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PLY ~ ~:~ L:-- _ PLATE 1 One component of the OOI is a global network of 15-20 moored buoys, linked to shore via satellite, that support measurements of air-sea fluxes, physi- cal, biological, and chemical water properties, and geophysical observations on or below the seafloor. Figure courtesy of John Orcutt, Scripps Institution of Ocean- ography.

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2 ENABLING OCEAN RESEARCH IN THE 2 lST CENTURY ~-~ .... .~_- ~''~'- ~ tN /^'~''~ \'''i t - I i-: Aft ~ - -I 3!Ej`F1~ ;' / ' ,. . =~./: ',.V . . V..., ~ it, ~ ... .* .. ~~ 7 . . ._ 1 ,,:~.>f~7~'~r~ 1 - 'I PLATE 2 Artist's concept of a cabled observatory node located atop an active submarine volcano. A variety of systems, including moorings, AUVs, bottom rovers, cameras, current profilers, and physical, chemical, and biological sensors, are used to make in situ measurements of volcanic, hydrothermal, and biological activity. The data are telemetered to real time to scientists to laboratories on shore. Image provided courtesy of the NEPTUNE Project (www.ne7tune.washington.edu) and produced by the Center for Environmental Visualization at the University of Washrngton.

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l ~ l l 1! T T it, 71~1 I ~ l _ _ _ _ _ _ __ hi_ ~~ ~ r ... Zen/ ~ Alp,, // ~ ~ ha. ~ Z ~ . b ~ PLATE 3 A conceptual diagram illustrating a multi component coastal ocean observatory that Includes surface and subsurface moorings, cabled seafloor nodes, coastal radars, ships, airplanes, and satellites. Image provided courtesy of Oscar Schofield, Rutgers University.

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4 ENABLING OCEAN RESEARCH IN THE 2 lST CENTURY ~ VM9M TFOd ...._.. Trod MVMS VAN ~ 17in~gl~ ~ nun 1 VACIU PLATE 4 Conventional surface (left) and sub surface (right) moorings currently operational at many tropical and mid latitude sites designed to measure meteo rological, air sea, and upper ocean properties. Figure courtesy of Jayne Doucette, OWoods Hole Oceanographic Institution.

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PtA TES ~_ ~ -1 ~ __ ~ ~~ ''\ _ am. ~ r turf Err I ~~- ~ ~ ~ it ~ _ ~ ~ ~ _ _ ~ PLATE 5 A schematic of a coastal subsea observatory berng Installed in the Strait of Georgia, British Clolu bia, Canada, as part of the VENUS testbed. Figure courtesy of the NEPTUNE Project (www.ne tune.washington.edu) and produced by the Center for Environmental Visualization at the University of Washrngton.

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ENABLING OCEAN RESEARCH IN THE 2 lST CENTURY a. Cry Led_~ ~ ~~ 'get PLATE 6 A schematic of the MARS testbed, a subsea observatory that will ex tend into deep water off Monterey, Califomia. Figure courtesy of the NEPTUNE Project (www.neptune.washington.edu) and produced by the Center for Environ mental Visualization at the University of Washington.

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PlA TES 7 -1',,':\ _ - - PLATE 7 Illustration of the Pioneer Array concept including relocatable moor rugs, coastal radars, ships, and satellites for collecting high resolution, synoptic scale measurements to a focused region Sp.UlllClg 100 300 km. Also included are a land based data management center, and a mode rig and project development center. Figure courtesy of Richard Jahnke, Skidaway Institute of Oceanography.

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8 ENABLING OCEAN RESEARCH IN THE 2 lST CENTURY ~ ~ 2 ~ ~ IBM ~~ . ~ _._i~r 1 , L ~ ~ ~W ) K~ a` '''. ~ ~ i ~3 4~ ~ . ~ . , . ~ .,,.i, ,,,,., jig LonjiiDi8tDB9~'MbUb'; PLATE S An example of the potential for nested maps of surface currents mea sured with high frequency (HF) radar arrays. Top: The footprint of a standard long range HF radar for off the coast of New Jersey has a spatial resolution of 6 km, proposed to form one part of the IOOS observational backbone. Bottom: The footprint of a high resolution HF radar system, which has a spatial resolution of 1.5 km. Given that many coastal processes operate on spatial scales of 1 2 km, it has been suggested that nesting multi static arrays of high resolution HF radar units withrn the IOOS national array would have high scientific value. Figure courtesy of Oscar Schofield, Rutgers University.