Jerry D. Mahlman is a senior research fellow at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) in Boulder, Colorado. He was director of the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in Princeton, New Jersey, for 16 years before his retirement in 2000. He was also a professor in atmospheric and oceanic sciences at Princeton University for 28 years. Much of Dr. Mahlman’s research career has been directed toward understanding the behavior of the stratosphere and troposphere. This has involved extensive mathematical modeling and diagnosis of the interactive chemical, radiative, dynamical, and transport aspects of the atmosphere, as well as their implications for climate and chemical change. Over the past decade, he has occupied a central role in the interpretation of climate change to policy makers and affected communities. Dr. Mahlman has served on numerous committees and boards including the NASA Advisory Council and the Board on Sustainable Development of the National Research Council. In 1994 he received the prestigious Carl-Gustaf Rossby Research Medal from the American Meteorological Society and the Presidential Distinguished Rank Award—the highest honor awarded to a federal employee. He received his Ph.D. from Colorado State University.

Michael E. Mann is assistant professor in the Department of Environmental Sciences at the University of Virginia. Dr. Mann was a lead author on the “Observed Climate Variability and Change” chapter of the IPCC Third Assessment Report (and a contributor to several other chapters). He is a member of numerous international and U.S. scientific advisory panels and steering groups. He currently serves as an editor of the Journal of Climate. Dr. Mann’s research focuses on the application of statistical techniques to understanding climate variability and climate change from both empirical and climate model-based perspectives. A specific area of current research is paleoclimate data synthesis and statistically based climate pattern reconstruction during past centuries using climate proxy data networks. A primary focus of this research is deducing empirically the long-term behavior of the climate system and its relationship to possible external (including anthropogenic) forcings of climate. His other areas of active research include model-based simulation of natural climate variability, climate model-data intercomparison, and long-range climate forecasting.

Michael J. Prather is a professor in the Earth System Science Department at the University of California, Irvine. He received his Ph.D. in astronomy from Yale University. His research interests include simulation of the physical, chemical, and biological processes that determine atmospheric composition, and the development of detailed numerical models of photochemistry and atmospheric radiation and global chemical transport models that describe ozone and other trace gases. Dr. Prather has played a significant role in the IPCC’s second and third assessments and its special report on aviation and in the World Meteorological Organization’s (WMO) Ozone Assessments (1985-1994). He is a fellow of the American Geophysical Union and a foreign member of the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters; he has served on several NRC committees, including BASC’s Panel on Climate Variability on Decade-to-Century Time Scales.

Joyce Penner is a professor of atmospheric, oceanic, and space sciences at the University of Michigan-Ann Arbor. She is a former leader of the Global Climate Research Division at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. She is an associate editor for the Journal of Geophysical Research and the Journal of Climate. She was recently elected to the International Commission on Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution and has served on numerous committees of the National Academies. Professor Penner has ongoing research relating to improving climate models through the addition of interactive chemistry and the description of aerosols and their direct and indirect effects on the radiation balance in climate models. These models run in both a parallel computing environment and vector supercomputers. She has an ongoing interest in urban, regional, and global tropospheric chemistry and budgets, cloud and aerosol interactions and cloud microphysics; climate and climate change, and model development and interpretation.

Venkatchalam Ramaswamy is a senior scientist and leader of the Atmospheric Processes Group at the NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory. He is also a professor in the Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences Program at Princeton University. His principal research interests are modeling of climate, its variations, and change; diagnostic analyses of models and observations to understand climate processes; radiative and climatic effects due to greenhouse gases and aerosols; chemistry-climate interactions; natural and anthropogenic perturbations of climate; and understanding the interactions linking water vapor, clouds, and climate. He has served as lead author for numerous reports of the IPCC (1992, 1995, 1996, and 2001) and the WMO Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion (1992, 1994, 1999, and 2002). He is also project leader for the World Climate Research Program—



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