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Appendix B Acronym List AAIW Antarctic Intermediate Water ABE Autonomous Benthic Explorer ACT Alliance for Coastal Technologies ADEOS Advanced Earth Observing System (Japan) AIRS Atmospheric Infrared Sounder ALOHA A Long-term Oligotrophic Habitat Assessment Station ALOOS Acoustically-Linked Ocean Observing System API Application Programming Interface ARENA Advanced Real-Time Earth Monitoring Network in the Area ASTER Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer ASW Anti-Submarine Warfare AUV Autonomous Underwater Vehicle AWI The Alfred Wegener Institute B-DEOS British-Dynamics of Earth and Ocean Systems BATS Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Station BCKDF British Columbia Knowledge and Development Fund BIO Bedford Institute of Oceanography (Canada) BTM Bermuda Testbed Mooring C-GODS Coastal Global Ocean Observing System CCSP Climate Change Science Program 194
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APPEND/X B 195 CDIP Coastal Data Information Program (Australia) CERSAT Centre ERS d'Archivage et de Traitement (see ERS) CFI Canadian Foundation for Innovation CICEET Cooperative Institute for Coastal and Estuarine Envi- ronmental Technology CIS Central Irminger Sea CLIVAR Climate Variability and Predictability Programme CO2 Carbon Dioxide CoOP Coastal Ocean Processes Program COOP Coastal Ocean Observations Panel CORE Consortium for Oceanographic Research and Education COSEE Center for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence COTS Commercial Off-The-Shelf CRAB Coastal Research Amphibious Buggy CSIRO Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (Australia) CTD Conductivity, Temperature and Depth DAC Data and Communications (subsystem of IOOS) DART Deep-Ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis DEOS Dynamics of Earth and Ocean Systems DESCEND Developing Submergence Science for the Next Decade DESSC Deep Submergence Science Committee (of UNOLS) DMAS Data Management and Archiving System (referring to NEPTUNE's system) DMS Data Management System (for OOI) DODS Distributed Oceanographic Data System EEZ Exclusive Economic Zone EIA Environmental Impact Assessment EIS Environmental Impact Statement EM Electro-Mechanical ENSO E1 Nino Southern Oscillation EOM Electro-Optical-Mechanical EPO Education and Public Outreach ESTOC European Station for Time-series in the Ocean Canary islands EU European Union FLIP Floating Instrument Platform FOFC Federal Oceanographic Facilities Committee FRF Field Research Facility (in Duck, North Carolina) FY Fiscal Year
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196 APPEND/X B GCOS Global Climate Observing System GEO Global Eulerian Observatory GHRSST GODAE High-Resolution Sea Surface Temperature GLOBEC Global Ocean Ecosystem Dynamics Programme GODAE Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment COOS Global Ocean Observing System GPS Global Positioning System GSN Global Seismic Network H20 Hawaii-2 Observatory MAW-2 Hawaii-2 Observatory's telecommunications cable HLA Horizontal Line Array HOT Hawaii Ocean Time-series program HOV Human Occupied Vehicle HUGO Hawaii Undersea Geo-Observatory IDEA Instrumentation Development for Environmental Activities IDEAL International Decade for East African Lakes IfMK Institut fur Meereskinde an der Universitat Kiel IFREMER Institut franc~ais de recherche pour ['exploitation de la mer IGBP International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme IOC International Ocean Commission ION International Ocean Network IOOS Integrated and Sustained Ocean Observing System IRIS Incorporated Research Institutes for Seismology ISS Integrated Study Site ITAR International Traffic in Arms Regulations IUSS Integrated Undersea Surveillance System ~AMSTEC rapan Marine Science & Technology Center ~COMM roint Commission for Oceanography and Marine Meteorology JGOFS Joint Global Ocean Flux System JPL Jet Propulsion Laboratory KERFIX Kerguelen Fixed Station (of the Kerguelen Islands Time- Series Measurement Programme) KNOT Kyodo North Pacific Ocean Time-Series Station LDEO Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory LEO-15 Long-term Ecosystem Observatory (at 15 Meters Depth)
