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Appendix C Committee Member Biographies Harold T. Shapiro, PhD, Princeton University (IOM), is President Emeritus of both the University of Michigan and Princeton University. He is currently Professor of Economics and Public Affairs, Department of Economics and the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University. His research interests include bioethics, the social role of higher education, hospital/medical center administration, university administration, econometrics, statistics, and eco- nomics. Shapiro's professional activities include memberships in the Conference Board Inc. and The Bretton Woods Committee. A trustee of the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation (where he is chair of the board), the University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, the Universities Research Association, and the Educational Testing Service, he also serves as a director of the Dow Chemical Company. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine and chaired its 1988 study on "A Healthy NIH Intramural Program: Structural Change or Administrative Remedies?" He is also a member of the American Philosophical Society and a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. In July 1996, Shapiro was appointed by President Clinton to chair the National Bioethics Advisory Commission, which issued the report " Cloning Human Beings" in June 1997. From 1990 to 1992, he was a member and vice chair of President Bush's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology. He chaired the Institute of Medicine's Committee on Employer-Based Health Benefits whose report, "Employment and Health Benefits: A Connection at Risk," was published in March 1993. He earned a PhD in economics from Princeton University. Norman R. Augustine, PhD, Lockheed Martin (NAE), retired in 1997 as Chair and CEO of the Lockheed Martin Corporation and previously served as Chair and CEO 143

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144 Enhancing the Vitality of the National Institutes of Health of the Martin Marietta Corporation. Upon retiring he served on the faculty of the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at Princeton University. Earlier in his career he had served as Under Secretary of the Army and prior to that as Assistant Director of Defense Research and Engineering. Augustine has been Chairman of the National Academy of Engineering, President of the Boy Scouts of America and served nine years as Chairman of the American Red Cross. He has also been President of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics and served as Chairman of the "Scoop" Jackson Foundation for Military Medicine. He has been a Trustee of MIT, Johns Hopkins and Princeton. He has served on the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology and is a former Chair- man of the Defense Science Board. He is a member of the American Philosophical Society and is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. His corpo- rate board memberships are Black and Decker, Lockheed Martin, Procter and Gamble, and ConocoPhillips. He has been presented the National Medal of Tech- nology and the Department of Defense's highest civilian award, the Distinguished Service Medal, five times. Mr. Augustine holds an MSE in Aeronautical Engineer- ing from Princeton University and has authored and co-authored four books. J. Michael Bishop, MD (NAS, IOM), is the Chancellor of the University of California, San Francisco. He won the Nobel Prize together with UCSF colleague Harold Varmus for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes. Their research has had significant influence on contemporary knowledge about tumor development and the systems that govern cell growth. Bishop is a professor in the departments of microbiology and immunology and biochemistry and bio- physics at the University of California at San Francisco. In 1996, he chaired a committee that reviewed the intramural program of the National Cancer Institute. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the Institute of Medicine. lames R. Gavin, III, MD, PhD, Morehouse School of Medicine, is President of Morehouse School of Medicine in Atlanta, Georgia. Prior to his presidency, Dr. Gavin was the senior scientific officer at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) and director of the HHMI-National Institutes of Health Research Scholars Program. He earned his PhD in biochemistry from Emory University in Atlanta in 1970 and his MD from Duke University School of Medicine in 1975. Prior to joining the senior staff of HHMI, he was on faculty at the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center as a professor and as chief of the Diabetes Section, acting chief of the Section on Endocrinology, Metabolism and Hypertension, and William K. Warren Professor for Diabetes Studies. He previously served as associate professor of Medicine at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. He was a lieutenant commander in the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS) from 1971-73 and continues to serve as a reserve officer in the USPHS. Dr. Gavin belongs to a number of organizations, including the Institute of Medicine, the American Diabetes Asso- ciation, the American Society of Clinical Investigation, the American Association of

