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6 Relationship of the Ocean Observatories Initiative to Other Observatory Efforts The research-driven OOI is part of a broader national and interna- tional effort to establish long-term observatories in the ocean, both for conducting basic research and for operational oceanographic needs. This chapter discusses the relationship of the OOI to these other programs, at both national and international levels. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE OCEAN OBSERVATORIES INITIATIVE AND INTEGRATED AND SUSTAINED OCEAN OBSERVING SYSTEM Current operational observatories consist principally of sea level sites, the various national weather sites (for example, the U.S. National Data Buoy Center's coastal weather buoys and shore weather stations), the equatorial buoy arrays in the Pacific TAO and the Atlantic PIRATA ar- rays, and the growing fleet of Argo profiling drifters. In many cases these sites or systems have limited sensor suites with accuracies chosen to meet near-term prediction and monitoring needs rather than the more demand- ing requirements planned for the research-driven OOI. If the OOI can develop the technology and demonstrate the potential for cooperative occupation of the operational sites and/or the payoff of adding more accurate and more multidisciplinary sensor suites to these sites, it would capitalize on existing operational investment and greatly increase the con- tribution of these operational observatories to the U.S. ocean sciences community. 157
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158 ENABLING OCEAN RESEARCH IN THE 21ST CENTURY The most fundamental relationship between the OOI and operational ocean and Earth observing systems at the national level is that of the OOI and the proposed U.S. IOOS, an operational observing system being planned for NOPP by Ocean.US. The IOOS mission is to provide data of societal interest to "customers," including the fishing fleet, shippers, and surfers. IOOS data are oriented toward supplementing current knowl- edge and sensors will use tested technology. In contrast, the NSF's OOI focuses on developing new knowledge and technology that will advance understanding of the oceans. By addressing the ocean research commu- nity's needs for time-series measurements of ocean processes, the OOI will provide the infrastructure needed to advance knowledge and under- standing of the ocean/atmosphere/Earth system, as well as the technical capabilities for monitoring that system. Brief descriptions of the OOI and the IOOS are provided below, followed by analyses of the specific contri- butions of OOI to IOOS and vice versa and of the strong complementarily and synergy between the two programs. The Ocean Observatories Initiative The OOI will provide necessary information for ocean scientists striv- ing to advance our basic understanding of processes that operate unseen in the oceans on or below the sea floor. An ocean observatory "telescope" will consist of many instruments that together will allow scientists to "see" beneath the sea surface for extended periods of time. The research observatories within the OOI will be able to resolve processes occurring on time scales as short as milliseconds and on spatial scales as short as millimeters, and these research observatories will often utilize instrumen- tation still under development. In addition, real-time data from OOI ob- servatories will allow "interactive" ocean science; observational resources can be rapidly Redeployed in response to detection of major events such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, harmful algal blooms, or debris flows. Archival data will be required for scientific analyses involving both the original purposes for which the data were gathered, as well as unforeseen applications, carried out by both the original investigator and a broader community that will use the products of the OOI observatories. Archival data will also be used for testing the parameterizations of unresolved fine-scale processes that are necessary for numerical models, and for the development of education and public outreach materials. The Integrated and Sustained Ocean Observing System The IOOS is designed to provide timely information to directly ad- dress societal needs in areas ranging from reliable monitoring of climate