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APPEND/X B 197 MARS Monterey Accelerated Research System MBARI Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute MISR Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology MMS Minerals Management Service MONCOZE Monitoring the Norwegian Coastal Zone Environment MOOS MBARI Ocean Observing System MOVE Meridional Overturning Variability Experiment MREFC Major Research Equipment and Facilities Construction MTS Marine Technology Society MVCO Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NDBC National Data Buoy Center NDSF National Deep Submergence Facility NEPTUNE NorthEast Pacific Time-series Undersea Networked Experiments (U.S.) NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NODC National Oceanographic Data Center NOPP National Oceanographic Partnership Program NORLC National Ocean Research Leadership Council NRC National Research Council NSF National Science Foundation NSES National Science Education Standards NTAS Northwest Tropical Atlantic Station OHM Operation and Maintenance OAR Office of Atmospheric Research (at NOAA) ODP Ocean Drilling Program OGP Office of Global Programs (at NOAA) OHP Ocean Hemisphere Project ONR Office of Naval Research OOI Ocean Observatories Initiative OOPC Ocean Observations Panel for Climate OOSDP Ocean Observation System Development Panel OROPC Ocean Research Observatories Program Center OSN Ocean Seismic Network OWS Ocean Weather Service (U.S.) OWS Ocean Weather Ship Station M (in Norway) PAP Porcupine Abyssal Plain PI Principal Investigator PIRATA Pilot Research Moored Array in the Tropical Atlantic
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198 PO.DAAC Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center APPEND/X B POGO Partnership for Observation of the Global Ocean QC Quality Control (of data) REVEL Research and Education: Volcanoes, Exploration, and Life (at UW) RIDGE Ridge Inter-Disciplinary Global Experiments RIN Remote Instrument Node ROADNet Real-time Observatories, Applications, and Data Management Network ROPOS Remotely Operated Platform for Ocean Science ROV Remotely Operated Vehicle RSM Regional Sediment Management RSMAS Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science SCOTS Scientific Cabled Observatories for Time-series SDSC San Diego Supercomputer Center SECNAV Secretary of the Navy SEED Standard for the Exchange of Earthquake Data SIIMs Scientific Instrument Interface Modules SIO Scripps Institution of Oceanography SOEST School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (University of Hawaii) SOLAS Surface Ocean Lower Atmosphere Study SOSUS Sound Surveillance System SSBN Fleet ballistic missile submarine SWATH Small Water-plane Area Twin Hull TAO Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Project TES Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer TOGA Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere TRITON Triangle Trans-Ocean Buoy Network TSST Time-series Science Team UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization UNOLS University-National Oceanographic Laboratory System USACE United States Army Corps of Engineers USGS United States Geological Survey US JGOFS United States Joint Global Ocean Flux Study
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APPENDIX B VENUS VLA WHOI WMO WOCE WWW Victoria Experimental Network Under the Sea Vertical Line Array Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution World Meteorological Organization World Ocean Circulation Experiment World Weather Watch XBT Expendable Bathythermograph GLOSSARY 199 Acoustics: a science that deals with the production, control, transmission, reception, and effects of sound. ANZCAN: a retired Australia-New Zealand-Canada Trans-Pacific tele- communication cable. Argo: GODAE global profiling float project (not an acronym). For addi- tional information, see http://www.argo.ucsd.edu/. Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV): a vehicle that can function without tethers, cables, or remote control, they have a multitude of appli- cations in oceanography, environmental monitoring, and underwater re- source studies. Bandwidth: the data transfer capacity of an electronic communications system. C-Band: one of ten satellite communication frequency ranges. Its range is between 5.9 and 6.4 GHz for uplink and between 3.7 and 4.2 GHz for downlink. C-Band is mainly used for domestic and commercial satellite communication systems. Calibrate: to standardize a measuring instrument by determining the de- viation from a standard so as to ascertain the proper correction factors. Climate Variability and Predictability Programme (CLIVAR): an inter- national research program addressing issues of natural climate variability and anthropogenic climate change.
