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Planning for Two Transformations in Education and Learning Technology Report of a Workshop Committee on Improving Learning with Information Technology Roy Pea, Wm. A. Wulf, Stuart W. Elliott, and Martha A. Darling, Editors Center for Education and Board on Behavioral, Cognitive, and Sensory Sciences Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education Computer Science and Telecommunications Board Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Contract/Grant No. R303U000001 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Department of Education. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Planning for two transformations in education and learning technology : report of a workshop / Committee on Improving Learning with Information Technology ; Roy Pea ... [et al.] editors. p. cm. “Center for Education and Board on Behavioral, Cognitive, and Sensory Sciences, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Computer Science and Telecommunications Board, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences.” Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 0-309-08954-9 (pbk.) -- ISBN 0-309-51940-3 (PDF) 1. Education--United States--Data processing--Congresses. 2. Information technology--United States--Congresses. 3. Education--Effect of technological innovations on--United States--Congresses. I. Pea, Roy D. II. National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Improving Learning with Information Technology. LB1028.43.P59 2003 371.33'4--dc21 2003012605 Additional copies of this report are available from National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu Printed in the United States of America Copyright 2003 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Suggested citation: National Research Council. (2003). Planning for Two Transformations in Education and Learning Technology: Report of a Workshop. Committee on Improving Learning with Information Technology. R. Pea, Wm. A. Wulf, S.W. Elliott, and M.A. Darling (Eds). Center for Education and Board on Behavioral, Cognitive, and Sensory Sciences, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education and Computer Science and Telecommunications Board, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr.Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org
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COMMITTEE ON IMPROVING LEARNING WITH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ROY PEA (Cochair), School of Education, Stanford University WM. A. WULF (Cochair), National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC BARBARA ALLEN, Project LemonLINK, Lemon Grove, CA EDWARD R. DIETERLE II, Harvard Graduate School of Education DAVID DWYER, Apex Learning, Bellevue, WA LOUIS M. GOMEZ, School of Education and Social Policy, Northwestern University AMY JO KIM, There, Menlo Park, CA EDWARD D. LAZOWSKA, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Washington MIRIAM MASULLO, New Canaan, CT JAMES W. PELLEGRINO, Department of Psychology, University of Illinois-Chicago LOUIS PUGLIESE, onCourse, Washington, DC MARSHALL S. SMITH, William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, Menlo Park, CA DAVID VOGT, New Media Innovation Center, Vancouver, BC BARBARA WATKINS, Chicago Public Schools LINDA S. WILSON, International SEMATECH, Austin, TX MARTHA A. DARLING, Special Consultant KEVIN AYLESWORTH, Study Director, Center for Education (until September 2002) STUART W. ELLIOTT, Study Director JAY B. LABOV, Deputy Director GAIL PRITCHARD, Program Officer (until March 2002) DOUG SPRUNGER, Program Associate TINA WINTERS, Research Assistant TERRY HOLMER, Senior Project Assistant CHRISTINE R. HARTEL Director, Board on Behavioral, Cognitive, and Sensory Sciences TIMOTHY READY, Program Officer HERBERT S. LIN, Senior Scientist, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences
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Acknowledgments The Committee on Improving Learning with Information Technology (ILIT) would like to thank the many people who made our work possible. Our sponsor, the U.S. Department of Education, provided generous support to the project. Numerous presenters and participants at the project’s January 2001 workshop (see National Research Council [NRC], 2002b) shared their insights about the use of information technology to improve learning and the nature of the committee’s task. The participants in the December 2001 and January 2003 workshops (listed in Appendix C) provided stimulating conversation that is reflected throughout this report and greatly contributed to the work of the committee. At the December 2001 workshop, thought-provoking presentations were made by Tom Landauer, University of Colorado; Marlene Scardamalia and Chris Teplovs, University of Toronto; Susan Goldman, University of Illinois at Chicago; Bernard Dodge, San Diego State University; Randy Hinrichs, Microsoft Research Lab; Joseph Krajcik, University of Michigan; Doug Kirkpatrick and Marcia Linn, University of California at Berkeley; and Eliot Soloway, University of Michigan. In addition, there were numerous people involved in technology demonstrations for Knowledge Forum, Little Planet Literacy Series, WebQuest, Web-based Inquiry Science Environment (WISE), Science Laboratory of the Center for Highly Interactive Computing (hi-ce), and probeware for the iPaq. In conjunction with the workshop, the committee conducted site visits at Adobe,