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RELAT/ONSH/P OCEAN OBSERVATORIES /N/TMT/VE TO OTHER EFFORTS 159 change to safe routing of oil tankers to optimal management of our na- tion's fisheries (commercial and recreational). The IOOS planning docu- ments (Ocean. US, 2002a,b) list seven major areas of societal importance that will be served by sustained observations in both U.S. coastal waters and international, open-ocean waters and by operational modeling and analysis tools that will use these observations to create data products. Such products include: · detection and prediction of change in the marine environment; · mitigation of natural hazards; · improvement to safety and efficiency of marine operations; · national security; · reduction of public health hazards; · protection and restoration of marine ecosystems; and · sustainability of marine resources. The IOOS is being developed to be fully compatible with the interna- tional GOOS (Summerhayes, 2002), initiated in 1998 and modeled after the World Weather Watch (WWW) of the World Meteorological Organ- ization (WMO). Open-ocean IOOS/GOOS observations will focus on weather and climate forecasting, geophysical hazards, and international security. Coastal-ocean IOOS/GOOS observations will provide coastal and near-shore constraints for operational models of U.S. territorial wa- ters, producing forecasts that are increasingly needed by federal, state, and local agencies, as well as non-governmental organizations and that address one or more of the seven major areas of societal importance listed above. The planned U.S. IOOS will be deployed at fixed geographic loca- tions, with a necessarily coarse spatial scale (with the exception of satellite measurements), and will use only well-tested and robust technologies. In addition to real-time data delivery over the Internet, archived data will allow for assessment of long-term changes in the marine environment and provide context for research programs, hind-cast testing of pre-op- erational numerical models, and development of EPO materials. While the OOI and the IOOS have been described separately above, the hypothesis-driven basic research conducted at OOI observatories and the development of operational oceanography through the IOOS pro- gram are, in fact, critically interdependent, with each program supplying ingredients essential to the other and academic researchers playing piv- otal roles in both. This degree of interdependence implies that mecha- nisms should be sought to make the planning and operation of both pro- grams equally interdependent, starting in the present planning stages for both programs.
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160 ENABLING OCEAN RESEARCH IN THE 2 lST CENTURY The Importance of the Ocean Observatories Initiative to the Integrated and Sustained Ocean Observing System The body of knowledge obtained by previous oceanographic research and technical development has provided a foundation for the initial de- sign and implementation of IOOS. However, due to present technological limitations, initial IOOS deployment is largely in coastal, mid-latitude and tropical waters and centers primarily on observations of the physical properties of the ocean and the sea surface. The IOOS needs new technol- ogy in order to both expand into more challenging environments using more capable platforms with more diverse sensors and to make possible high-bandwidth, real-time observations at the seafloor, throughout the water column, and at the sea surface. Because the IOOS is funded and operated by operational agencies, it will not have a major role in the development of new technology, rather the OOI will produce the new technology the IOOS needs. At the same time, the OOI will support new science with its new high resolution multi-disciplinary observations and lead to better understanding of the processes at work and the way in which these processes can be routinely sampled. Thus the OOI will en- sure that the IOOS will reach its full potential as a tool for observation and forecasting of the total marine environment. To be able to address all of the seven societally important areas identified above, IOOS requires the research and development activities of the OOI, which will provide pro- gressive enhancements of knowledge, methods, and tools to expand and improve upon the initial implementation stage. On both scientific and technological fronts, the OOI is a critical research and development com- ponent of the IOOS (Box 6-1~. The Importance of the Integrated and Sustained Ocean Observing System to the Ocean Observatories Initiative The planned observational backbone of IOOS will provide the OOI research community with important benefits as well, primarily by pro- viding the broader observational context for OOI systems (Box 6-2~. These IOOS data streams will relieve researchers of the need to collect this es- sential background information themselves, allowing them to focus on resolving poorly known ocean processes and developing new technolo- gies. IOOS will therefore greatly increase OOI productivity and the rate of progress in ocean research and technology development. In addition, the operational (assimilative) coupled physical-biogeo- chemical models that will be supported by IOOS for now-casting and forecasting will provide OOI researchers with important information at both the experiment planning and the execution stages. Such information