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200 APPENDIX B Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS): a product that is used "as-is." COTS products are designed to be easily installed and to interoperate with exist- ing system components. Almost all software bought by the average com- puter user fits into the COTS category: operating systems, office product suites, word processing, and e-mail programs are among the myriad ex- amples. Consortium for Oceanographic Research and Education (CORE): a non- profit, Washington, DC-based organization that represents 73 of the na- tion's academic institutions, aquaria, non-profit research institutes and federal research laboratories with the common goal of promoting and enhancing the visibility and effectiveness of ocean research and educa- tion. For additional information; see http://www.nopp.org/Dev2Go.web? Anchor=idune~rnd=8075. CTD Profiler (conductivity, temperature, and depth): a physical mea- surement system that utilizes modular sensor technology to allow abso- lutely synchronous sampling of the conductivity, temperature, and pres- sure sensors. Data pull: in which a client acquires data from a source by requesting data. Data push: in which a source disseminates data to a client. Delivery medium: the means through which data is delivered using dif- ferent media (e.g., on line via the Internet, on CD-ROM, DVD, tapes) as needed by users. Discus Buoy: a buoy with a circular, disk-shaped hull. Earthscope: an undertaking to apply modern observational, analytical, and telecommunications technologies to investigate the structure and evo- lution of the North American continent and the physical processes con- trolling earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. Eulerian: in this context, something that is fixed rather than free-floating. Geodetic: concerning a branch of applied mathematics concerned with the determination of the size and shape of the earth and the exact posi- tions of points on its surface and with the description of variations of its gravity field.
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APPENDIX B Geomagnetism: terrestrial magnetism. 201 Geophysics: a branch of earth science dealing with the physical processes and phenomena occurring in the earth and in its vicinity. GeO-TOC: formally TPC-1, the first U.S.-lapan trans-ocean telecommuni- cations cable in the Pacific (now retired). Gimbal: a device that permits a body to incline freely in any direction or suspends it so that it will remain level when its support is tipped. Glider: an AUV with wings and ballast tanks rather than propellers or motors, which allows them to have a much greater time in water, since they are not limited to the amount of battery power they carry. Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment (GODAE): an experiment in which a comprehensive, integrated observing system would be estab- lished and held in place for several years and the data assimilated into state-of-the art models of the global ocean circulation in near real-time. For additional information, see http://www.bom.gov.au/bmrc/ocean/GODAE. Global Ocean Ecosystem Dynamics (GLOBEC): one of the 9 core projects of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP). The aim of GLOBEC is to advance understanding of the structure and functioning of the global ocean ecosystem, its major subsystems, and its response to physical forcing. Global Ocean Observing System (COOS): a system to implement opera- tional observation programs for the oceans and coastal areas. It is spon- sored by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of UNESCO, the International Council for Science (ICSU), the United Na- tions Environment Programme (UNEP), and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), with its GOOS Project Office at IOC in Paris. For additional information, see http://ioc.unesco.org/igospartners/g30s.htm# Global%200cean %200bserving. Hydrophone: an instrument for listening to sound transmitted through water. International Ocean Network (ION): a committee established in tune 1993 with the goal of facilitating international cooperation in the develop- ment of ocean-bottom observatories.
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202 in situ: Latin, the natural or original position or place. APPEND/X B Interface: the place at which independent and often unrelated systems meet and act on or communicate with each other. The lASON Project: a real-time multi-disciplinary education program, started by Robert Ballard in 1989 and administered by the lASON Foun- dation for Education, that uses multi-media tools (online chats with re- searchers, online journals, digital labs, live broadcasts from scientific ex- peditions, etc.) to educate students and enhance the classroom experience. Jason II: a remotely operated vehicle (ROY) put into service in 2002, designed and operated by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Jason II operates at depths up to 6,500 meters and can install, service, repair and recover a variety of ocean observatory equipment, as well as perform its own detailed survey and sampling tasks (see Figure 5.3~. lavaTM: a programming language developed by SUN to run codes in hard- ware independent environments. For additional information, see http:// java.sun.com/. JAXR (The Java API for XML Registries): enables Java software pro- grammers to use a single set of APIs (application programming inter- faces) to access a variety of XML registries. In this context, an XML regis- try is an enabling infrastructure for building, deploying, and discovering web services. For additional information, see XML in this glossary. Joint Global Ocean Flux Study SPOOFS): an international and multi- disciplinary program to assess and better understand the processes con- trolling regional-to-global and seasonal-to-interannual fluxes of carbon between the atmosphere, surface ocean, and ocean interior, and their sen- sitivity to climate changes. Lagrangian: in this context, a buoy or instrument not fixed in one place. Level 0: a primary raw data stream collected directly from the instru- ment. Level 1: raw data corrected from instrumental error to which calibration factors have been applied. Level 2: raw data converted to geophysical units, that have had QC checks applied to measurements. In other words, formatted data with metadata.
