objectives where we can definitely synergize. The new resources in genetics can be applied in the field, as can most of the upcoming technologies for noninvasives and the possibilities of preventing disease in primates in the field with new delivery systems. These applications are all very valid, so I think we can view them as part of an international collaborative program.

Finally, I believe that the process the ILAR Council has developed over the years in delivering best practice across animal sciences is a system that works extremely well for consultation and delivery of a report. To follow that process may be the best way forward here in a relatively independent way to acknowledge and integrate the different bodies from NIH, from industry, and from the international community in delivering quickly a clear and fairly simple international primate plan.

DR. ROBERTS: I would like to make one comment on your references to the microbiological and genetic characterization and as one of the members of the SPF group that was supported by NCRR through OAR. Some of these issues might be a framework for an initial consideration. Dr. Mansfield may want to add in a comment, or not, as he is a leader of that group. That group will be larger with the new RFA soliciting applications that deal not only with rhesus but also with other species of macaques. Certainly we have a long way to go before we come close to the standards established in rodent biology with respect to nomenclature, disease characterization, and genetic management. However, those are goals for which we have those examples.

As Dr. Tardif mentioned about thinking in terms of the long term, a rodent may require 20 generations to achieve an inbred strain. With primates, we should think 10 and 20 years into the future about what we are going to need and will hopefully have for our populations then. Certainly things will change in the meantime, but I believe the old saying is appropriate: “It’s not the plan that’s important, it’s the planning process that’s important.”

DR. VANDEBERG: To conclude, I would like to offer our appreciation to several parties. First, to ILAR for having perceived the need for this meeting, having organized the conference, and having done all of the hard work to make it possible. Second, to NCRR, as the principal sponsor of this workshop, without which we could not have had it. And finally, to all of the speakers who did a superb job and pitched their talks exactly where we hoped they would. They, together with the audience, are really responsible for this stimulating meeting. I thank all of you and our panel for their comments this morning.



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