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Appendix A Original and Suggested Time Lines for EPA Research Projects The following tables illustrate the original project time lines as set forth in the EPA draft Implementation Plan (EPA, 2003b) and suggested scheduling revisions proposed by the panel. These revisions summarize the ideas related to project scheduling that are presented in the body of the report and are intended to provide general guidance to EPA water security program managers. The original schedules are displayed as black bars, and revisions for certain projects are shown in the table as gray bars. This appendix does not capture other proposed changes for the projects (e.g., emphasis, approach, or improved linkages with other projects) that are described in Chapter 3 of Part I. The project titles have been abbreviated and organized below under the research and technical support needs as written in the EPA Water Security Research and Technical Support Action Plan. New research and technical support needs and projects that have been suggested by the panel in Parts I and II are included in the table, denoted by the word "PROPOSED." The time lines for projects shown in italics (see section 4.0) were not reviewed. Legend: .................................................. ..................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................... Original EPA scheduling as proposed in the draft Implementation Plan (EPA, 2003b) Suggested adjustment to project scheduling Time period during which continued updates and revision are necessary as new information becomes available, although the effort may be less intense 105

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106 Appendix A 12002 12003 12004 12005 12006 try IQtr2 try IQtr4 try IQtr2 ~tr3{Qtr4 IQtrl try IQtr3 try try IQtr2 ~tr31Qtr4 {Qtrl ~tr2}Qtr3 try 3.1.a. Identification and prioritization of physical and cyber threats 3. l.a. 1. Identification of physical and cyber threats scenarios 3.1.a.2. Lessons learned via vulnerability assessments 3.1.a.3. Evaluation of vulnerability assessment methodologies 3.1.a.4. Refining of methodologies for vulnerability assessments r-: .................................................... ........................................................................................................ 1 3.1.b. Understanding the consequences of physical or cyber attacks on drinking water infrastructure 3.1 .b. 1. Evaluation of models to address conse- quences of phys/cyber attacks on infrastructure 3. l.b.2. Assessment of consequences of phys./cyber attacks on water system integrity 3. l.b.3. Assessment of consequences of pressur- ized water loss on other infrastructure sectors 3. l.b.4. Compilation of technical info. and tools for enhanced consequence analysis . _. ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,T, ................................................................................ 1 ~ 1_ 3.1.c. Countermeasures to prevent or mitigate physical and cyber attacks on water infrastructure 3.1 .c. 1. Preparation of voluntary design stan- dards 3. l .c.2. Protection standards for SCADA and other computer systems 3.1.c.3. Identification of phys. countermeasures to minimize threats and consequences of attacks 3.1.c.4. Assessment of security measures for storage and transport of hazardous materials New PROPOSED Need: Assessing costs and benefits of preventative countermeasures PROPOSED: Assessment of costs and benefits associated with various security countermeasures PROPOSED: Research on rate structures to fi- nance improved water system security PROPOSED: Develop a manual on the value of water, inc. water security, and rate structures __ iSiSiSiSiSiSiSiSiSiSiSiSiSiSiSiSiSiSiSiSiSiSiS: iSiSiSiSiSiSiSiSiSiSiS: 1 ~ 1 1 ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1 .............................................. ............................................... i ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

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Appendix A 107 2002 12003 12004 12005 12006 IQtrl IQtr2 IQtr3 IQtr4 IQtrl IQtr2 IQtr3TQtr4 IQtrl IQtr2 IQtr3TQtr4 IQtrl IQtr2TQtr31Qtr4 {Qtr1 IQtr2TQtr3 IQtr4 3.2.a. Development of a list of contaminants and threat scenarios 3.2.a. 1. Preparation of a prioritized list of contaminants (and contain. classes) 3.2.a.2. Identification and prioritization of contaminant threat scenarios 1 ~ .............................................................................................. ............................................................................................. ...................................................... ............................................................................................... 3.2.a.3. Improved understanding of biologically produced toxins as contaminants 3.2.b. Development of a database on critical contaminants. 3.2.b. 1. Development of a database of contaminants 3.2.b.2. Development of guidance on the use of ~ _ this system 3.2.b.3. Improved understanding of contaminant properties based on gaps in database 3.2.b.4. Information survey about contaminant background levels in drinking water 3.2.c. Development of a surrogate/simulant database ....................... ....................... ......................................... ............................................... ............................................................................................. .............................................. ............................................................................................. .............................................. .............................................................................................. ............................................... __~ ~ rip 3 .2.c. 1. Development of a surrogate/simulant database for priority contaminants 3.2.c.2. Development of guidance on the use of this database 3.2.d. Means for maintaining and transmitting information on contaminants and threat scenarios 3.2.d. 1. Evaluation of existing methods/means for info. sharing on contaminants 3.2.d.2. Development of framework to evaluate the sensitivity of information