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APPENDIX B 203 Level 3: a derived or calculated data product that applies statistical meth- ods to one or more measured data (Level 2) used as input. Level 4: further processing based on the Level 2 and/or Level 3 data that merges datasets of different types. MARGINS: a program that seeks to understand the complex interplay of processes that govern continental margin evolution. Monterey Accelerated Research System (MARS): a cabled observatory to be located in Monterey Bay recently funded by the NSF. It proposed a testbed for a high power, high bandwidth, regional cabled observatory. For additional information, see http://www.mbari.org/mars. Mooring: a device (e.g., a line or chain) by which an object is secured in place. National Oceanographic Partnership Program (NOPP): established in 1997 through Public Law 104-201 to promote an improved knowledge of the ocean and to coordinate and strengthen oceanographic efforts by building partnerships among federal agencies, academia, industry, and other members of the oceanographic community. Sponsored by the Navy, the NSF, NOAA, NASA, and the Alfred Sloan Foundation. For additional information, see http://www.nopp.org. Ocean Drilling Program (ODP): an international partnership of scientists and research institutions organized to explore the evolution and structure of Earth. For additional information, see http://www.oceandrilling.org. Ocean Observing System Development Panel (OOSDP): a panel estab- lished in 1990 to formulate a conceptual design of a long-term, systematic observing system to monitor, describe, and understand the physical and biogeochemical processes that determine ocean circulation and the effects of the ocean on seasonal to decadal climate changes as well as to provide the observations needed for climate predictions. Ocean Observations Panel for Climate (OOPC): a panel established in 1995 to develop the scientific basis for an ocean observing system for climate. For additional information, see http://ioc.unesco.org/ooyc/about. html. Ocean Seismic Network (OSN): a Joint Oceanographic Institutions' pro- gram responsible for coordinating ongoing efforts to develop a global
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204 APPENDIX B network of permanent seismic observatories on the deep ocean floor as part of the planned Global Seismic Network. Partnership for Observation of the Global Ocean (POGO): an organiza- tion that aims to bring together major oceanographic institutions under a single umbrella. Pilot Research Moored Array in the Tropical Atlantic (PIRATA): a proj- ect that proposes to deploy and maintain, between 1997 and 2000, an array of 12 buoys with the principal objective of describing and under- standing the evolution of sea surface temperature, upper ocean thermal structure and air-sea fluxes of momentum, heat and fresh water in the tropical Atlantic. For additional information, see http://www.ifremer.fr/or stom/pirata/pirataus. html. Pioneer Array: a proposed relocatable observatory system for coastal re- search. Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV): an undersea vehicle operated from and tethered to an above water platform. Ridge 2000: an interdisciplinary initiative to study oceanic spreading ridge systems as an integrated whole. It is a follow-on program of the RIDGE program. Ridge 2000 is not an acronym. Ridge 2000 is sponsored by the NSF. For additional information, see http://ridge2000.bio.psu.edu. Spar Buoy: a buoy with a long straight hull. Telemetry: a highly automated communications process by which mea- surements are made and other data collected at remote or inaccessible points and transmitted to receiving equipment for monitoring, display, and recording. TPC-1: the first U.S.-lapanese trans-ocean telecommunications cable in the Pacific (now retired). Also see GeO-TOC. University-National Oceanographic Laboratory System (UNOLS): an organization of 63 academic institutions and National Laboratories in- volved in oceanographic research joined for the purpose of coordinating oceanographic ships' schedules and research facilities. For additional in- formation, see http://www.unols.org/unols.html.
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APPENDIX B 205 VSAT (Very Small Aperture Terminals): small, software-driven earth receiving stations (typically 0.9-2.4 meters, or 3-8 feet, though larger units are available) used for the reliable transmission of data, video, or voice via satellite. XML (Extensible Markup Language): the universal format for data on the Web. XML allows developers to easily describe and deliver rich, struc- tured data from any application in a standard, consistent way. XML does not replace HTML, rather, it is a complementary format. World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE): a program designed to improve the ocean models necessary for predicting decadal climate vari- ability and change.
Representative terms from entire chapter: