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PLATE 1 Results from numerical simulations of carbon sequestration enhanced natural gas recovery (CSEGR) showing that pressure diffusion is more rapid than molecular diffusion and that up to 30 percent more natural gas could be produced from the Rio Vista Gas Field in California with CSEGR. Source: adapted from Oldenburg et al., 2001.
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PLATE 2 Simulation showing the concentration of CO2 in a 5-spot injection pattern, which shows that the CO2 sweeps upward from the bottom of the reservoir. Source: adapted from Oldenburg et al., 2002.
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PLATE 3 Schematic drawing showing how the combination of electromagnetic and seismic imaging can be used to detect CO2 saturation in a reservoir. Source: Hovesten et al., in press.
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PLATE 4 Simulation of CO2 migration in a homogeneous reservoir where buoyancy forces are neglected. Source: adapted from Doughty et al., in press.
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PLATE 5 Simulation of CO2 migration in a homogeneous reservoir. Source: adapted from Doughty et al., in press.
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PLATE 6 Simulation of CO2 migration in a homogeneous reservoir where buoyancy forces are neglected. Source: adapted from Doughty et al., in press.
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PLATE 7 The upper panel depicts the space-averaged and time-averaged temperature change (°C) with a doubling of atmospheric CO2 concentration from the preindustrial baseline. The lower panel shows the same result, again for a doubling of CO2 concentration, accompanied by a 1.8-percent reduction in insolation. No significant temperature changes are seen. Sources: Govindasamy and Caldeira, 2000.
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PLATE 8 Net primary (plant) productivity of terrestrial land masses, as modeled by IBIS code with slab ocean used in conjunction with the Community Climate Model (CCM3). The upper panel shows Earth with a preindustrial atmospheric CO2 concentration and with 1.8 percent less insolation. The globally aggregated land-plant productivity in the lower panel is nearly twice that of the upper panel, which implies an agricultural crop value difference of about $1 trillion per year in the enriched CO2 case. Source: Govindasamy et al., 2000.
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