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108 Appendix A 2002 12003 12004 12005 12006 |Qtrl |Qtr2 |Qtr3 |Qtr4 |Qtrl |Qtr2 |Qtr3 |Qtr4 |Qtrl |Qtr2 |Qtr3 |Qtr4 |Qtrl |Qtr2 |Qtr3 |Qtr4 |Qtrl |Qtr2 |Qtr3 |Qtr4 3.3.a. A "play book" for analytical response 3.3.a.1. Preparation of a draft analytical response module for drinking water contaminant threats 3.3.a.2. Development of a protocol to analyze '`unknowns" 3.3.a.3. Lab testing and validation of analytical protocol using round robin approach 3.3.a.4. End-user testing and validation of ana- lytical response protocol 3.3.a.5. Development of improved protocol based on lessons learned in projects 3-4 3.3.a.6. Update the analytical response "play book" . ~~~1 ....................................................................................... .............................................. _ ....................... ~~: ....................................................... ............................................. - 3.3.b. Improved analytical hardware and analysis methodologies 3.3.b.1. Development of concentration tech- niques for priority biological contaminants 3.3.b.2. Adaptation of NEMI database for water security . ~ ....................................................................... ................ ............................................................................................. ............................................................................................... ....................................... 3.3.b.3. Analysis and compilation of existing ~ ~ analyt.hardware end methods for wafer security I l l l l l 3.3.b.4. Understanding and definition of analysis ~ goals,suchas date qualify objectives l l l 3.3.b.4 (Impl.Plan). Development of list of ex- isting protocols for microbiological contaminants 3.3.b.5. Development and application of new analyt. hardware and methods for contaminants 3.3.b.6. Updating the NEMI database and "play ~ book" based on the above projects l l l l l l 3.3.c. Requirements for monitoring technologie is 3.3.c. 1. Analysis of water utility and org. stan- dards for technology design and operation l l 3.3.c.2. Identification of desired monitoring ~ _ technology characteristics for water contami- nants 3.3.c.3. Implementation of approach for advanc- ~ - ing desired tech. characteristics via collaboration 3.3.c.4. Incorporation of lessons learned in above projects into analytical response "play book" PROPOSED: Develop sampling protocols for water sec. threat scenarios, incl. worker safety PROPOSED: Examine spatial/temporal sam- pling requirements and incorporate into protocols _ 3.3.d. Testing and evaluation of monitoring technologies 3.3.d. 1. Evaluation of existing monitoring tech- nologies for response to changes in water quality 3.3.d.2. Preparation of preliminary SOPs for evaluating monitoring technologies ....................... ,.......... ............ ....................... ............................................................................................. ,............................................. ............................................................................................. ............................................................................................. .............................. .............................. 1 .............................................................................................. ...............................................

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Appendix A 109 - >002 12003 12004 12005 12006 try |Qtr2 try |Qtr4 ~trl |Qtr2 try |Qtr4 |Qtrl try |Qtr3 try ~trl |Qtr2 try |Qtr4 |Qtrl try |Qtr3 try 3.3.d. Testing and evaluation of monitoring technologies (cont.) 3.3.d.3. Evaluation of detectors from non-water sectors for their utility for water monitoring 3.3.d.4. Evaluation of big-sensors and bio- ~ monitors for response to changes in water quality l l l 3.3.d.5. Preparation of revised SOPs for _' evaluating monitoring technologies 3.3.d.6. Preparation of handbook on current/ emerging water security monitoring technologies r 3.3.e. Early warning systems 3.3.e. 1. Survey of EWSs that could be used in - _ protecting wafer l l l l l l 3.3.e.2. Pilot testing of EWSs for early warning foontam~n:~bon event | _ 3.3.e.3. Field testing of EWSs for early warning of contamination event 3.3.e.4. Preparation of handbook on applications of EWSs for water security 3.3.f. Assessment of national laboratory capacity 3.3.f. 1. Assessment of existing lab analytical _ capacity/capability and development of database | ~1~- ~ ~ ~ 1- ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 1- ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 1- ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 3.3.f.2. Determine labs able to run protocol from _ 3.3.a; structure a network for utilities 3.3.f.3. Conduct a gap analysis for resources, training, methods 3.3.f.4. Integrate labs into a nat'1 network or _ _ other mechanisms to meet water emery. needs 3.3.f.5. Development of a plan for inter-lab _ _ coordination and information exchange I I ~ . _ 3.3.g. Training 3.3.g.1. Training exercises to ensure prepared- ness of analytical labs for contam.events 3.3.g.2. Training exercises for field personnel on use of detection technologies for response 3.3.g.3. Training exercises for field personnel on use of monitoring systems for mitigation

