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Appendix D Ocean Observation Programs Mentioned in This Report Argo Argo is a joint GODAE and CLIVAR project consisting of a global array of 3,000 free-drifting profiling floats that will measure the temperature and salinity of the upper 2000 m of the ocean in real-time. There are currently 700 active floats in the water. Prospects for achieving a complete 3,000- float array by the end of 2005 are strong. The first scientific results will be available in 2003. For additional information, see: http://www.argo.ucsd. ecu/. Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Station BATS was established as part of the US JGOFS program in 1988, with multi-disciplinary ship-based sampling near the original 1977 sediment trap mooring site (~80 km southeast of Bermuda). The objective of BATS is to characterize, quantify, and understand processes that control ocean biogeochemistry, especially carbon, on seasonal to decadal time-scales. For additional information, see: http://www.bbsr.edu/cintoo/bats/bats.html. Bermuda Test Mooring The BTM, funded by the NSF, was deployed in tune 1994 and provides the oceanographic community with a deep-water platform for develop- ing, testing, calibrating, and intercomparing instruments. The mooring is 211

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212 APPENDIX D located approximately 80 km southeast of Bermuda. Instruments are be- ing used to collect meteorological and spectral radiometric measurements from a buoy tower. Subsurface measurements include currents, tempera- ture, conductivity, optical properties, and nitrate and trace element con- centrations. Hawaii-2 Observatory The H20 was installed in 1998 on a retired AT&T submarine telephone cable (HAW-2) that runs between Oahu and Hawaii and the California Coast. The facility consists of a seafloor junction box and scientific sensors located in 5000 m of water about halfway between Hawaii and California. Instruments are connected to a junction box using an ROV. Present instru- mentation includes a seismometer, a geophone, a hydrophore, and a pres- sure sensor. It is the first seafloor station of the GSN. Hawaii Undersea Geo-Observatory HUGO was installed in fury, 1997 at Loihi Volcano, about 30 km South- east of Hawaii (Duennebier, 2002~. The observatory was operational until April 30, 1998, when the 47 km electro-optical cable to shore developed an electrical short circuit in the rough volcanic terrain. HUGO is an example of a near-shore observatory using a short (unrepeatered) optical cable. For additional information, see: http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/HUGO/hugo.html. Long-Term Environmental Observatory LEO-15 at 15 meters depth was established in 1996 with the installation of an electro-fiber-optic cable extending 5 km offshore of the Rutgers Marine Field Station off the central coast of New lersey. The cable provides power and two-way communication to bottom robotic winch profilers. LEO-15 was designed to be an integrated system to assimilate data into forecast models, which can be used to adjust the sampling patterns of the field assets. Specific components of the LEO-15 network include meteorologi- cal, cable, remote sensing, and AUV observational components. For addi- tional information, see: http://marine.rutgers.edu/mrs/LEO/LE015.html. Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory The MVCO was constructed in 2000 and installed near South Beach in Edgartown, Massachusetts. The MVCO includes a small shore lab, a 10-m meteorological mast and an electro-optic cabled subsurface node mounted in 12 m water depth. The meteorological and sub-sea instrumentation are

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APPENDIX D 213 connected directly to the shore lab via a buried cable. The core set of instruments at the meteorological mast will measure wind speed and direction, temperature, humidity, precipitation, carbon dioxide, solar and IR radiation, and momentum, heat and moisture fluxes. The core oceano- graphic sensors at the offshore node measure current profiles, waves and temperature, salinity, turbidity, fluorescence, carbon dioxide, and near- bottom wave-orbital and low-frequency currents. Monitoring the Norwegian Coastal Zone Environment (MONCOZE) Monitoring the Norwegian Coastal Zone Environment (MONCOZE), funded by the Norwegian Research Council and the oil industry, is a shelf-wide observatory constructed in 2002 in the Norwegian Sea. It con- sists of a network of coastal surface and radar networks, ocean color and synthetic aperture satellite remote sensing. The objective of this observa- tory is to develop and demonstrate an environmental monitoring and prediction system for Norwegian coastal waters with a focus on domi- nant physical and coupled physical-biochemical interactive processes with the Norwegian Coastal Current and its boundaries. Monterey Accelerated Research System MARS will be installed with funding from the NSF and the David and Lucite Packard Foundation. It is designed to serve as a test bed for a future regional-scale cabled observatory. The cable will extend over 60 km offshore to an instrument node at ~1.2 km depth. Extension cords may be run by ROVs from the cable node up to several km away to provide flexibility in siting instruments. North East Pacific Time-series Undersea Networked Experiments The NEPTUNE project proposes to use fiber-optic cable to connect ~30 instrumented nodes on the fuan de Fuca plate in the northeast Pacific. Instruments connected to the nodes would provide physical, chemical, geological, and biological data in real-time. Details of the NEPTUNE project can be found at: http://www.neptune.washington.edu/. Ocean Weather Service The OWS was established after World War II for the primary purpose of guiding trans-ocean-voyaging aircraft. The U.S. and four other countries established 13 sites in the North Atlantic and Pacific Oceans (labeled al-

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214 APPENDIX D phabetically, starting with "A") that were continuously occupied by ships. In the 1970s, satellites began to provide jet aircraft with the positioning and weather information they needed. The program ended in 1981. Pilot Research Moored Array in the Tropical Atlantic PIRATA is a project that proposes to deploy and maintain an array of 12 buoys between 1997 and 2000, with the principal objective of describing and understanding the evolution of sea-surface temperature, upper-ocean thermal structure and air-sea fluxes of momentum, heat and fresh water in the tropical Atlantic. For additional information, see: http://www.ifremer. fr/orstom/pirata/pirataus . html. Sound Surveillance System The U.S. Navy began installation of SOSUS in the mid-1950s for use in antisubmarine warfare. SOSUS is a fixed component of the U.S. Navy's Integrated Undersea Surveillance System (IUSS) used for deep ocean sur- veillance during the Cold War. The system consists of bottom-mounted hydrophore arrays connected by undersea communication cables to fa- cilities on shore. The individual arrays are installed primarily on conti- nental slopes and seamounts at locations optimized for undistorted long range acoustic propagation. For additional information, see: http://www. pmel. noua.gov/vents/acoustics/sosus. html. Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Array The TAO array consists of ~70 moorings in the tropical Pacific Ocean, telemetering oceanographic and meteorological data to shore in real-time via the Argos satellite system. The array is a component of the E1 Nino/ Southern Oscillation (ENSO) observing system, the Global Climate Ob- serving System (GCOS), and GOOS. Support is provided primarily by NOAA and lapan Science and Technology Center with contributions from France's IFREMER. For additional information, see: http://www.pmel.noua. gov/tao. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Field Research Facility The FRF is located on the Atlantic Ocean, in the town of Duck, on the Outer Banks of North Carolina. The FRF was established in 1977 by the USACE for the purpose of nearshore (beach face to nominally 10 m depth) field observations and experiments for coastal research and engineering. The FRF has maintained a long-term (25 year) monitoring program of

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APPENDIX D 215 coastal waves, tides, currents, local meteorology, and the concomitant beach bathymetric response at the site. For additional information, see: http://www.frf. usace.army. milt Victoria Experimental Network Under the Sea VENUS is a proposed project to conduct coastal oceanography with a network of instruments located 4 km into Saanich Inlet from Pat Bay near Victoria and Vancouver, Canada. The three proposed cable lines include sections in the Strait of Georgia, Saanich Inlet, and the fuan de Fuca Strait. VENUS is intimately related to the proposed NEPTUNE observatory. For additional information, see: http://www.venus.uvic.ca.