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Appendix C Physicians, the Alpha Omega Alpha Medical Honor Society, the Association of Black Cardiologists, Omicron Delta Kappa Honorary Society and the Sigma Pi Phi Leadership Fraternity. He is a past president of the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and was voted Clinician of the Year by ADA in Diabetes in 1991. He has served on many advisory boards and on the editorial boards of the American Tournal of Physiology and the American Tournal of Medical Sciences. He is on the board of trustees for Duke University, Microislets, Inc., the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, and is chairman of the board of the Equidyne Corporation. He is national program director of the Minority Medical Faculty Development Program of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. He has published more than 180 articles and abstracts in such publications as Science, Journal of Applied Physiology, Diabetes, and the American Journal of Physiology. Among the many honors Dr. Gavin has received are the Daniel Hale Williams Award, the E.E. lust Award, the Herbert Nickens Award, the Daniel Savage Memorial Award, the Emory Uni- versity Medal for Distinguished Achievement, the Banting Medal for Distinguished Service from the American Diabetes Association, the Distinguished Alumni Award from the Duke University School of Medicine, and the Internist of the Year from the National Medical Association. Alfred G. Gilman, MD, PhD, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center (NAS, IOM), is Professor and Chairman of the Department of Pharmacology at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. His research focus is in biochem- istry and pharmacology. He won the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine with Martin Rodbell for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells. He received his MD and PhD in pharmacology from Case Western Reserve University. Martha Hill, RN, PhD, FAAN, lohns Hopkins University School of Nursing (IOM), is Dean and professor at the Tohns Hopkins University School of Nursing. She holds joint appointments in the Bloomberg School of Public Health and the School of Medicine. Dr. Hill, the 1997-1998 president of the American Heart Association, is a Fellow in the American Academy of Nursing and a member of the Institute of Medicine. She served as the Co-vice chair of the recently released IOM Report Unequal Treatment: Confronting Ethnic and Racial Disparities in Health Care. Dr. Hill received her Bachelor of Science degree in nursing from Tohns Hopkins University, her masters degree from the University of Pennsylvania, and her doctoral degree in behavioral sciences from the Tohns Hopkins University School of Public Health. Dr. Hill is internationally known for her work and research in preventing and treating hypertension and its complications among underserved blacks, particu- larly among young, urban black men. She is an active investigator and consultant on several NIH funded clinical trials. She has published extensively and serves on numerous review panels, editorial boards, and advisory committees including the Board of Directors of Research!America and the Executive Council of the American 145

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146 Enhancing the Vitality of the National Institutes of Health Society of Hypertension. Dr. Hill has also consulted on hypertension and other cardiovascular-related issues outside of the US, including Scotland, Israel, Australia, and South Africa. Debra Lappin, {D, Princeton Partners, Ltd., served on the NIH Director's Council of Public Representatives from 1999 to 2003. While on the COPR, she chaired its working group on Human Research Protections, served on ad hoc advisory commit- tees addressing NIH Oversight of Human Gene Transfer Research and Trans-NIH Pediatric Research, and provided a "public perspective" of clinical research issues in a number of national settings. Ms. Lappin has served as a member of the Advisory Committee for the National Institute of Arthritis, Musculoskeletal and Skin Dis- ease, as a participant in the Institute of Medicine's public forum examining Clinical Research in the Public Interest, as a member of the IOM Committee addressing Changing Health Care Systems and Rheumatic Diseases, and as a member of an advisory committee at the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality to examine future directions for the Center for Outcomes and Effectiveness Research. From 1996 to 1998, Ms. Lappin was the Chair of the Arthritis Foundation. Under her leadership, the Arthritis Foundation entered in a partnership with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to create the National Arthritis Action Plan, and into a collaborative alliance with Robert Wood Johnson Family Interests to create the Alliance for Lupus Research. Today Ms. Lappin remains active as an Emeritus Trustee of the Arthritis Foundation, lectures as an adjunct faculty member in the Department of Medicine at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, and as the President of Princeton Partners, Ltd., consults with academic, industry and non-profit clients in areas of science policy and collaborative partnerships. Alan I. Leshner, PhD, American Association for the Advancement of Science (IOM), is Chief Executive Officer of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and Executive Publisher of Science magazine. From 1994-2001, he was Director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse at NIH, and from 1988-1994 he was Deputy Director and Acting Director of the National Institute of Mental Health. Prior to that, he spent nine years at the National Science Foundation, where he held a variety of senior positions, focusing on basic research in the biological, behavioral, and social sciences, and on science education. He began his career at Bucknell University, where he was Professor of Psychology. His research has fo- cused on the biological bases of behavior, particularly the role of hormones in the control of behavior. Dr. Leshner is a member of the Institute of Medicine and a fellow of AAAS and many other professional societies. He has received numerous awards from both professional and lay groups for his national leadership in science, mental illness and mental health, and substance abuse and addiction. Gilbert S. Omenn, MD, PhD, University of Michigan (IOM), is Professor of Internal Medicine, Human Genetics, and Public Health at the University of Michigan. From

