DR. BEATTIE: The USDA’s number was about 56,000, as I remember, for 2000, and yours was much less than that. However, I was dealing only with NIH grantees. The USDA covers the pharmaceutical companies. They are required to report how many nonhuman primates they use as well. Whereas the survey I was dealing with was just slightly over 1000 NIH grantees, actually only 641 of them reported back.

HANS-ERIK CARLSSON: So that means that a large number of animals used in studies are not published?

DR. ROBINSON: Not necessarily. They are reported to the USDA, but that does not mean that they are reported to the NIH, because the NIH does not support all of those studies. In other words, of the large number of studies done, only a fraction is reported through the NIH mechanism because the people hold grants.

DR. BEATTIE: It is my understanding that the pharmaceutical companies are required to report the number of animals they use through the USDA, but the USDA does not require a breakdown other than to identify them as nonhuman primates.

DR. BAUDOIN (Mario Baudoin, Ministry of Sustainable Development and Planning): Before I announce the appointment of Dr. Ervin as my marketing director (laughter), I have a question for Dr. Hunsmann from the German Primate Center. You mentioned the total number of primates imported in the European Union, and you should add to that the 800 green monkeys we have sent each year to those countries for at least the last 10 years. The important thing is that you may have considered only the macaques. Alternatively, if you did ask for other species, I understand very well why you did not get the answer because most private companies, pharmaceutical companies, are very reluctant to report how many monkeys they use when they are producing vaccines. This reluctance is simply to protect themselves or at least keep proprietary information or whatever.

I also would like to ask why in Iquitos the breeding efficiency is only 5% with saimiri, whereas there is much greater success with marmosets.

DR. ROBINSON: There were only five animals—a very small number.

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