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Appendix E Time-Series Group Global Observatory Sites Atlantic Ocean Sites Latitude/ OB FL TR Longitude Status Remarks x 75N 3.5W operating (AWI) Greenland Sea, physical x x 66N 2E operating Ocean Weather Ship Station M (Norway) (OWS "Mike"), Norwegian Sea, physical, meteorology, biogeochemical x 60N 36W funded (KU) Central Irminger Sea (CIS), physical, biogeochemical x 57N 53W operating Bravo, Labrador Sea, physical, (BIO, IfMK) co2 x x 49N 16.5 W funded (KU) Porcupine Abyssal Plain (PAP), meteorology, physical, biogeochemical x x 40N 70W partially funded (WHOI) Station W. meteorology, physical x 36N 70W recommended Gulf Stream extension flux reference x x 30N 42W planned (DEOS) North Atlantic DEOS, geophysics, meteorology, physical, biogeochemical x 33N 22W operating (IfMK) K276, Azores Front/Madeira Abyss. Plain, physical/ biogeochemical 216

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APPENDIX E 217 Latitude/ OB FL TR Longitude Status Remarks x x 32N 65W observatory BATS/Station S/BTM, physical, operating (US) meteorology, biogeochemical x 29N 16W funded, partially European Station for Time-series operating (KU) in the Canary Islands (ESTOC), physical, meteorology, biogeochemical x 27N 77W planned Abaco, physical (RSMAS) x 16N 60W operating (IfMK) CLIVAR/MOVE western site, physical x x 15N 51W operating NTAS and MOVE eastern site, (WHOI, IfMK) meteorology, physical x ON 20W recommended biogeochemical sensors on existing PIRATA mooring x 10S 10W recommended flux reference on existing PIRATA mooring x 31S 39W planned (WHOI, VEMA channel, physical If MK) x x 35S 15W recommended South Atlantic DEOS, (DEOS) geophysics, meteorology, physical, biogeochemical x 40S 53W recommended Malvinas Confluence, physical (Brazil/ Argentina) x 78.5 N operating Fram Strait, physical, ice 9E-5W (Norway, Germany) x 8-66N operating Denmark Strait overflow 29-24W (Iceland, IfMK) x 64-59N operating Iceland-Scotland overflow, 3-9W (Norway, Faroer, 3 sections, physical Scotland) x 53N operating (IfMK) Labrador Sea export 50-53W x 44-41N operating Grand Banks boundary current 45-49W (BIO, IfMK) x 36N 5.5W planned (KU) Gibraltar transport x 27N operating Florida strait transport 77-81W (RSMAS) x 16N operating (IfMK) CLIVAR/MOVE deep transport 50-60W x 9-13S operating (IfMK) CLIVAR upper transport 33-36W

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218 Pacific Ocean Sites APPEND/X E Latitude/ OB FL TR Longitude Status Remarks x x 50N 145W recommended Site P ("PAPA"), meteorology; physical, biogeochemical x 50N 165E planned Northwest Pacific, (JAMSTEC) biogeochemical, physical x 44N 155E planned KNOT (short for Kyodo North (JAMSTEC) Pacific Ocean Time-series) Northwest Pacific, biogeochemical, physical x 40N 150E recommended Kuroshio Extension, meteorology x 32N 120W operating MBARI deep biogeochemical (MBARI) mooring x x 23N 158W observatory HOT, meteorology; physical, operating biogeochemical (SOEST) x 20N 115E planned (Taiwan) South China Sea x 2N 156E recommended Warm Pool flux reference on existing TAO/TRITON mooring x x ON 165E recommended flux & biogeochemical sensors on existing TAO/TRITON mooring x x ON 145W observatory flux & biogeochemical sensors operating on existing TAO/TRITON (MBARI) mooring x ON 170W recommended flux reference on existing TAO/ TRITON mooring x ON 110W recommended flux reference on existing TAO/ TRITON mooring x x 20S 85W operating Stratocumulus deck off Peru, (WHOI) meteorology; physical x 30S 73W operating (Chile) deep water off Chile, physical x 33S 74W planned (Chile) 200 nautical miles off Chile, physical x x 40S 115W planned (DEOS) South Pacific DEOS, geophysics, meteorology, physical, biogeochemical x x 35S 150W planned (DEOS) South Pacific DEOS, geophysics, meteorology, physical, biogeochemical

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APPENDIX E Indian Ocean Sites 219 Latitude/ OB FL TR Longitude Status Remarks x x 15N 65E recommended Arabian Sea, meteorology; physical, biogeochemical x x 12N 88E recommended Bay of Bengal, meteorology; physical, biogeochemical x x ON 90E planned TRITON north, meteorology; (JAMSTEC) physical x ON 50E recommended Indian Ocean monsoon array, physical, meteorology x ON 65E recommended Indian Ocean monsoon array, physical, meteorology x ON 80E recommended Indian Ocean monsoon array, physical, meteorology x x 5S 95E planned TRITON south, meteorology; (JAMSTEC) physical x 9.5S 113E operating south of Indonesia, (Indonesia, biogeochemical Germany) x x 25S 97E planned (DEOS) Indian Ocean DEOS, geophysics, physical, meteorology, biogeochemical x x 47.7S 60E recommended KERFIX (Kerguelen Fixed Station) follow-on, physical, meteorology, biogeochemistry x 3N-12S planned Indonesian throughflow, several 116-125E (LDEO, SIO) locations, physical Southern Ocean Sites Latitude/ OB FL TR Longitude Status Remarks x 42S 9E recommended SW of Cape Town, meteorology x 55S OE operating Weddell Sea, physical, several (AWI, Norway) moorings x 63S 42.5 W operating Weddell Sea, bottom water, (LDEO) physical, several moorings x 66S 0W operating Maud Rise/Weddell Sea, (Norway, AWI) physical, several moorings x 73.5S 35W funded southern Weddell Sea, ISW (Norway/UK) overflow, physical, 2 moorings x x 55S 90W recommended Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) formation region, meteorology, physical, CO2

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220 47S 142E APPENDIX E x OB | FL | TR Latitude/ Longitude Status Remarks planned (CSIRO, WHOI) operating (New Zealand) planned (UK and WHOI) south of Tasmania, meteorology, physical, biogeochemical off New Zealand, physical, biogeochemical, CO2, 2 moorings Drake Passage transport x 43.5S 1 78.5E 56-62S 70-63W SOURCE: Sites list developed by the international Time-Series Science Team of CLIVAR and GOOS; Modified from Figure 1, DEOS Global Network Implementation Plan (2003); and data from Robert Weller, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, and Uwe Send, Institut fur Meereskunde, Kiel, Germany, personal communication, 2003 (Weller and Send are the co-chairs of the International Time-Series Science Team. An International Time- Series Science Team white paper is currently being written on this topic and is available online: http://ocean-partners.org~Ssite/index.htm. NOTES: 0B = Observatory; FL = Air-Sea Flux reference site; TR = transport site; see Appen- dix B for remaining acronyms.