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110 Appendix A ~ 12002 12003 12004 12005 12006 IQtrl |Qtr2 |Qtr3 |Qtr4 |Qtrl |Qtr2 |Qtr3 |Qtr4 |Qtrl |Qtr2 |Qtr3 |Qtr4 |Qtrl |Qtr2 |Qtr3 |Qtr4 |Qtrl |Qtr2 |Qtr3 |Qtr4 | ' 3.4.a. Improved distribution system models 3.4.a.1. Analysis of EPANET, Pipeline Net, Modflow, and other hydraulic models 3.4.a.2. Develop module for merging health data, GIS, and SCADA data with hydraulic models 3.4.a.3. Use models to determine strategic locations of backflow prevention devices 3.4.a.4. Decision tree for utilities for use in determining background info. needs 3.4.a.5. Investigation of"real time" monitors and impact of instrument noise 3.4.a.6. Determine how distr. sys. models could be used to identify weak points in the system 3.4.a.7. Creation of analysis tool for using distri- bution system models in small systems 3.4.a.8. Development of analysis tool for using distribution system models post-endpoint 3.4.a.9. Investigation of contaminants in pipe loops PROPOSED: Conduct an inventory of water systems to assess hydraulic models PROPOSED: Refine distribution system models to consider decay rates of water contaminants ,................................................... .................................................... ........... ....................... ............ ....................... ............ ...................................................................... .............................................................................. .............................................................................. .............................................................................. ,........................... ................................................... ,.............................................. ....................................................................................... 3.4.b. Understanding the fate of contaminants once they are released 3.4.b. 1. Develop a protocol for actions if a _ contaminant is introduced in drinking water 3.4.b.2. Assessment of the environmental fate of _ water contaminants 3 4 b 3 Investigation of contaminant attachment .... ..................................................................................... to Colon .ms or pipe wa . .s 3.4.c. Treatment processes for water and equil ~ment that hav~ e been contami nated 3.4.c. 1. Review of literature for treatability information for most likely contaminants 3.4.c.2. Prepare a method for evaluating treatment tech. efficacy for likely contaminants 3.4.c.3. Bench-scale studies on disinfection capabilities of typical treatment technologies 3.4.c.4. Bench-scale studies on removal capabilities of typical treatment technologies 3.4.c.5. Identification of POW/POE contaminant treatment capabilities and disposal procedures 3.4.c.6. Identify contaminants that may create hazardous byproducts due to disinfectants 3.4.c.7. Develop treatment technology capabilities for disposal of contaminated water 3.4.c.8. Develop contaminant treatment technology documents and database 3.4.c.9. Develop guidance for the discharge of cleaning water that may be contaminated 3.4.d. A guide for determining when a system is contaminated and when it can be used 3.4.d. 1. Develop protocols to address water us- age concerns (when a system is safe to use) ............................................ ............................................... ,...... ....... ....... ............................................................................................. ............................................................................................. ........................ ...................................... __ l ~ ,.............................................. .............................................................................................. .............................................................................................. .............................................................................................. . . ................ 1 ......... 1 """"""""""""1 r::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: E, .................................... t. 1 E:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:,:,:,:,:,:,:,:,:,:,:,:,:,:,:,:,:,:,:- - - 1- - - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 1""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""' 1

