Appendix



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Appendix

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Biographies Braden R. Allenby is the environment, health, and safety vice president for AT&T and an adjunct professor at Columbia University. He graduated cum laude from Yale University in 1972, received his J.D. from the University of Virginia Law School in 1978, his M.A. in economics from the University of Virginia in 1979, his M.A. in environmental sciences from Rutgers University in 1989, and his Ph.D. in environmental sciences from Rutgers in 1992. Dr. Allenby is coauthor or author of several engineering textbooks, including Industrial Ecology (Prentice-Hall, 1995), Industrial Ecology and the Automobile (Prentice-Hall, 1997), and Industrial Ecology: Policy Framework and Implementation (Prentice-Hall, 1999). Sally Benson is deputy director for operations at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. For the past four years, she has been working on carbon sequestration, particularly sequestration in deep geologic formations. A groundwater hydrologist and reservoir engineer, Dr. Benson has conducted research on a range of issues related to energy and the environment, including environmental remediation, gas storage, and geothermal energy production. Dr. Benson earned a B.A. in geology from Barnard College at Columbia University and an M.S. and Ph.D. in materials science and mineral engineering from University of California, Berkeley. Peter G. Brewer is an ocean chemist and senior scientist at the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI). Prior to joining MBARI in 1991, he spent 24 years as a researcher at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution,

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where he rose to the rank of senior scientist. He has taken part in more than 30 deep-sea cruises and has served as chief scientist on major expeditions worldwide. A fellow of the American Geophysical Union and the American Association for the Advancement of Science, he was also a member of Vice President Gore’s Environmental Task Force. Mr. Brewer’s research interests include the ocean geochemistry of the greenhouse gases and techniques for measuring and extracting the oceanic signatures of global change. His current interests include the geochemistry of gas hydrates, the evolution of the oceanic fossil fuel CO2 signal, and strategies for the sequestration of fossil-fuel CO2 in the deep ocean. He is author or coauthor of about 100 scientific papers and the editor of several books. Ken Caldeira works in the Climate and Carbon Cycle Modeling Group at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. He has also been scientific codirector of the U.S. Department of Energy Center for Research on Ocean Carbon Sequestration. Dr. Caldeira is a member of the UNESCO International Oceanography Commission CO2 Panel of Experts and the Scientific Steering Group for the U.S. Global Carbon Cycle Science Research Plan. He received his B.A. from Rutgers University and his M.S. and Ph.D. in atmospheric sciences from New York University. Dr. Caldeira has performed and published numerical calculations relating to global change, including ocean carbon sequestration by means of fertilization, direct injection of CO2, and carbonate dissolution; economics of storing carbon in a leaky reservoir; the carbon-emissions-free power requirements by the end of this century; the role of the southern ocean in absorbing anthropogenic CO2 released to the atmosphere; the combined impact of growing forests on the climate and the carbon cycle; and natural CO2 degassing from the Earth. David G. Hawkins has worked in public-interest law since his graduation from Columbia University Law School in 1970. He joined the National Resources Defense Council (NRDC) in 1971. With another attorney, Dick Ayres, he began the NRDC Clean Air Project, which helped the federal government design the Clean Air Act and provides a voice for the public in decisions by the Environmental Protection Administration and state agencies involved with improving air quality. Since 1990, Mr. Hawkins has directed NRDC’s Air and Energy Program, and in 2001 he became director of the NRDC Climate Center, which focuses on advancing policies and programs to reduce pollution that contributes to global warming and harmful climate change. Howard Herzog is on the staff of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Laboratory for Energy and the Environment. He received his undergraduate and graduate education in chemical engineering at MIT and has industrial experience with Eastman Kodak, Stone & Webster, Spectra Physics, and Aspen

