perceived as coming from outside the community it is attempting to influence. He contrasted this separation with the organizational research literature on how innovations are developed and used and how organizations evolve and make progress. He stressed that there are important lessons to be learned from this literature, many of which are probably applicable to research in education. In particular, he argued that the literature shows that innovations are unlikely to be successful when the people who implement them are entirely separate from the researchers who design them. Although a gulf between researchers and practitioners can also arise in industry, there are usually management structures in industry that attempt to bridge the gap. No corresponding organizational structure works to bridge the gap between research and practice in education.

In general, the comments discussed during this final session of the workshop indicated that participants believe there is an important ongoing role for the National Academies to play in helping to bring about the two transformations in the use of information technology to improve learning in K-12 education. These comments share an agreement that the convening power of the National Academies can bring clarity to a number of difficult issues related to the use of IT in K-12 education. At the same time, participants were concerned that the National Academies find ways to bring together researchers, teachers, and industry representatives so that the findings from National Research Council studies can be effectively used by the entire community.

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