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Appendix C 1997 to 2002 he was also UM Executive Vice President for Medical Affairs and Chief Executive Officer of the University of Michigan Health System. Previously he was professor of medicine and environmental health and Dean of the School of Public Health & Community Medicine at the University of Washington. He served as Associate Director of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy and then the Office of Management and Budget in the Carter Administration, and chaired the Presidential/Congressional Commission on Risk Assessment and Risk Management from 1994-97. He has been a National Institutes of Health Research Career Development Awardee, a Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator, and founding director of the University of Washington Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program. His research is focused on proteomics and cancer pre- vention, as well as health promotion for older adults, science-based risk analysis, and the ethical, legal, and public health policy aspects of genetics. Dr. Omenn holds an MD from Harvard and a PhD in genetics from the University of Washington. Franklyn G. Prendergast, PhD, Mayo Cancer Center, is Director of the Mayo Clinic Cancer Center in Rochester, Minnesota, and Professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. His research focus is in structural protein biology and bioimaging. He is a recipient of the E.E. lust award of the American Society of Experimental Biology. He is a member of the American Association for the Advance- ment of Science, the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, and Sigma Xi. He earned his PhD in biochemistry from the University of Minnesota and his medical degree from the University of the West Indies. Stephen l. Ryan, MD, University of Southern California (IOM), is Professor of Ophthalmology and Dean, Keck School of Medicine of USC and Senior Vice President for Medical Care, University of Southern California. His research relates to macular degeneration, ocular trauma, retinal detachment, and other retinal dis- eases. He previously served as Chairman of the Department of Ophthalmology at USC and as a member of the National Advisory Eye Council for the NEI of the NIH. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine and currently serves as President of the National Alliance for Eye and Vision Research. He earned his MD from Johns Hopkins University. Samuel C. Silverstein, MD, Columbia University (IOM), is John C. Dalton Professor of Physiology and Cellular Biophysics and Professor of Medicine at the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons. His research focuses on structure and function of polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocytes and endothelial cells in innate immunity, in diseases associated with chronic inflammation such as atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease; and in host defense against infectious micro- organisms including Legionella pneumophila and M. tuberculosis. He has served on the Councils of the American Society for Cell Biology (1988-92), and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (1995-98) and as President of FASEB 147

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148 Enhancing the Vitality of the National Institutes of Health (1994-95~. He is a Director of the Cancer Research Fund of the Damon Runyon Foundation and of Research!America; and is President of Funding First, the medical and health research policy program of the Mary Lasker Charitable Trust. Dr. Silverstein is a graduate of Dartmouth College with an AB in government, and of Albert Einstein College of Medicine, where he earned his MD. He is a member of The Institute of Medicine and of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Harold C. Slavkin, DDS, (IOM), is Dean of the School of Dentistry at USC. He previously served as director of the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, NIH. Under his direction, NIDCR spearheaded many advances and explored a broadening range of research topics, including oral cancer, the genetic causes of craniofacial defects, the link between oral and systemic diseases, biomimetics and tissue engineering. Slavkin is one of the worId's leading authorities on craniofacial development and genetic birth defects. Slavkin was founding director of the School of Dentistry's Center for Craniofacial Molecular Biology and was the first holder of the school's George and Mary Lou Boone Chair in Craniofacial Molecular Biology. He earned his DDS from USC. Judith L. Swain, MD, Stanford University (IOM), is Chair, of the Department of Medicine, Stanford University. Her research focus is in molecular cardiology and angiogenesis, and she pioneered the use of transgenic animals to understand the genetic basis of cardiovascular development and disease. She is a member of the Institute of Medicine, and has served as President of the American Society of Clinical Investigation. She has been a member of two NIH Advisory Councils National Heart Lung and Blood Institute and the National Research Resources Council- and served as Director of the NIH US/Russia Cardiovascular Biology Program. She currently serves as a member of the Defense Science Research Council of the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA). She completed her MD at University of California, San Diego. Lydia Villa-Komaroff, PhD Whitehead Institute, is Vice President for Research and Chief Operating Officer of the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research. Her research interests include molecular aspects of cell biology, academic administra- tion, and biotechnology. Deeply committed to the recruitment and retention of minorities in science, Dr. Villa-Komaroff is a founding member and past officer of the Society for the Advancement of Chicanos and Native Americans in Science. She was Vice President for Research at Northwestern University and served as a member of the Advisory Committee for the Biology Directorate of the National Science Foundation and as a member of the NAS Committee on Assessing the System for Protecting Human Research Participants. She is currently on the boards of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the National Advisory Council of the National Institute for Neurological Diseases and Stroke. She earned her PhD in cell biology from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