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Technology. Since 1989, he has led research at the MIT Laboratory for Energy and the Environment on technologies to capture, use, and sequester CO2 from large stationary sources. Dr. Herzog is also the program manager for the Carbon Sequestration Initiative, an industrial consortium that began in July 2000. Gardiner Hill, head of environmental technology for British Petroleum Group (BP), is responsible for developing strategies and new technologies to support BP’s commitments on environmental performance. In addition, Mr. Hill is chairman of the board of the CO2 Capture Project, an international cooperative activity. Mr. Hill has almost 20 years of technical and managerial experience directly relevant to technology, business, and project management. He earned his M.S. and B.S. in petroleum and civil engineering from Heriot-Watt University in Scotland. Roderick A. Hyde earned his B.A. in 1972, his M.A. in 1973, and his Ph.D. in 1976 (in aeronautics and astronautics), all from Massachusetts Institute of Technology. His Ph.D. thesis was focused on the design and behavior of ribless solar reflectors. His work has been published in Energy in Physics, Applied Optics, and several other industry journals. Dr. Hyde has been with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory since 1972. Gary K. Jacobs is co-coordinator of the U.S. Department of Energy Consortium for Research on Enhancing Carbon Sequestration in Terrestrial Ecosystems and program development director of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental Sciences Division. His research interests and experience include problem solving, research, and management in the earth sciences. His scientific interests include: aqueous geochemistry; fate and transport processes; carbon sequestration; kinetics and thermodynamics of rock-water interactions; gas hydrates; geochemical modeling; biogeochemical dynamics in microbial systems; high-temperature petrology; and environmental restoration technologies with an emphasis on in situ methods. He earned a B.A. in geology from the University of Vermont and a Ph.D. in geochemistry from Pennsylvania State University. John Kadyszewski has worked on energy and resource management issues for 25 years and has research and development and project implementation experience in the United States and more than 20 countries in Africa, Latin America, Asia, and Europe. He is currently coordinator for the Ecosystem Services Group of Winrock International, where he has led the development and field testing of peer-reviewed methods and procedures for measuring carbon storage in forestry and agroforestry projects. His recent work has been focused on the development of advanced monitoring tools that combine aerial digital imagery with spatial information systems to improve measurement and analysis of land-management practices and associated environmental impacts. From 1993 to 1999, he was director of Winrock’s Renewable Energy and Environment Program. He helped

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found the International Cane Energy Network in 1994 to stimulate collaborative research and development on technical issues associated with the production and sale of energy by the sugar industry and was a cofounder of the Environmental Enterprises Assistance Fund established in 1991 to address the shortage of investment capital in the developing world for environmentally beneficial businesses. Mr. Kadyszewski earned an engineering degree from Princeton University. James A. Lake is associate laboratory director for nuclear and energy systems at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) where he is responsible for basic research and development on nuclear energy, nuclear safety and risk management, nuclear science and nuclear technology, energy efficiency and renewable energy, fossil energy, and industrial, transportation, and building energy management programs. The author of more than 30 publications on reactor physics, nuclear engineering, and reactor design, Dr. Lake is an elected fellow and 2000–2001 president of the American Nuclear Society. He is a graduate and Distinguished Engineering Alumnus of the Georgia Institute of Technology, where he earned an M.S. and Ph.D. in nuclear engineering. Franklin M. Orr, Jr., is the Keleen and Carlton Beal Professor of Petroleum Engineering and director of the Global Climate and Energy Project at Stanford University. He served as dean of the School of Earth Sciences at Stanford from 1994 to 2002 and was head of the miscible flooding section of the New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, from 1978 to 1985. From 1976 to 1978, he was a research engineer at the Shell Development Company, Bellaire Research Center. Dr. Orr’s research interests include: multiphase flow in porous media; interactions of high-pressure-phase equilibria of multicomponent mixtures with multiphase flow; enhanced oil recovery by gas injection processes; contaminant transport in aquifers; energy systems with low greenhouse emissions; and geologic sequestration of CO2. He has a Ph.D. from the University of Minnesota and a B.S. from Stanford University, both in chemical engineering. Dale Simbeck is vice president of technology and a founding partner at SFA Pacific, Inc., a consulting company. He has been involved with the technical and economic assessment, process design, start-up, and operation of commercial energy technologies since the late 1960s. He has also evaluated numerous energy technologies that are under development. Mr. Simbeck’s background includes hands-on experience with commercial plant start-ups and operation, conceptual process design, and technical, economic, and market assessments. He heads SFA Pacific’s extensive work in assessments of the costs and options for greenhouse gas mitigation. Mr. Simbeck is the author or coauthor of more than 50 professional papers. He received his B.S. in chemical engineering from Pennsylvania State University and is a registered professional engineer in California.

