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OCR for page 320
Nonnative Oysters in the Chesapeake Bay J Glossary Amenity benefits/services – utility (satisfaction, pleasure) derived from sportfishing and other recreation activities or from other activities based on the environment such as experiencing or contemplating scenic beauty, wildlife, or a healthy ecosystem. Broodstock – adult animals that are spawned to provide larvae for hatchery production. Clean list – a regulatory approach that prohibits introduction of a nonnative species unless it is included on a list of approved (i.e. not harmful) species. Cultchless – a technique for growing oysters individually, usually for the half-shell market. The oyster larvae are induced to settle on loose material such as ground shell rather than whole shells. Diploid – refers to animals whose cells contain two sets of chromosomes, the normal genetic state for oysters. Dirty list – a regulatory approach that prohibits introduction of species identified as unacceptable and allows introduction of unlisted species. Dockside value – dollar amount received by watermen at the dock.
OCR for page 321
Nonnative Oysters in the Chesapeake Bay Epizootic – a transient disease event in an animal population. Eutrophication – nutrient enrichment of water bodies, generally referring to elevated levels of nitrogen and phosphorus. Host – organism in which a parasite or other infectious agent lives. Infection – presence of a parasite in a host, with or without the development of disease. Invasive species – a nonindigenous organism that spreads from the site of introduction, becomes abundant, and may displace native species. Mosaic – animal containing both diploid and triploid cells. Nominal value – value in current dollars. Nonindigenous – species found outside its natural geographical range. Also referred to as alien, nonnative, or exotic. Pathogen – disease-producing organism. Real price – nominal price adjusted for inflation. Reversion – production of normal diploid cells in an otherwise triploid animal. Rogue introduction – a non-sanctioned, direct release of diploid reproductive oysters. Sed quis custodiet ipsos custodes? – Latin phrase translated as: “Who is to guard the guards themselves?” Seed – a young oyster, especially one suitable for transplanting to another bed. Skipjacks – sail-powered wooden vessels native to the Chesapeake Bay that are used for commercial dredging of oysters. Sociocultural – learned knowledge, values and behaviors that are shared among members of a group, community or region. Spat – juvenile oysters from the time of settlement through the first year of growth.
OCR for page 322
Nonnative Oysters in the Chesapeake Bay Spatfall – the settlement of juvenile oysters onto a substrate. Triploid – refers to animals whose cells contain three sets of chromosomes rather than the normal two sets. This condition inhibits the ability of the animal to make viable eggs or sperm, reducing fertility to a small percentage of the reproductive capacity of a normal diploid animal. Zoosanitary – clean and healthy conditions for animal husbandry.
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