Contents

Introduction
Wesley M. Cohen and Stephen A. Merrill

 

1

Patent Quality

 

 

 

 

Are All Patent Examiners Equal? Examiners, Patent Characteristics, and Litigation Outcomes
Iain M. Cockburn, Samuel Kortum, and Scott Stern

 

19

 

 

Patent Examination Procedures and Patent Quality
John L. King

 

54

 

 

Patent Quality Control: A Comparison of U.S. Patent Re-examinations and European Patent Oppositions
Stuart J.H. Graham, Bronwyn H. Hall, Dietmar Harhoff, and David C. Mowery

 

74

 

 

Benefits and Costs of an Opposition Process
Jonathan Levin and Richard Levin

 

120

Patent Litigation

 

 

 

 

Enforcement of Patent Rights in the United States
Jean O. Lanjouw and Mark Schankerman

 

145



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