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RELA T/ONSH/P OCEAN OBSERVA TORIES /N/TM T/VE TO OTHER EFFORTS 1 6 1 includes (1) design-stage simulations of the variability of the ocean envi- ronment at an observatory site (expected to vary geographically and sea- sonally) and (2) deployment-stage descriptions of the time evolution of the ocean "volume" surrounding an OOI observatory. Both contributions would improve the success rate and return-on-investment of OOI research experiments. "Complimentarily" and Synergy Between the Ocean Observatory Initiative and the Integrated and Sustained Ocean Observing System Both the OOI and the IOOS are presently scheduled to commence in FY 2006, reducing opportunities for each program to contribute to the other during the intervening period. For example, IOOS data and data- assimilation models will not be available to guide spatial design of OOI observatories. Once fully implemented, however, the OOI and the IOOS will provide areas of overlap within which their combined infrastructure will serve to enhance the productivity of both the operational and re-
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162 ENABLING OCEAN RESEARCH IN THE 2 lST CENTURY search science communities. A present-day example of the success of such synergy is the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean/Triangle Trans-Ocean Buoy Network (TAO/TRITON) array that stretches along the equator in the Pacific Ocean (more information available at: www.pmel.noua.gov/tao/ index.shtml). Originating as a research tool, this moored ocean "observa- tory" has now achieved operational status, providing early warnings of E1 Nino events and their significant societal and economic repercussions. However, research scientists continue to use TAO moorings as platforms for testing new instrumentation and the TAO array itself as a coarse-scale grid in which to embed finer-scale process studies. The results of such process studies, combined with the multi-year archived TAO data set, allow other researchers to improve and test theories and models of the equatorial ocean and its atmospheric teleconnections, consequently driv- ing improvements in the operational models used for E1 Nino predictions. Implementation of both the OOI and IOOS would enlarge the scope of these demonstrated synergies to include both the global scale crucial to climate variability/change and the coastal and estuarine scales directly affecting a large and growing proportion of the U.S. population.
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RELAT/ONSH/P OCEAN OBSERVATORIES /N/TMT/VE TO OTHER EFFORTS 163 Another area where integration of OOI and IOOS efforts will be es- sential is in data distribution and archiving. The integration of data man- agement systems for research- and operationally-driven observatories will promote the assimilation of data from new sensors and instruments de- veloped through the OOI into operational models, and will make it easier for researchers to utilize the larger-scale observational data and model forecasts developed by IOOS. The sharing of data management infra- structure also makes sense from cost and efficiency perspectives. Given the complementarily and synergy between the NSF's OOI and the proposed NOPP IOOS outlined above, the combination of these two program initiatives is essential to the development of predictive skills in the oceanographic sciences and to the generation of public engagement with the oceans that is necessary to form a solid basis for efforts to protect and preserve them. Given the costs of both the IOOS and the OOI, and the likely participation of the research community in both, it is crucial that the coastal components of these two programs be fully coordinated in all stages of development and operation. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE OCEAN OBSERVATORIES INITIATIVE AND OTHER NATIONAL OCEAN AND EARTH OBSERVING SYSTEMS The NSF-supported OOI will have close ties to ocean and Earth ob- serving systems supported by other agencies including NOAA, NASA, USACE, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and ONR. These multi- agency efforts should be coordinated through the NOPP. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration At present NOAA supports a major fraction of the Pacific equatorial TAO array as an operational commitment. Under the NOAA Office of Atmospheric Research (OAR) Office of Global Programs (OGP) Climate Observations program a small number of surface flux reference sites will be occupied. NOAA's OAR also contributes to the PIRATA array in the tropical Atlantic. The NSF presently provides part of the support for NOAA's BATS and HOT stations, but neither agency has undertaken severe environment sites or worked to exploit the full multi-disciplinary potential of the sites now in the water. Completion of the U.S. planned commitment to the global array developed by the international TSST (Ap- pendix E) would require more resources and new development and is not presently feasible. These national efforts look to the OOI for support and technology development.
