing science for the benefit of humanity and promoting increase public understanding of and support for scientists and their work. Based in Oxnard, California, The KavIi Tnstitute engages in research utilizing its own staff, as well as through collaborative projects with researchers in a variety of fields. Current project areas include astronomy and cosmology, nano-scale science and technology, science and engineering education, and the environment. The KavIi Tnstitute strives to inform and educate the public about its research as well as to perform and fund research activities. Committee on Achieving Compatibility in IT-Based Educational Materials C. Sidney Burrus, chair, Rice University Donald Falkenburg, Wayne State University Michael Koh~hase, Carnegie Mellon University M.S. Vijay Kumar, Massachusetts Tnstitute of Technology Staff Patricia F. Mead, Senior Program Officer Katharine Gramling, Research Associate Matthew Caia, Project Assistant Ericka Reid, Intern Carol R. Arenberg, Editor NAE Committee on Engineering Education Stephen W. Director, chair, University of Michigan Alice A. Agogino, University of California, Berkeley Cynthia J. Atman, University of Washington Taft Broome, Jr., Howard University Barry C. Buckland, Merck Research Laboratories G. Wayne Clough, Georgia Tnstitute of Technology Rodney Custer, TIlinois State University James A. Dally, University of Maryland Ruth A. David, ANSER Corporation TV

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Ann Q. Gates, University of Texas-E} Paso Rosalyn A. Hobson, Virginia Commonwealth University Barry C. Johnson, VilIanova University Larry Leifer, Stanford University Larry McTntire, Rice University Joe} Moses, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Andries van Dam, Brown University Reviewers This report was reviewed by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Academies. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that wall assist the authoring committee and the NAE in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the charge for this activity. The contents of the review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. Hal Abelson, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Marietta L. Baba, Michigan State University James N. Gray, Microsoft Corporation Ed Lazowska, University of Washington Gregory B. Tait, Virginia Commonwealth University Robert Wisher, Advanced Distributed Learning, Office of the Secretary of Defense Although the reviewers provided many constructive comments and suggestions, responsibility for thefinaZ content of this report rests solely with the study committee and the NAB. 7,

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Contents Executive Summary Introduction 1 8 Workshop on Information Technology (IT)-Based Educational Materials Goals Framework Discussion and Results Our Current State: Islands of Innovation Technology and Tools Infrastructure Content and Pedagogy Human, Cultural, and Organizational Issues The New Environment: IT-Transformed Education Technology and Tools Infrastructure Content and Pedagogy Human, Cultural, and Organizational Issues Workshop Recommendations Build Community Create Organizational Enablers Coordinate Change Appendix A: Workshop Agenda Appendix B: Workshop Roster Appendix C: Summary Notes from Workshop Breakout Sessions Working Group on Architecture Issues Working Group on Tools and Technology Issues Working Group on Content and Pedagogy Issues Working Group on Organizational, Cultural, and Legal Issues Appendix D: Glossary of Terms Appendix E: Steering Committee Biographies V1 11 11 13 16 17 21 22 28 29 30 31 33 33 35 37 41 43 46 46 47 48 51 54 58

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C~ Ad i B9 _ ~ 9~ _ ~ ~ ~ ~~ - ~ ~ e_ ~ hi_ Executive Summary 1 Workshop on Information Technology (IT)-Based Educational Materials Goals, ~ Framework, 9 Discussion and Results, 10 2 Our Current State: Islands of Innovation Technology and Tools Infrastructure, ~ 3 Content and Pedagogy, 16 Human, Cultural, and Organizational Issues, 17 3 The New Environment: IT-Transformed Education Technology and Tools Infrastructure, 24 Content and Pedagogy, 25 Human, Cultural, and Organizational Issues, 25 4 Workshop Recommendations Build Community, 27 Create Organizational Enablers, 29 Coordinate Change, 30 Appendices 7 13 23 27 A Workshop Agenda, 33 B Workshop Roster, 35 C Summary Notes from Workshop Breakout Sessions, 39 D Glossary, 45 E Steering Committee Biographies, 49 ~ V22

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