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Scientific Learning, New Tech High School, Apple Computer, and Sun Microsystems, which included discussions with many people at those organizations. At the January 2003 workshop, in addition to a number of presentations by members of the committee, there were insightful discussions by Darryl LaGace, Lemon Grove School District in California; Steve Rappaport, Advanced Networks and Services; Cheryl Lemke, Metiri Group; Wanda Bussey, Rufus King High School; Geneva Henry, Rice University; Robert Tinker, Concord Consortium; Nora Sabelli, SRI International; Milton Goldberg, National Alliance of Business; and Terry Rogers, Advanced Network and Services. At the NRC, the committee would like to thank Kevin Aylesworth, who was study director until September 2002, for his able guidance of this project. Upon Kevin’s departure, Stuart Elliott stepped into the position and helped the committee complete its work. Jay Labov, deputy director of the Center for Education (CFE), provided general oversight throughout the project. Martha Darling, special consultant, provided extensive assistance in planning and carrying out the January 2003 workshop and helping draft this summary report. Herbert Lin, senior scientist at the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board in the Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences and Christine Hartel, staff director, and Timothy Ready, program officer, both of the Board on Behavioral, Cognitive and Sensory Sciences in the Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, provided additional guidance and perspective from their respective communities. Terry Holmer, CFE senior project assistant, provided critical logistical coordination of the workshop and committee meetings. Gail Pritchard, CFE program officer, Doug Sprunger, CFE program associate, and Tina Winters, CFE research assistant, provided important research and organizational support during the evolution of the committee’s work. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the Report Review Committee of the NRC. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Stephen C. Ehrmann, The Teaching, Learning, and Technology Group, Takoma Park, MD; John Jungck, Beloit College, Beloit, WI; Nora Sabelli, Center for Technology and Learning, SRI International, Menlo Park, CA; Lee S. Sproull, Stern School of Management, New York
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University; Ronald Stevens, University of California, Los Angeles; and James Yao, College Station, TX. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the report nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Nicholas J. Turro, Columbia University. Appointed by the NRC, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.
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Contents 1 INTRODUCTION 1 Origins and Purpose of the Project 1 Challenges and Grounds for Optimism 2 Approach to the Task 5 Issues and Themes 7 Organization of the Report 10 2 PRELIMINARY COMMUNITY BUILDING AND ROADMAPPING EFFORTS 11 January 2001 Workshop and the Decision to Use Roadmapping 11 Rationale for Roadmapping 13 December 2001 Workshop 15 The Committee’s Experience with Roadmapping After the December 2001 Workshop 16 Analytical Challenges 20 Preliminary Roadmapping Goal Tables 22 Annex to Chapter 23 3 JANUARY 2003 WORKSHOP 35 First Transformation 35 Key Enablers for the First Transformation 51 Second Transformation 52 Key Enablers for the Second Transformation 66 Next Steps for the National Academies 67
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REFERENCES 72 APPENDIXES A Reflections and Next Steps 79 Putting High-Quality Content on the Web Available Free to All Louis Pugliese and Marshall S. Smith 79 A Pull Learning Paradigm David Vogt 81 A Vision for LENS Centers: Learning Expeditions in Networked Systems for 21st Century Learning Roy Pea and Edward Lazowska 84 Reasons for Optimism, Possibilities for Hardware and Software Edward Lazowska and Roy Pea 90 Reflections on Teaching and Teachers in the LemonLINK Environment Barbara Allen 91 The Potential for Collaboration Already Exists Within the Educational Community Fabric Linda S. Wilson 96 Improving Learning with Information Technology Edward R. Dieterle II 100 Developing, Deploying, and Evaluating High-Quality Software for Teaching English to English Language Learner Students and for Tutoring and Providing Practice in Reading and Mathematics for Students Who Need Extra Support Marshall S. Smith 103 Changes in Technology and Its Application to Learning Miriam Masullo 105 Technology and the Advancement of Educational Assessment James W. Pellegrino 107 B Key Enablers for the Two Transformations 113 C Workshop Materials 117 D Biographical Sketches of Committee Members 128