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Appendix A 111 ~ ~002 12003 12004 12005 12006 |Qtrl |Qtr2 |Qtr3 |Qtr4 |Qtrl |Qtr2 |Qtr3 |Qtr4 |Qtrl |Qtr2 |Qtr3 |Qtr4 |Qtrl |Qtr2 |Qtr3 |Qtr4 |Qtrl |Qtr2 |Qtr3 |Qtr4 3.5.a. Assessment of water supply alternatives 3.5.a. 1. Case studies that provide spectrum of contingency planning situations 3.5.a.2. Assessment of truck-mounted and portable water treatment facilities 3.5.a.3. Assessment of redundancy approaches to assure continuity in water supplies 3.5.a.4. Analysis of optimal water supply sources using a GIS-based approach 3.5.a.5. Develop a compendium of options for providing alternate water supplies 3.5.b. Evaluation of approaches for providing water in the event of both long-term and short-term disruptions 3.5.b. 1. Assessment of technologies for short and long-term water delivery 3.5.b.2. Evaluation of the most promising water supply technologies 3.5.c. An improved understanding of water sy. stem interdependencies with other infrastructure 3.5.c.1. Identification and analysis of critical infrastructures interdependencies that affect wa- ter New PROPOSED Need: Failure of the "human subsystem" in system operations and development of contingencies PROPOSED: Determine circumstances where systems impacted by incapacitated personnel I I 1 --. 1 1 1222222222222222222222222222222"""""""""""""""" ...................... ......................

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112 Appendix A ~ 12002 12003 12004 12005 ~006 1 kitr1 kale Ironer:; k)trl Ir]tr:~ kale Ultra k;~1tr] k)tr1 Bard k)tr~lQ1tr] 10tr] kltr2 try Petri k;~1tr] 10tr: k)tr?~ ~tr4 3~6~. An improved understa'~(l~g of exposure routes and contaminant healIb elects 3.~.1. Compilatiol~ oLdatabase on non-~ancer ::health effects Id wl conta~nin`~ts >.6.~2. Evaluation of contaminant composure routes and the likelihood o17~-iability 3.~.~.3~ C:rc~atio:n of into. portal on composure routes and healtl~ ct~s ~~ mater [l~reats 3.~.a.~. ~~7ie\\'7 0t models to estimate doses ~e- garding cont;~min;~nt toxicity or ;~cti~rity . _ ........... t - - - - - - ............... 1 , ~ __ , .............................................. 3~.b. A health su'~7eillance network assoc~:~d with cont:am'nated drinking water 1 1 ~ 1 >.6.l~. l ~ Collaboration ~~i CDC in developing health surv-cill`~e network assoc. with water 3.6~. Methodology ~r using non-trad:'tional data soirees deriving acute anal chronic t0~:~:~7 `:~8 applied to water 3~6 c. 1. Plop methodology for cMrapolating L:13~, data to (leri~re toxicity foci pi iority contain. 3.~.2. Develop methodology for using Q5AR to estimate toxicity for priority costar 1 i i i 3~6.d. Fra~ne``rorl~ for assessing and ~~ng rack 3.~.61 1. ADO1YSiS o35~rer~t approaches foci ris:k assessmentimanagemc~nt to respond to anacks p~oaches via s~mulat~ol~s and table top exercises 1 | ~ @= 3.~.d.3. 13~-velop protocol for risk assessors/ . ~ . . , ................................................................... lnanagers in arc lesslng aDac `s on water Slipp. .~OS ............ ............... ................. - - 3.6.~. Methods and means to co~nm'~n~ate r:~] >~6.~1. Creation or atlap~tion of ~ Risk Assess- ment.fRisk C:vmm:~nication Fra~neworl~ 3~6 d.2. T esting risk assess;me~tl~ngmt ap- . . . ~ . ~ ~ ~ 3.~.~.2~ ~P:rc~par~:ion oLmate:~;als that facilitate Ably response to cust:~s 3.~.e.3. DoYck~pment of a ~epositc,'y of in~rma- t:ion and :matc~rials for response to attack >~6.~. De`~cIop~l~el~t of ~l~et:hotls for ink. shar- ing on ~ isk assessment~'m~mt methodologies -P:ROPOSEl3: Analyze when to rc~leasc~ ink. vs~ when to witl~hold it: due to security; concen~s PRO:POSED: Conduct case stutly 8~01YS;S 03: risk co:mm. strateg;~s Or past disaster events P:ROPOSEL) Develop nail. training program on risk comm planning Or \A<78tel' managers PROPOSEI). 1Ar~a1~e [`iactors that build trust' reduce Bars and prevent panic to improve cream. PROPOSED: Analyze methods to reduce 1llisin- -~rmation being dist. to public and sti~cholders . __ .............................. .............................................. I_ , .. , .. , .. , . :.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.: ............................................... ,....................... :-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-:- ............................................................................................. :.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.: :.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.: , ........... ,....................... :-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-:- ................................................... ................................................. ................................................... ....................................................... ::::::: :.:.:.: :~ ....... ................... ~,.~.~,.~.~,.~.~,. ...................................................................... :.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:. ............ :.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.: .-.-.-.-.-........................................................... :.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.: :~ .~ :~ .-.-.-.-.-........................................................... :.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:

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Appendix A 113 12002 12003 12004 12005 12006 ~trl |Qtr2 try |Qtr4 ~trl |Qtr2 try |Qtr4 |Qtrl try |Qtr3 try k~trl |Qtr2 try |Qtr4 |Qtrl try |Qtr3 try 4.0.a. Documentation of wastewater threats including interdependencies 4.0.a.1. Identification of potential threats for wastewater infrastructure 4.0.a.2. Assessment of countermeasures or system redundancies 4.0.a.3. Evaluation of"unattended operations" and how they can be protected 4.0.a.4. Assessment of linkages between drinking water and wastewater systems 4.0.a.5. Analysis of interdependencies between critical infrastructures related to ww PROPOSED: Examine worker safety and protection during water security attacks ~~ ~~ ~~ i ........ ........................................... ........ 4. 0. e. 3. Improvement of risk communication tools for those responsible for ww systems PROPOSED: Examine procedures for managing cont. waste based on ww threat scenarios 4.0.f. Methods to maintain and transmit contaminant and threat information 4. O.f:1. Evaluation of information sharing methods on wastewater contaminants 4. 0.f:2. Develop a frameworkfor evaluating wastewater information sensitivity 4.0.b. Risks related to hazardous substances used by wastewater utilities 4.0.b. l . Preparation of a "Baseline Threat Document" for wastewater systems 4. 0.b.2. Screening level risk assessment of contaminant threats to wastewater systems 4. 0.b.3. Comparative assessment of alternatives to disinfection that uses chlorine 4. O.b.4. Evaluate ww treatment technologies that can more effectively remove contaminants 4.0.b.5. Evaluate contaminant impacts on sew- _ age sludge and other residuals 4.0.c. Intrusion monitoring and surveillance technologies 4.0.c.1. Assess methods for controlling inappropriate access to wastewater systems 4.0.c.2. Assess techn. for identifying physical threats and contain. introduction into ww sys 4. 0. c. 3. Evaluation of intrusion monitoring and surveillance technologies for wastewater systems 4. 0. c. 4. Assessment of models for simulating movement of hazardous materials in ww systems 4. 0. c. 5. Assessment of technologies for continuous monitoring for explosive/ toxic gases 4. 0.c. 6. Identification of cyber threats to controls of ww systems and means to protect them 4.0.d. Improved designs for wastewater systems 4.0.d.1. Preparation Design standards and | l recommendations for construction for security I l 4.0.e. Enhanced prevention and response planning methods 4.0.e. 1. Development of "play books" for wastewater security response 4. 0.e.2. Preparation of wastewater table top exercises for threat scenarios ............................................... ....................... .............................................. ............................................ I I T ...................................................... ........................... ............................................................................................. ............................................................................................. ...............................................

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114 Appendix A 2002 12003 12004 12005 12006 try IQtr2 try IQtr4 try IQtr2 ~tr3{Qtr4 IQtrl try IQtr3 try try IQtr2 ~tr31Qtr4 {Qtrl ~tr2}Qtr3 try 5.1a. Collaborative research and technical support 5. l.a. 1. Support to the Distribution Systems l l l Research Consortium l l l l l 5.2.a. Technology advancement 5.2.a. 1. ETV water security technology testing: _ program outreach and support 5.2.a.2. ETV water security technology testing: ~ _ detection technologies 5.2.a.3. ETV water security technology testing: ~ _ point of use water treatment 5.2.a.4. Testing of wastewater and residuals _ treatment systems in support of security issues 5.2.a.5. Support for Technology Advancement at the less-than-commercial-ready stage 5.3.a. Information sharing 5.3.a. 1. Example practices in water security-- _ targeted products from the NHSRC 5.3.a.2. Information sharing support for NHSRC | PROPOSED: Analysis of the consequences of various levels of information security PROPOSED: Assess the benefits and limitations of existing methods of dissemination PROPOSED: Investigate ways to improve two- . . ........................ way commumcahon. ............................................................................................. .............................................. ,.............................................. ............................................................ ............................................................................................. ............................................................................................. ............................................... .............................. ..............................