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Appendix C Robert H. Waterman, Ir., The Waterman Group, is Founder and Chairman of the Waterman Group, Inc., a management research, writing, and venture management firm. Probably best known as coauthor of In Search of Excellence, Waterman is also author of The Renewal Factor, Adhocracy: The Power to Change, and What America Does Right. Between 1964 and 1985 Waterman was with McKinsey & Company, Inc., where he became a senior director working mainly in California, Australia, and Japan. Waterman currently is chairman of the board of the RLS (Restless Leg Syndrome) Foundation, serves on the NINDS Council, and is a mem- ber of the President's Council of the Academy of Sciences and the Board of the World Wildlife Fund. In the past Waterman has served on a variety of public company boards (McKesson, AES, Boise Cascade) and a variety of non-profit boards (San Francisco Symphony, US Ski Team, Center for Excellence in Non-Profit Management). Myr! Weinberg, CAE, National Health Council, is president of the National Health Council, an umbrella organization that has served as the place where "the health community meets" for 82 years. The Council's 117 members are national organiza- tions that are committed to quality health care, and its core constituency of more than 50 of the leading voluntary health agencies represent approximately 100 mil- lion people with chronic diseases and/or disabilities. Ms. Weinberg has a long history of board and committee service, including serving as a member of the Institute of Medicine's Health Sciences Policy Board, Roche Genetics Science and Ethics Advisory Committee, NCQA Committee on Performance Measurement, and as chair of the American Medical Association's Ethical FORCE initiative. In addi- tion, Ms. Weinberg serves as vice chair of the Governing Board of the International Alliance of Patients' Organizations. Ms. Weinberg also served on the congression- ally-mandated Institute of Medicine Committee created to assess how research priorities are established at the National Institutes of Health. Ms. Weinberg pursued advanced graduate study at Purdue University. She holds an MA in Special Educa- tion from George Peabody College and a BA in Psychology from the University of Arkansas. Kenneth B. Wells, MD, University of California, San Francisco (IOM), is Professor- in-Residence of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences at the UCLA Neuropsychiat- ric Institute (NPI), and a psychiatrist and health services and policy researcher. Dr. Wells directs the UCLA-NPI Health Services Research Center, which focuses on improving quality of care for psychiatric and neurologic disorders across the life span. He also directs training of psychiatrists in health services research and is the Principal Investigator and Director of the NIMH-UCLA-NPI Faculty Scholars Pro- gram in mental health services research and Associate Director of the UCLA School of Medicine's Clinical Scholars Program, funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine. He holds an MD from the University of California, San Francisco and an MPH from UCLA. 149

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150 Enhancing the Vitality of the National Institutes of Health Mary Woolley, MA, Research!America (IOM), is President of Research!America, a nonprofit public education and advocacy organization committed to making medical and health research a much higher national priority. She began her career in the then largest-ever NIH-supported clinical trial, the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial. Following that, she served as CEO of the Medical Research Institute of San Francisco and as President of the Association of Independent Research Institutes. For her work on behalf of medical research, she has been awarded the Distinguished Contribution to Research Administration Award from the Society of Research Administrators, the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons Dean's Award for Distinguished Service, the Federation of American Societies for Experi- mental Biology (FASEB) Special Award for Science Advocacy, and the Friends of the National Institute for Nursing Research's Health Advocacy Award. She is a fellow of the AAAS and a member of the Institute of Medicine and serves as a member of the IOM's Health Science Policy Board and the Clinical Research Roundtable. She earned a BS at Stanford University, an MA at San Francisco State University, and studied advanced management at the University of California, Berkeley. lames B. Wyngaarden, MD, Duke University (NAS, IOM), is Professor Emeritus, Duke University, and currently consults in biotechnology, advising on research agendas as well as strategic planning and organizational start-ups. He previously served as Director of the National Institutes of Health; Associate Director for Life Sciences in the Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office of the President; Director, Human Genome Organization; and Vice Chancellor for Health Affairs at Duke University. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the Institute of Medicine. He earned his MD from University of Michigan Medical School. Tadataka Yamada, MD GlaxoSmithKline (IOM), is Chairman, Research and Development, Pharmaceuticals at GlaxoSmithKline. Previously, Dr. Yamada was President, SmithKline Beecham Healthcare Services, taking that post in February 1996. He joined SmithKline Beecham as a on-executive member of the Board of Directors in February 1994. He was formerly Chairman of the Department of Internal Medicine at the University of Michigan Medical School and Physician-in- Chief of the University of Michigan Medical Center. Dr Yamada is a Councillor of the Association of American Physicians, past President of the American Gastroenterological Association, and Master of the American College of Physicians. He has been a member of the Board of Directors of the American Board of Internal Medicine and a member at large of the National Board of Medical Examiners. He serves on the Board of Directors of diaDexus and is a Trustee of the Rockefeller Brothers Fund. Dr. Yamada is a graduate of Stanford University with a BA in history. He earned his MD from New York University School of Medicine.