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Robert H. Socolow is professor of mechanical and aerospace engineering and a member of the Center for Energy and Environmental Studies at Princeton University. He teaches in the School of Engineering and Applied Science and in the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs. Dr. Socolow’s current research focuses on global carbon management, the hydrogen economy, and fossil-carbon sequestration. He is the coprincipal investigator (with ecologist, Stephen Pacala) of Princeton University’s new Carbon Mitigation Initiative, a $20-million, 10-year project, supported by BP and Ford. He is the editor of Annual Review of Energy and the Environment (Annual Reviews, Inc.) and a founder of the research approach known as industrial ecology. Dr. Socolow earned a B.A. in l959 and a Ph.D. in l964 from Harvard University in theoretical high-energy physics. He is a fellow of the American Physical Society and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. From 1992 to 1998, he was a member of the National Research (NRC) Council Committee on the Human Dimensions of Global Change. Currently he is a panel member on the NRC Committee on Alternatives and Strategies for Future Hydrogen Production and Use. Edward Teller is best known for his work on the development of nuclear explosives and for his advocacy of a strong defense for America. He is also a noted physicist and the author of more than 100 technical publications, several books, some patents, and numerous articles in the popular media. Born in Budapest in 1908, Dr. Teller received his Ph.D. in physics under Werner Heisenberg in 1930; he continued to work under Heisenberg for another year. In 1931–1932, he worked at the University of Göttingen, in association with James Franck and Arnold T. Euken. When the Nazis rose to power, he left Germany and spent a year (1933–1934) in Copenhagen at the Niels Bohr Institute on a Rockefeller Fellowship. In 1939 when the discovery of fission was announced, Dr. Teller was a theoretical physicist, working in the fields of quantum physics, molecular physics, and nuclear physics. After a short sojourn in London, he was appointed professor of physics at the George Washington University in Washington, D.C., where he continued to work until 1941. In 1941, Dr. Teller’s interest turned to the use of nuclear energy, both fission and fusion, and he began work on the Manhattan Project at Columbia University and the University of Chicago with Enrico Fermi and Leo Szilard. In 1943, he continued his work on both fission explosions and early plans for thermonuclear bombs at Los Alamos National Laboratory. In 1946, he returned to the University of Chicago for two years as professor, again as a close associate of Enrico Fermi and Maria Mayer. He spent 1949 and 1950 in Los Alamos, where his work was concentrated on the hydrogen bomb; he contributed to the decision to make thermonuclear reactions a major part of the program. In 1952, at the time of the first test of the hydrogen bomb, Dr. Teller joined the University of California at Berkeley and began working at the newly founded Lawrence Livermore

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Laboratory. In 1953, he was named professor of physics at the university, as well as associate director and then director (1958–1960) of Lawrence Livermore. In 1960, Dr. Teller became University Professor of Physics at the University of California, while retaining the position of associate director at Livermore. Since he retired from these positions in 1975, he has been Director Emeritus at Livermore and Senior Research Fellow at the Hoover Institution at Stanford University. Michael J. Walsh is senior vice president of Environmental Financial Products L.L.C., which specializes in providing customized risk management and trading services and developing new financial, commodity, and environmental markets. Dr. Walsh previously was senior economist with the Chicago Board of Trade, where he directed the development of exchange-based environmental markets. He has written extensively on the economics of energy efficiency and the implementation of efficiency programs and has published numerous articles, led seminars on emissions trading for industry and government officials from several eastern European countries, has been a speaker at United Nations climate conferences at Geneva, Kyoto, Buenos Aires, Bonn, and The Hague, and has been a keynote speaker at industry conferences and educational workshops around the world. Dr. Walsh has been a member of the faculties of the University of Notre Dame and the Stuart School of Business at the Illinois Institute of Technology and has lectured at Princeton, Northwestern, Colorado, Illinois and Johns Hopkins (Bologna) universities. He has a B.S. in economics and political science from Illinois State University, an M.S. and Ph.D. in Economics from Michigan State University, and has attended the University of Chicago Graduate School of Business. Lowell L. Wood is a senior staff scientist at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and a member of the Director’s Technical Staff. He received a B.S. in chemistry and mathematics in 1962 and a Ph.D. in astrophysics in 1965 from the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA). From 1965 to 1972, he was a consultant at the University of California Lawrence Livermore Laboratory and an assistant research geophysicist at UCLA. In addition, he was an assistant professor at the University of California Davis/Livermore Department of Applied Sciences. His scientific work during this period (in collaboration with John Nuckolls) culminated in technical proposals leading to the establishment of the National Inertial Confinement Fusion Program. From 1972 to 1975, Dr. Wood served as the associate head of the Physics Department at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, where he founded the Special Studies Group in 1972 and the related Special Studies Program in 1975. Dr. Wood is the author or coauthor of several hundred papers, briefing documents, and government-classified papers and the owner or co-owner of approximately 25 patents. In 1981, he received the E.O. Lawrence Award from the U.S. Department of Energy for “outstanding contributions to national security in the area of directed energy, inertial confinement fusion, underwater communication,

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nuclear design concepts and computer technology.” In 1991, he received the ADPA Abrahamson Award for work that has “led directly to the revitalization of a strategic defense systems programs and made all elements more robust and cost-effective.”

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