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164 ENABLING OCEAN RESEARCH IN THE 2 lST CENTURY National Aeronautics and Space Administration Although NASA has no program to support in situ observations in the oceans, many NASA missions observe ocean and climate changes via satellite. Five major satellite systems are currently flying, including Aura, Aqua, Jason-l, TOPEX-Poseidon, and Terra. In addition, two Japanese space- craft carry NASA's scatterometer instruments. These satellite systems pro- vide valuable information regarding ocean surface temperature, circula- tion, ocean color, surface winds, and other parameters used for developing weather predictions and forcing climate forecast models. Satellite data also provide information on the horizontal variability of upper ocean properties on a large spatial scale, data which is essential for the proper interpretation of temporally and vertically well-resolved measurements at fixed observatory sites. Satellite missions can in turn take advantage of in situ measurements taken from OOI and other ocean observatories for validating satellite instrument measurements. NASA and the ocean science community also have important collabo- rations in the area of data management. For example, the NASA Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC) produces and distributes ocean data products to the science community and has developed and published application interfaces to adapt PO.DAAC data to the Distributed Oceanographic Data System (DODS). PO.DAAC scien- tists are also involved in data management issues associated with a pilot Southern California GIS Data Center collaboration with regional coastal planning agencies, the Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment (GODAE) High-Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) process- ing and archive center, and Ocean.US IOOS data management and distri- bution system planning. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers The USACE, in their role as coastal engineers for the U.S., has in place programs to collect ocean data relevant to near-shore researchers, manag- ers, and engineers. Their FRF in Duck, North Carolina (see Chapter 2 and Appendix D) has collected several decades of continuous data on waves, tides, currents, meteorology, and the concomitant beach response at the Outer Banks. This facility has also been used as a test bed for new instru- mentation and models and as a platform from which to execute intensive, short-duration experiments. In addition, the USACE supports the Coastal Data Information Program (CDIP) at Scripps Institution of Oceanography (for additional information, see: http://cdip.ucsd.edu/~. The CDIP collects coastal data on wind, temperature, and wave direction on the U.S. West Coast and Hawaii, and models the swell direction for beaches in the
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RELAT/ONSH/P OCEAN OBSERVATORIES /N/TMT/VE TO OTHER EFFORTS 165 Southern California Bight needed for near shore material transport model projections. The USACE Regional Sediment Management (RSM) program recently began establishing data collection and modeling centers for ma- terial transport analysis along coastal sections defined by its common watershed material source and natural or man-made sinks (for additional information, see: http://gis.sam.usace.army.mil/Projects/RSM/~. These RSM centers provide multi-variate and multi-dimensional data (both in situ and remote) in a GIS framework that are of value to near shore research- ers. Included in the RSM effort is the reformatting of over 100 years of bathymetric data along the nation's coastlines into a GIS reference sys- tem. Many coastal efforts of the OOI and USACE are synergistic and should be identified and leveraged by other programs. The U.S. Geological Survey The USGS provides the underlying geological framework for the world's oceans and the U.S. coastline upon which a physical, biological, and chemical understanding of Earth processes can be built and refer- enced. The USGS operates various time-series observational programs that may be of direct value to the OOI, including the national network of stream flow gauges, volcano observatories, and the coastal mapping of temporal changes in shoreline and bluff locations and subaqueous bot- tom substrate. For example, HUGO data became far more valuable when combined with data from the USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. The Office of Naval Research ONR carries out diverse programs in areas of research in air-sea inter- action and ocean biology, chemistry, physics, optics, geology, and acous- tics. Under these research programs, moorings, coastal towers, cabled observatories, and the research platform FLIP (Floating Instrument Plat- form) have seen much use. ONR supported much of the development and use of present open ocean subsurface and surface mooring capability and also contributed to the development of ocean instrumentation. It is likely that ONR investigators would both contribute instrumentation and seek opportunities to use the platforms developed under the OOI for their research. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE OCEAN OBSERVATORIES I N ITIATIVE AN D I NTERNATIONAL RESEARCH-DRIVEN OBSERVATORY PROGRAMS A number of international groups have provided guidance on the development of ocean observatories including: the OOSDP under the In-
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166 ENABLING OCEAN RESEARCH IN THE 2 lST CENTURY ternational Ocean Commission (IOC) and United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO); the OOPC under IOC, UNESCO, and the Joint WMO-IOC Technical Commission for Oceanog- raphy and Marine Meteorology (JCOMM); CLIVAR's COOP; and the ION. An international TSST with members drawn from various disciplines has developed plans for a global network of time-series sites that would meet interdisciplinary needs (see Chapter 3 and Appendix E). Although these various international planning efforts have clearly expressed the scientific potential of ocean observatories, a need remains for a commitment of significant infrastructure support to make sought-after observatories pos- sible. The OOI will represent an important contribution by the U.S. to these international efforts. Planning for ocean observatories has been going on in a number of nations, much of it done in close collaboration with efforts in the U.S. Japan has the largest existing network of seafloor observatories, and has considerable experience both in powering seafloor instruments from shore and in real-time telemetry of data from those installations. In 1996, the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture in Japan funded the Ocean Hemisphere Project (OHP) to establish a network of multidis- ciplinary ocean observatories in the Pacific basin. The OHP network in- cludes island stations and seafloor observatories making seismic, elec- tromagnetic, and geodetic measurements, including three broadband seismometers installed in the ODP drill holes in the western Pacific. lapa- nese scientists are currently conducting a feasibility study of a next- generation submarine cable network around the Japanese Islands known as the Advanced Real-Time Earth monitoring Network in the Area (ARENA), which has a mesh network topology and power and communi- cation requirements very similar to the proposed NEPTUNE observatory. There are many opportunities for potential collaboration, both technically and scientifically, as the NEPTUNE and ARENA projects move forward. NEPTUNE itself is a joint U.S./Canada project led by the University of Washington (U.S.) and the University of Victoria (Canada), and its scientific and engineering planning is fully integrated between the two countries. Canada has committed to providing about 30 percent of the cost of the entire NEPTUNE project. The Canadian portion has received conditional funding from the Canadian Foundation for Innovation (CFI); one of the conditions being to secure matching funds, presently being sought from the British Columbia Knowledge and Development Fund (BCKDF). The Canadians will be installing a shallow water cabled obser- vatory, VENUS, off British Columbia in 2004, which will serve as an im- portant testbed for the development of NEPTUNE and next-generation coastal cabled observatories.
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RELAT/ONSH/P OCEAN OBSERVATORIES /N/TMT/VE TO OTHER EFFORTS 167 Another major international ocean observatory program with close ties to the NSF's OOI is the B-DEOS program. The B-DEOS program plan calls for the establishment of multidisciplinary moored ocean observato- ries at three sites: south of the Azores on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, on the Reykjanes Ridge south of Iceland, and in the Drake Passage-East Scotia Rise-South Sandwich Islands area. The proposed systems are hybrids be- tween conventional discus buoys and spar buoys. These buoys have sig- nificant power generation capability, a high-bandwidth satellite commu- nication system, and an electro-optical riser to a seafloor junction box similar to the high-bandwidth moored systems DEOS has proposed for many of the OOI global sites. The B-DEOS and the OOI global program share many common engineering and scientific requirements, as well as numerous opportunities for future cooperation, both in the development of next-generation moored buoy technology and in subsequent opera- tions, logistics, and scientific studies in the remote ocean areas where many of these moorings may be deployed. All of these programs look to the U.S. OOI as a key building block, representing part of the total financial commitment needed to develop, build, deploy, and initially maintain ocean observatories on regional and global scales. It is anticipated that the U.S. OOI will be joined by other national commitments to the global ocean observatory infrastructure, per- haps in the same fashion that many nations have partnered to field the global array of profiling Argo floats. The scientific planning, manage- ment, and operational structure of the OOI needs to be organized in such a manner as to leverage these various national efforts into what will even- tually evolve into a truly international ocean observatory program.
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